Skip to main content

Full text of "Report of the commissioners .."

See other formats


U'^^E 


%t\ 


fM 


m 


W$^. 


Cornell  University 
Library 


The  original  of  tiiis  book  is  in 
tine  Cornell  University  Library. 

There  are  no  known  copyright  restrictions  in 
the  United  States  on  the  use  of  the  text. 


http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924093630568 


u 
I/. 


SCHOOLS   INQUIRY  COMMISSION. 


Vol.  VIII. 


GENERAL    REPORTS 


BT 


ASSISTANT  COMMISSIONEES. 


MIDLAND    COUNTIES     AND 
NORTHUMBERLAND. 


TlivtSente'a  ta  iaO)  ^atxieS  at  parliament  fij;  (fTammanTt  of  ^ec  Mn\tits> 


LONDON: 
PBINTED  BY  GEORGE  E.  EYEE  AND  WILLIAM  SPOTTISWOODE, 

PKINTEES   TO   THE  QUEBN's  MOST  EXCELLENT  MAJESTY. 
TOB  HER  MAJESTY'S  STATIONERY  OFFICE, 

1868. 


CONTENTS   OF   VOL.   VIII. 


Page 
Instetjctions  to  Assistant  Commissioners       -  -  -        v 

General  Report  on  the  Counties  of  Flint,  Denbigh,  Montgomery, 

Glamorgan,  and  Hereford,  by  H.  M.  Bompas,  Esq.       -         -         1 

Special  Eeport  on  Birmingham  Free  School,  and  General  Report 
on  the  Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick,  by  T.  H.  Green, 
Esq.  ...  ...       91 

General  Report  on  the  Counties  of  Norfolk  and  Northumberland, 

by  J.  L.  Hammond,  Esq.       -  ...  -    255 

Summary  Minute  on  Endowed  Grammar  Schools  in  the  Counties 
of  Cambridge,  Huntingdon,  and  Suffolk,  by  D.  C.  Richmond, 
Esq.  .  -  -  -  -  -  -     635 

Summary  Minute  on  Endowed  Grammar  Schools  in  Counties  of 

Bedford,  Chester,  and  Derby,  by  R.  S.  Wright,  Esq.  -     657 

Eeport  on  the  Schools  of  Sir  W.  Harpur's  Charity,  Bedford,  by 

R.  S.  Wright,  Esq.    -  -  -  -  -  -     677 

Report  on  Jones's  Free  Grammar  School,  Monmouth,  by  H.  M. 

Bompas,  Esq.  ......     701 


nC43.       a.  c.  3. 


INSTRUCTIONS  TO  ASSISTANT  COMMISSIONERS. 


Schools  Inquiry  Commissionj 
2,  Victoria  Street,  Westminster,  S.W., 
SiE,  March  1865. 

The  duty  assigned  to  the  Schools  Inquiry  Commissioners 
is  to  ascertain  the  state  of  education  in  the  schools  that  have  not 
been  already  reported  on,  and  to  recommend  measures,  if  any  can 
be  devised,  for  its  improvement.  It  is  obvious,  that  in  order  to  dis- 
charge this  duty  the  Commissioners  must  begin  by  ascertaining 
the  facts.  The  education  now  given  in  the  schools,  the  facilities 
for  improvement  that  may  already  exist  in  them,  the  demands  and 
wishes  of  the  parents,  the  cost  of  the  present  system,  the  pro- 
bable cost  of  a  better,  the  burden  which  the  parents  are  willing  to 
bear,  these  and  similar  facts  must  be  the  basis  of  any  measures 
which  it  would  be  wise  to  recommend. 

The  Commissioners  have  already  issued  circulars,  copies  of 
which  are  now  put  into  your  hands.  The  answers  will  give  much 
information  on  the  chief  points  on  which  it  is  needed.  But  this 
information  is  of  necessity  incomplete ;  it  requires  to  be  supple- 
mented by  the  evidence  of  independent  observers.  The  masters, 
for  instance,  may  tell  what  they  teach  ;  but  it  is  only  by  indepen- 
dent examination  that  the  true  value  of  that  teaching  can  be 
ascertained. 

For  this  reason  the  Commissioners  have  determined  to  send 
Assistant  Commissioners  into  selected  districts  to  make  careful 
inquiry  on  the  spot  into  all  the  facts  that  bear  upon  the  subject. 
The  district  assigned  to  you  for  this  purpose  is — 

I.  Your  first  duty  will  therefore  be  to  ascertain  the  present 
state  of  education  in  the  district.  You  will  observe  that  by  the 
words  of  the  Commission  (a  copy  of  which  is  annexed),  the  in- 
quiry is  bounded  on  the  one  side  by  the  province  assigned  to  the 
Duke  of  Newcastle's  Commission  in  1858,  and  on  the  other  by 
that  assigned  to  the  Earl  of  Clarendon's  Commission  in  1861.  It 
is  not  possible  to  draw  the  boundary  precisely  in  a  country  in 
which  no  class  of  society  is  separated  by  a  definite  line  from  that 
which  is  above  and  that  which  is  below  it.  But  you  will  under- 
stand that  you  are  required  to  give  your  chief  attention  to  the 
schools  attended  by  the  children  of  such  of  the  gentry,  clergy, 
professional  and  commercial  men  as  are  of  limited  means,  and  of 
fanners  and  tradesmen. 


vi  Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 

A.  The  schools  which  you  have  thus  to  inspect  seem  to  be 
divisible  into  three  classes : — 

1.  The  grammar  schools  and  those    endowed  schools  which, 

though  not  grammar  schools,  do  not  appear  to  have  been 
intended  for  the  children  of  labourers. 

2.  Proprietary  schools,  which  not  being  endowed,  are  private 

property,  but  are  owned  by  single  proprietors,  or  by  pro- 
prietary bodies,  distinct  from  the  schoolmasters. 

3.  Private  schools,  which  are  the  property  of  the  schoolmasters 

who  teach  in  them. 

1.  In  regard  to  the  grammar  and  other  endowed  schools,  it  is 
desirable  to  ascertain  not  only  what  is  their  present  condition,  but 
also  how  far  they  seem  to  be  fulfilling  the  purpose  for  which  they 
were  founded.  You  will  therefore  endeavour  to  inform  yourself 
both  what  sort  of  education  the  founder  meant  to  prescribe,  and 
to  what  class  of  children  he  meant  to  give  that  education.  You 
will  report  whether  the  school  appears  to  fulfil  these  two  purposes ; 
and  if  not,  whether  this  is  due  to'  some  fault  in  the  management, 
or  whether  the  two  purposes  have  become  incompatible  with  each 
other  by  lapse  of  time,  and  scholars  are  no  longer  to  be  found 
whose  parents  wish  them  to  learn  what  the  school  was  founded  to 
teach. 

It  is  a  further  question  whether,  without  reference  to  its 
original  purpose,  the  school  is  now  a  useful  institution.  You  will, 
therefore,  endeavour  to  get  leave  to  examine  the  scholars,  or  a  part 
of  them,  that  you  may  judge  for  yourself  what  is  the  character  of 
the  instruction.  You  will  report  whether  the  education  is  good 
of  its  kind,  and  suitable  to  the  needs  of  the  scholars  ;  whether  the 
discipline  appears  to  be  careful  and  effective ;  and  the  moral  tone 
sound.  You  will  endeavour  to  ascertain  whether  the  parents  of 
the  scholars  appear  to  value  the  teaching  that  the  boys  receive, 
and  particularly  whether  the  boys  remain  long  enough  at  school 
to  derive  the  full  benefit  of  that  teaching.  You  will  report 
whether  the  results,  taken  altogether,  are  satisfactory  and  propor- 
tionate to  the  amount  of  endowment ;  and  if  not,  whether  the 
fault  appears. to  lie  with  the  school  or  with  the  parents,  or  is  due 
to  circumstances  independent  of  both. 

You  will  also  inspect  the  grounds  and  buildings,  and  report  on 
the  schoolrooms,  the  accommodation  for  boarders,  if  any  be  pro- 
vided, and  the  playground. 

Finally,  it  will  be  desirable  to  ascertain  the  estimation  in  which 
the  school  is  held  in  the  neighbourhood,  and  whether  there  is  any 
general  wish  to  have  a  change  in  the  character  of  the  instruction, 
or  in  the  laws  or  regulations  of  the  foundation ;  and  if  so,  what 
are  "the  reasons  for  such  a  wish,  and  whether  they  appear  to  have 
any  ground  to  rest  on. 

2.  The  great  increase  of  late  years  in  the  number  of  proprietary 
Schools  is  a  strong  testimony  to  the  disposition  of  the  public  to 
think  favourably  of  the  principle  upon  which  they  are  founded ; 
and  it  has  even  been  suggested  that  the  grammar  schools  might  be 
much  improved  by  attaching  proprietary  schools  to  them.    It  will 


Instructions  to  Assistant  Commissioners.  vii 

be  well,  therefore,  to  examine  with  care  what  special  results  are 
obtained  by  schools  of  this  kind,  and  to  what  causes  these  results- 
are  due.  It  is  also  of  importance  that  you  should  ascertain 
whether  the  control  of  the  directors  interferes  injuriously  with  the 
master  in  the  conduct  of  the  school.  In  other  respects  your 
inquiry  into  these  schools  will  not  differ  from  that  which  you  will 
make  into  the  graiAmar  schools,  except  that  the  absence  of  a 
foundation  will  render  unnecessary  any  comparison  of  the  present 
condition  with  the  object  aimed  at  by  the  founder. 

3.  The  great  number  of  the  private  schools  renders  it  impossible, 
even  if  it  were  ;idvisab!e,  to  make  a  personal  inspection  of  every 
one  of  them  throughout  your  district.  You  must  be  left  very  much 
to  your  own  discretion  to  decide  which  you  will  visit,  and  how 
closely  and  searchingly  you  will  examine  any  that  you  do  visit. 
But  you  will  bear  in  mind  that  the  general  object  oP  the  Commis- 
sion is  to  ascertain  what  is  the  character,  quality,  and  moral  tone 
of  the  education  now  given  to  the  children  of  the  middle  classes  ; 
and  you  must  push  your  examination  far  enough  to  satisfy  your 
own  mind  that  you  can  give  a  trustworthy  report  on  this  xJoint. 
Many  of  the  schools  will  undoubtedly  be  found  so  like  each  other, 
that  to  have  seen  a  few  is  to  have  seen  them  all.  The  few  that 
may  perhaps  be  exceptional  will  be  prevented,  by  being  exceptional, 
from  aiFecting  the  general  result.  By  going  first  to  the  county 
towns,  and  one  or  two  others  of  considerable  size,  and  making  a 
tolerably  exhaustive  inquiry  there,  you  will  probably  obtain  such 
a  general  conception  of  the  education  of  the  whole  district  as  will 
enable  you  afterwards  to  decide  without  difficulty  what  schools  to 
visit  and  what  to  pass  over  elsewheie. 

You  will  be  supplied  with  circulars  of  questions  to  be  answered, 
and  statistical  forms  to  be  filled  up  for  as  many  private  schools  in 
your  district  as  you  find  vdlling  to  supply  such  information. 

B.  To  the  inquiry  into  schools  of  the  ordinary  kind  it  may  be 
well  to  add  an  examination  of  what  may  be  called  supplementary 
means  of  education.  Such,  for  instance,  are  Art  schools,  which 
the  scholars  of  ordinary  schools  have  it  in  their  power  to  attend, 
and  special  schools  or  colleges  in  which  professional  rather  than 
general  education  is  given. 

This  inquiry  is  to  be  considered  as  strictly  subordinate  to  the 
other.  General  and  not  special  instruction  appears  to  the  Com- 
missioners to  be  their  proper  province.  But  still  there  are  some 
facts  which  it  is  important  to  ascertain  in  regard  to  means  of 
education  of  this  kind.  You  will  examine,  for  instance,  whether 
Art  schools  are  found  to  put  good  drawing  within  the  reach  of 
boys  who  could  not  otherwise  obtain  it,  and  whether  this  may  not 
be  the  cheapest  and  most  efficient  means  of  supplying  this  kind  of 
instruction.  It  is  a  question  of  the  same  kind,  whether  in  towns 
good  museums  may  not  supply  means  of  teaching  natural  science ; 
whether  the  scholars  from  several  schools  might  not  attend  a  com- 
mon lecture  in  chemistry  and  have  the  use  of  a  common  laboratory. 

In  the  professional  schools  and  colleges  you  should  inquire  what 
previous  general  instruction  is  found  to  be  the  best  preparation, 


viii  Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 

and  whether  the  authorities  of  schools  of  this  kind  prefer  that  their 
pupils  should  possess  sound  general  knowledge  on  their  entrance, 
or  that  they  should  have  anticipated  the  elements  of  what  they 
are  now  to  learn.  On  the  other  hand,  it  would  be  well  to  inquire 
how  far  these  professional  schools  are  themselves  successful  in 
preparing  boys  for  professions  ;  and,  if  not  successful,  what  appears 
to  be  the  reason  of  their  failure ;  if  successful,  Vhether  that  success 
has  to  be  purchased  by  the  sacrifice  of  general  cultivation. 

C.  The  education  of  girls  does  not  fall  so  largely  within  the 
province  of  the  Commission  as  that  of  boys.  Girls  are  much  more 
often  educated  at  home,  or  in  schools  too  small  to  deserve  the 
name.  And  the  Commission  are  not  charged  with  an  inquiry  into 
domestic  education  or  private  tuition. 

But  the  education  of  girls  cannot  be  excluded  from  view.  It  is 
said  that  there  are  endowments  to  which  girls  as  well  as  boys  have 
a  claim,  and  it  will  therefore  be  impossible  to  make  recommenda- 
tions relating  to  endowments  without  reference  to  both  sexes. 
Further  there  are  endowments  not  hitherto  applied  to  education 
which  may  possibly  be  so  applied  hereafter ;  and  in  dealing  with 
these  it  seems  unreasonable  to  take  for  granted  that  girls  are  to  be 
excluded.  And  even  if  the  Commissioners  find  themselves  unable 
to  recommend  immediate  measures  for  the  improvement  of  the 
education  of  girls,  it  will  still  be  well  worth  while  to  ascertain  and 
lay  before  the  public  information  respecting  the  present  state  of 
that  education,  and  thus  supply  a  basis  for  subsequent  action  to 
this  end. 

You  will,  therefore,  report  on  the  more  important  girls'  schools 
in  your  district,  and  particularly  on  any  which  possess  endowments. 
You  will  endeavour  to  ascertain  what  amount  and  kind  of  education 
is  generally  considered  necessary  for  girls,  what  time  is  given  to  it, 
what  it  annually  costs,  and  how  far  it  appears  to  fit  the  girls  for 
their  after  life. 

II.  Besides  Inquiring  into  the  state  of  education,  it  will  be  your 
duty  to  find  out  from  the  parents  what  are  their  own  wishes,*  and 
what  expense  they  are  willing  to  incur.  Upon  their  co-operation 
all  improvement  must  mainly  depend.  And  even  if  their  wishes 
are  mistaken  and  arise  from  imperfect  acquaintance  with  the 
subject  of  education,  it  is  still  necessary  to  ascertain  them  as  an 
important  element  in  the  consideration  of  what  is  to  be  done, 
whether  through  this  Commission  or  other  agency.  The  wishes 
of  the  parents  can,  of  course,  be  ascertained  only  by  conversation 
and  correspondence.  In  the  course  of  your  examination  into  the 
schools  you  are  sure  to  meet  with  many  whose  interest  in  the 
matter  and  general  intelligence  will  make  their  statements  on  this 
subject  valuable.  You  will  endeavour  to  find  out  how  far  it  is  the 
wish  of  the  pp.i-ents  to  alter  the  subjects  of  instruction ;  how  far  to 
introduce  teaching  of  a  more  professional  character ;  whether  they 
are  at  aU  aware  of  the  cost  of  a  really  sound  education,  and  whether 
they  are  willing  to  incur  that  cost;  what  are  their  prejudices  in 
reference  to  associating  with  the  class  below  them  and  the  class 


Instructions  to  Assistant  Commissioners.  ix 

above  them;  under  what  circumstances  they  would  prefer  day 
schools  or  boarding  schools  respectively.  The  answers  to  these  and 
similar  questions  will  be  of  the  utmost  importance  in  determining 
what  measures  of  improvement  are  not  only  desirable  but  practi- 
cable. In  short,  you  will  generally  endeavour  to  inform  yourself 
of  the  desire  which  may  prevail  among  the  middle  classes  of  society 
in  your  district  for  an  improved  system  of  education  that  may  be 
made  available  for  their  children,  and  also  of  such  measures  as  may 
recently  have  been  taken  to  meet  their  wishes  in  this  respect. 

In  conclusion,  I  am  to  warn  you  that  the  Commissioners  can 
give  you  no  compulsory  powers.  The  success  or  failure  of  your 
mission  wiU  depend  very  largely  on  your  own  tact  and  prudence. 
It  is  true  that  your  duties  are  of  a  kind  that  ought  to  encourage 
those  who  are  employed  in  education  to  give  you  every  assistance 
in  their  power.  There  cannot  be  the  slightest  doubt  that  what- 
ever tends  to  throw  light  on  the  present  state  of  education,  and 
still  more  whatever  tends  to  improve  it,  will  largely  increase  the 
demand  for  teachers  of  every  kind,  and  by  so  doing  will  promote 
their  interests,  and  add  importance  to  their  profession.  But  it  would 
not  be  dilficult  to  convey  the  contrary  impression,  and  to  close 
almost  all  access  to  information  by  prosecuting  your  inquiries  in  an 
inquisitorial  and  injudicious  spirit.  It  will  be  your  duty  to  arrive 
at  the  truth  in  whatever  way  shall  give  least  trouble  and  least 
annoyance  to  those  from  whom  you  are  seeking  it.  You  wiU  of 
course  make  no  distinction  with  regard  to  religious  creed  in  respect 
of  the  schools  you  may  desire  to  visit. 

The  main  object  of  your  mission  will  be  to  collect  matters  of 
fact,  and  ascertain  the  opinions  of  others.  At  the  same  time  the 
Commissioners  do  not  wish  to  preclude  you  from  expressing  any 
opinions  of  your  own  as  to  the  remedial  measures  which  you  may 
think  expedient.  But  it  will  be  desirable  that  you  should  express 
such  opinions  in  as  brief  and  summary  a  manner  as  possible. 

The  Commissioners  consider  that  your  inquiry  may  be  completed 
in  six  months,  and  that  you  Avill  be  able  to  finish  your  Keport 
within  two  months  afterwards. 

By  order  of  the  Commissioners, 

H.  J.  EOBY,  Secretary, 


SCHOOLS   INQUIEY  COMMISSIOl^. 


REPORT 


MR.  H.  M.  BOMPAS. 


CONTENTS. 


Page 

Character  of  the  district  inquired  into    -  .  -  -       1 

Statistics  respecting  the  boys'  schools  in  the  district       -  -  -      8 

Observations  on  the  subjects  taught  in  tlie  boys' schools  -  -     18 

The  advantage  of  examinations  and  insufficiency  of  those  now  existing  -    26 

Method  adopted  in  examining  the  boys'  schools  in  the  district  -  -    27 

Results  of  the  examination  of  the  boys'  schools  -  -  -     31 

Statistics  respecting  the  girls'  schools  in  the  district      -  -  -     40 

Observations  on  the  subjects  taught  in  the  girls'  schools  -  -    59 

The  advantages  of  examinations  for  girls  -  -  -  -     54 

Method  adopted  in  examining  the  girls'  schools  in  the  district  -  -     56 

Results  of  the  examination  of  the  girls'  schools  -  -  -  -     67 

Preparatory  schools        -  -  -  -  -  -61 

Boarding  schools  -  -  -  -  -  -  -62 

Rewards  and  punishments  -  -  -  -  •  -     64 

Holidays  .  .  -  -  .  -     66 

Schools  of  art     -  -  -  -  "  -  -  -     66 

Endowments      -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -67 

Conclusions        -.-.  ...76 

Appendix  A. — Papers  set  to  the  boys'  schools  -  -  -     77 

Appendix  B.— Papers  set  to  the  girls' schools  -  -    81 

Index  -  ■  -  -  -  -  -  -  -86 


LIST  OF  TABLES  CONTAINED  IN  THE  REPORT. 

1.  .Annual,  value  of  property  arranged  according  to  counties    -  5 

2.  Number  of   persons   paying  income  tax   arranged  according    to 

counties  -  -  -  -  -  -  -5 

3.  Number  of  day  schools,  mixed  schools,  and  boarding  schools,  and 

boys,  in  them,  arranged  according  to  counties      -  -  -     1 1 

4.  Number  of  schools  of  various  sizes,  arranged  according  to  counties  -     11 
5. -Number  of  endowed   and  private   schools,  and  pupils  in  them, 

arranged  according  to  counties    -  -  -  -  -     12 

6.  Number  of  day  schools  charging  various  prices,  and  of  boys  in  (hem, 

arranged  according  to  counties     -  -  -  -  -     16 

7.  Number  of  boarding  schools  charging  various  prices,  and  of  boys  in 

them,  arranged  according  to  counties       -  -  -  -     16 

8.  Per-centage  of  boys  learning   and  schools  teaching  the  principal 

branches  of  education      -  -  -  -  -  -17 


xiv  Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 


Page 


24 
30 
30 


9.  The  profession  of  the  parents  of  the  pupils  in  different  classes  of 
boys'  schools        ------- 

10.  Ages  of  the  boys  examined,  arranged  according  to  counties 

11.  Ages  of  boys  examined,  arranged  according  to  the  class  of  schools  - 

12.  Number  of  boys  learning  the  principal  subjects  in  each  county        -     31 

13.  Number  of  boys  learning  the  principal  subjects  at  each  age  -     32 

14.  Number  of  boys  learning  the  principal  subjects  in  each  class  of 

schools     ---■""" 

15.  Number  of  boys  who  answered  two  of  the  questions  in  Latin  -    32 

16.  Average  number  of  marks  obtained  by  the  boys  in  each  subject  in 

each  class  of  school  -  -  -  -  -  -    33 

17.  Average  number  of  marks  obtained  in  each  subject  in  the  afternoon 

papers,  by  boys  who  learnt  them  -  -  -  -     36 

18.  Average  number  of  marks  obtained  by  the  boys  in  each  school  on  the 

whole  papers        -  -  -  -  -  -  -3/ 

19.  Number  of  boys  obtaining  a  high  number  of  marks  in  each  class  of 

school      -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -38 

20.  Average  number  of  marks  obtained  by  the  boys  in  each  county       -    38 

21.  Average  marks  obtained  in  the  morning  paper  by  boys  learning 

and  not  learning  Latin     -  -  -  -  -  -     39 

22.  Average  marks  obtainad  in  the  morning  paper  by  boys  learning 

and  not  learning  Euclid  -  -  -  -  -  -    39 

23.  Number  of  day,  mixed,  and  boarding  schools,  and  of  girls  in  them, 

arranged  according  to  counties     -  -  -  .  -     44 

24.  Number  of  girls'  schools  of  various  sizes,  arranged  according  to 

counties   -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -45 

25.  Number  of  girls'  schools  containing  various  numbers  of  boarders, 

arranged  according  to  counties    -  -  -  -  -    45 

26.  Number   of  schools   charging  various  prices,  and  girls  in  them, 

arranged  according  to  counties    -  -  -  -  -    48 

27.  Per-centage  of  schools  teaching  and  girls  learning  the  principal 

subjects   -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -49 

28.  Ages  of  girls  examined         -  -  -  -  -  -    66 

29.  Number  of  girls  learning  the  principal  subjects  in  each  county        -    57 

30.  Number  of  girls  learning  the  principal  subjects  of  each  age  -    58 

31.  Time  spent  on  the  study  of.  music,   drawing,    and    needlework 

respectively  -  -  -  -  -  -  -58 

32.  Average  number  of  marks  obtained  by  the  girls  in  each  subject  in 

each  class  of  schools        -  -  -  -  -  -58 

33.  Average  number  of  marks  obtained  in  each  subject  in  the  afternoon 

papers  by  girls  who  learnt  them   -  -  -  -  -     60 

34.  Average  number  of  marks  obtained  by  the  girls  in  each  school  on  the 

whole  papers        -  -  -  -  -  .  -60 

35.  Number  of  girls  obtaining  a  high  number  of  marks  in  each  class  of 

schools     -  -  -  -  -  .  .  -61 

36.  Average  number  of  mai:ks  obtained  by  the  girls  in  each  county        -     61 


U  E  P  0  R  T. 


Mr  Lords  and  Gentlemen, 

I  HAVE  now  to  lay  before  you  the  result  of  my  inquiries  District 
into  the  state  of  Middle-class  Education  in  the  district  assigned  ^s^'S°e°« 
ine.     This  district  included  the  four  AVelsh  counties  of  Glamor- 
gan, Flint,  Denbigh,  and  Montgomery,  to  which  were  subsequently 
added  the  county  of  Hereford  and  the  towns  of  Chester,  Shrews- 
bury, and  Monmouth. 

To  collect  the  requisite  information  I  have  been  twice  through  Mode  of 
the  whole  of  my  district.  On  the  first  occasion  I  visited  all  the  collecting 
schools  in  it,  with  very  few  exceptions,  and  collected  such  statistics  '"  o"nation. 
concerning  them  and  concerning  the  wants  of  the  population  sur- 
rounding them  as  I  was  able  to  obtain  ;  I  also  endeavoured  to  ascer- 
tain the  opinions  of  the  masters  and  mistresses  on  some  of  the  most 
important  questions  connected  with  education ;  and,  lastly,  I  exa- 
mined viva  voce  a  certain  number  of  the  schools.  On  the  second  occa- 
sion my  object  was  to  ascertain  the  actual  state  of  knowledge  of  the 
children  in  the  schools.  For  this  pui-pose  I  prepared  three  papers 
of  questions  for  boys  and  three  papers  for  girls,  copies  of  which 
will  be  given  in  the  appendix  to  this  Eeport.  I  set  these  papers  to 
as  many  schools  as  were  willing  to  receive  them,  in  all  cases  super- 
intending the  examination  in  person,  or  being  represented  by  a 
gentleman  acting  as  my  deputy.  In  this  way  I  examined  1,485 
boj^s  from  39  schools,  and  626  girls  from  37  schools;  and  the 
results  of  those  examinations,  and  the  conclusions  I  have  drawn 
from  them,  will  be  found  at  pp.  39  and  67.  I  also  sent  to  all  the 
private  schools  in  my  district  the  questions  supplied  to  me  by  the 
Commission ;  but  I  have  not  received  many  answers,  only 
IS  boys'  schools  and  29  girls'  schools  having  returned  the  forms 
filled  up,  many  of  them  only  partially.  This  did  not  arise  in  most 
cases  from  any  unwillingness  to  give  the  required  infoi'mation,  but 
merely  from  the  difficulty  in  giving  the  requisite  time  experienced 
by  persons  so  constantly  engaged  as  are  the  masters  and  mis- 
tresses of  most  schools.  Very  many  others,  I  know,  wished  and 
intended  to  return  me  their  forms  filled  up.  Several  mistresses,  objections  to 
however,  declined  to  fill  up  the  paper,  mainly,  I  think,  on  account  questions 
of  the  nth  and  12th  questions,  which  they  misunderstood,  and  "  and  12. 
considered  to  amount  to  a  reflection  on  their  mode  of  keeping 
school.     These  two  questions,  in  fact,  have  been  one  of  the  chief 

11643.  a.  c.  3.  X 


Moral 
training. 


Aid  afforded 
me  in  my 
investigation. 


Characteristics 
of  district. 


Glamorgan- 
shire. 


Swansea, 
Cardiff,  and 
Merthyr. 


2  Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 

obstacles    I   have   experienced   in    obtaining   the   information 
required.  .         , 

I  have  felt  strongly  that  in  one  respect  my  investigations  liave 
been  incomplete.  I  have  only  been  able  to  test  the  intellec- 
tual training  and  general  arrangements  of  the  schools ;  i  have 
not  attempted  to  investigate— and  I  think  it  would  have  been 
impossible  to  do  so— the  moral  training,  which  is,  after  all,  the 
most  important  part  of  education.  I  have,  of  course,  formed  some 
opinion  in  the  case  of  individual  schools ;  and  I  may  say  generally, 
that,  with  some  lamentable  exceptions,  the  masters  of  schools  in 
my  district  are,  I  believe,  endeavouring  to  do  their  duty  in  this 
respect.  I  shall  not,  however,  make  any  more  particular  repert- 
on  this  branch  of  the  subject. 

On  both  occasions  I  have  met  with  very  great  kindness  and 
courtesy ;  and  in  the  majority  of  cases  the  masters  and  mistresses 
have  afforded  me  all  the  information  I  desired,  often  at  very  consi- 
derable inconvenience  to  themselves,  and  have  permitted  me  to 
examine  their  schools  if  I  wished  to  do  so.  I  would  take  this  op- 
portunity, too,  to  return  my  especial  thanks  to  those  gentlemen 
who  aided  me  in  conducting  my  examinations.  Whenever  I  have 
needed  it,  I  have  found  gentlemen  willing  to  devote  the  whole  or 
greater  part  of  a  day  to  acting  as  my  deputies  in  schools  at  which 
I  was  not  able  to  be  personally  present,  or  aiding  me  when  the 
numbers  to  be  examined  were  more  than  I  could  properly  super- 
intend. I  was  also  greatly  indebted  to  various  gentlemen  for  the 
loan  of  rooms  in  which  to  conduct  joint  examinations ;  and  I  may 
mention,  in  particular,  the  vicars  choral  of  Hereford  Cathedral, 
the  vicars  of  Swansea,  of  St.  Mary,  Cardiff,  and  of  Newtown,  the 
mayor  of  Leominster,  and  the  master  of  the  grammar  school  at 
Swansea.  The  masters  of  the  national  schools  at  Swansea,  Car- 
diff, and  Newtown  also  deserve  my  sincere  thanks  for  the  aid  they 
gave  me  in  effecting  the  necessary  arrangements. 

Before  proceeding  to  the  consideration  of  the  schools,  and  the 
education  provided  by  them,  I  will  endeavour  to  give  some  idea  of 
the  characteristics  of  the  several  counties  comprised  in  my  district. 

Glamorganshire  is  for  the  most  part  a  mining  and  commercial 
district.  The  abundant  supplies  of  coal  and  iron  that  are  found 
in  it  attract  into  it  and  afford  occupation  to  a  very  large  popula- 
tion: the  same  causes  make  the  ports  on  the  coast  active 
commercial  centres,  where  a  large  amount  of  business  is  carried 
on  besides  that  which  I  have  named.  The  rise  of  this  commercial 
activity  in  the  county  has  been  very  rapid,  and  the  increase  of 
the  population  has  been  so  likewise.  During  the  10  years  from 
1851  to  1861  the  population  increased  from  240,095  to  326,254, 
or  nearly  36  per  cent.,  though  the  rate  of  increase  throughout 
the  whole  of  South  Wales  was  only  15  per  cent. 

The  three  most  important  towns  in  the  county  are  Swansea, 
Cardiff,  and  Merthyr ;  their  populations  within  the  limits  of  the 
parliamentary  boroughs  are  respectively  41,606,  32,954,  and 
83,875.  In  1831  their  populations  were  only  19,672,  6,187, 
and  27,201.    They  differ  very  conpidcrably  in  character.    Merthyr 


il7r.  Jiumpas's  Report.  3 

is  tlie  great  centre  of  the  iron  mauufacture,  ami  the  population 
consists  ahnost  entirely  of  persons  engaged  in  the  iron  works. 
The  number,  therefore,  of  persons  who  are  in  a  position  to  send 
their  children  to  any  other  than  a  national  or   British  school  is 
comparatively  very  small,  and  it  is  still  further  diminished  by  the 
fact  that  there  are  excellent  schools,  conducted  on  the  system  of 
the  National  School  Society,  attached  to  each  of  the  principal 
works,  which  the  children  of  the  managers,  and  others,  (who,  if  this 
were  not  the  case,   wcJld   be  sent  to  private   schools,)  attend. 
Cardiff  is  the  great  shipping  port  for  the  coal  and  iron  of  the 
district,  and  has  a  more  mixed  population.     The  increase  in  the 
number  of  its  inhabitants  has  been   exceedingly  rapid,  especially 
about  the   docks,  and  in  consequence  rents  are  very  high,  and 
there  is  great  difficulty  in  finding  good  accommodation  for  schools. 
The  population  in  that  part  of  the  to\vii  is  such  as  is  usually  fjund  in 
seaports,  containing  a  large  number  of  persons  of  the  lowest  classj 
together  with  a  considerable  number  of  sea  captains,    tradesmen, 
and  others  of  the  lower  middle-class.     The  town  has  few  attrac- 
tions except  for  purposes  of  business,   and  the  inhabitants  are 
almost  all  of  them   engaged  in  some  trade  or  profession.     The 
suburbs  are  healthy,    and  there  are   one   or    two    considerable 
boarding  schools  ;  but  many  of  the  upper  middle-class  send  their 
children  to  Bath  or  Clifton,  which  are  within  easy  reach,  and  this, 
appears  to  affect  injuriously  the  upper-class  schools  in  the  town. 
Swansea  has    great    commercial    activity  independently    of  the 
coal  trade.     It  is  the   great  centre  of  the  trade  in  copper,  more 
than  half  of  the  copper  brought  to  England  being  smelted  there. 
The  inhabitants  are  for  the  most  part   prosperous,  and  besides 
those  who  have  amassed  fortunes  in  various  branches  of  coannerce 
it  contains  a  large  number  of  well-to-do  tradesmen,  and  clerks  in  the 
various  works  and  offices,  who  receive  considerable  salnries.    It  pos-    ^, 
sessesalso  many  of  the  attractions  of  a  wateringplace,and  there  are  a 
considerable  number  of  ipersons  living  there  who  have  no  business 
engagements.     It  has,  therefore,  a  far  larger  number  of  children 
needing  a  good  education  than  either  of  the  other  towns. 

The  agricultural  population  of  the  county  consists  chiefly  of 
small  farmers,  many  of  whom  have  to  work  harder  and  live  more 
sparingly  than  ordinary  labourers.  Such  persons  can  hardly  be 
expected  to  provide  their  children  with  more  than  a  National 
school  education.  Where  there  are  larger  holdings  the  difficulty  of 
obtaining  labour  is  very  great,  owing  to  the  high  wages  offered  in 
the  mining  districts,  and  this  both  lessens  the  i)rofits  of  the  farmers 
and  at  times  almost  obliges  them  to  keep  their  children  at  home 
to  do  the  necessary  work  on  the  farm,  which,  could  not  otherwise 
be  provided  for. 

The  county  of  Flint  is  also  to  some  extent  a  mining  county.  Flintshire. 
Coal  and  lead  are  found  in  considerable  quantities,  and  it  seems 
probable  that  these  works  will  increase.  At  present,  however, 
there  has  been  no  great  influx  of  English  into  the  county,  and 
tlie  mining  operations,  especially  the  lead  mines,  are  conducted 
mainly  by  small  adventurers.  The  towns  are  all  small,  the  largest 
being  Holywell  and  Mold,  with  populations  of  only  5,335  and 

A  2 


Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 


Denbighshire. 


Montgomery- 
shire. 


Herefordshire, 


Monmouth, 
Chester,  and 
Shre-wsbiiry. 


3,735  respectively.     Welsh  is  still  spoken  in  many  parts  oi  the 

county,  but  not  on  the  borders  of  Cheshire,  while  it  is  becoming 

gradually  supplanted  by  English  along  the  coast  and  in  the  towns. 

Denbighshire  is  a  large  and  important  county,  differing  very  much 

in  character  in  different  parts.     It  is  mostly  agricultural,  but  has 

several  towns  scattered  through  it.     Wrexham,  the  principal  one, 

is  an  important  town  of  7,5C2  inhabitants,  with  a  considerable  trade. 

Euabon  is  becoming  surrounded  by  a  very  large  population,  owing 

to  the  coal  and  iron  mines  adjacent  to  it.     There  seems  reason  to 

suppose  that  there  are  minerals  under  a  considerable  part  of  the 

county.     This  is  of  some  importance,  as  rendering  probable  an 

increase  in  value  at  some  future  time  of  the  lands  held  by  the 

different  endowed  schools.     In  the  agricultural  part  of  the  county 

the  farms  are  larger  than  in    Glamorganshire,  and  its  extreme 

beauty  has  drawn  into  it  many  gentlemen  whose  seats  are  scattered 

about  it.     It  is  greatly  visited  in  summer  by  tourists,  especially 

the  vales  of  Llangollen,  Clwyd,  and  Llanrwst,  and  in  such  places 

English  is  pretty  generally  spoken ;  but  in  the  less  frequented 

parts  "Welsh  still  prevails,  and  only  a  few  miles  from  Denbigh  I 

heard  of  persons  holding  considerable  farms  who  knew  no  English. 

A  great  part  of  the  county  is  very  thinly  populated,  and  for  a 

distance  of  15   miles    square  there  are  no  schools   of  any  kind 

except  national  schools. 

Montgomeryshire  is  an  agricultural  county,  with  the  exception  of 
the  towns  in  which  the  woollen  manufacture  is  carried  on.  It  is 
very  thinly  populated,  and  the  western  district  is  mountainous. 
The  population  are  rather  poor,  even  the  woollen  manufacture 
being  in  a  depressed  state,  and  affording  apparently  but  uncertain 
j)rofits.  Through  a  large  part  of  the  county  Welsh  is  the  language 
still  usually  spoken. 

The  county  of  Hereford  is  also  an  agricultural  county,  and 
considerable  parts  of  it  have  not  as  yet  been  visited  by  the  com- 
mercial activity  which  has  spread  throughout  the  rest  of  England. 
Hereford  itself  is  an  important  county  town,  with  a  population  of 
15,587,  and  is  prosperous  iind  increasing.  The  four  other  principal 
towns  are  Koss,  Leominster,  Ledbury,  and  Kington.  The  farmers 
are  for  the  most  part  prosperous,  and  have  especially  made  large 
profits  from  their  hop  gardens  during  the  last  two  or  three  years. 
The  land  is  very  rich,  the  average  annual  value  per  acre  being 
25s.,  while  in  Glamorganshire  it  is  only  10.s. 

Monmouth  is  a  small  and  very  quiet  county  town,  with  only 
5,783  inhabitants,  but  is  remarkable  for  its  Grammar  School, 
which  has  a  very  large  endowment.  Chester  contains  31,110 
inhabitants,  and  Shrewsbury  22,163.  They  contain  a  consider- 
able number  of  schools,  to  which  Welsh  children  sometimes  go 
on  account  of  their  vicinity  to  Wales,  and  it  was  mainly  for  that 
reason  that  they  were  added  to  my  district.  In  the  schools  at 
Shrewsbury  there  appear,  however,  to  be  at  present  very  few 
Welsh  pupils. 

Some  idea  of  the  relative  wealth  and  commercial  Importance  of 
the  counties  may  be  formed  from  the  returns  of  the  property-tax. 
The  following  table  gives  the  annual  value  at  which  the  differept 


Mr.  Bompas's  Report. 


species  of  property  are  rated  in  each  county,  and  also  the  net  Value  of 
annual  income  taxed  under  schedule  D.,  i.e.,  derived  from  trades,  ^["^f^'^"' 
professions,  or  employments  in  the  county : — ■ 

Table  L 


district. 


Gross  Annual  Value  of  Property  assessed  under  Schedule  A. 

NetAmount 

County  of 

Acreage. 

Land. 

Messuages. 

Mines  and 
Ironworks. 

Xtatlways 
and  Canals. 

Other 
Property, 

assessed 

under 

Schedule  D. 

Denbigh 
Flint     - 
Montgomery  - 
Glaniorgan  - 
Hereford 

386,052 
184,905 
483,323 
547,494 
534,823 

.  £ 
326,915 
205,584 
287,168 
272,249 
678,635 

£ 

78,994 

74,051 

51,.552 

453,310 

147,448 

£ 

117,764 

53,467 

5,109 

356,568 

894 

& 

5,461 

2,8')  1 

2,913 

131,972 

40,611 

3,795 
3,069 
4,220 

88,778 
7,285 

■£, 

86,847 
107,366 

60,812 
527,116 
137,087 

The    enormously  superior  wealth   of  Glamorganshire  and  the 
value  of  the  land  in  Herefordshire  are  apparent. 

The  object  of  the  present  inquiry  being  the  education  of  the  Proportion  of 
middle,  and  upper  classes,  the  returns  of  the  population  of  the  t^e  population 
different  counties  obviously  afford  but  a  very  small  clue  to  the  num-  gjassf  ™'  ° 
ber  of  children  who  need  such  an  education.  An  approximate  idea 
of  this,  however,  may  be  obtained  from  the  inconie-tax  returns.  All 
persons  with  incomes  derived  from  any  trade,  profession,  or  occupa- 
tion within  the  county  are  included  in  the  income-tax  returns 
under  schedules  D.  or  E.  They  do  not  include  persons  who  derive 
their  income  only  from  fixed  sources,  such  as  the  funds,  but 
propably  in  such  counties  as  those  under  consideration  the  number 
of  these  is  comparatively  small.  Under  scliedule  B  are  assessed 
all  those  who  are  tenants  of  land  of  the  value  of  2QQI.  a  year  or 
upwards,  that  being  considered  equivalent  to  the  possession  of  an 
income  of  lOOZ.  a  year.  From  this  number,  however,  considerable 
deductions  must  be  made,  from  the  fact  that  the  ftxrms  and  not  the 
persons  are  rated,  and  that  one  person  holding  two  farms  would  be 
counted  as  two  persons. 

The  following  table  will  show  the  number  of  persons  engaged  Income  tax 
in  any  business  or  occupation  who  have  a  total  income  above  lOOZ.  i"eta™s. 
and  less  than  200Z.,  and  also  those  who  have  an  income  above  200/. 

Table  2. 


County  of 


Denbigh     - 

riint 

Montgomery 

Glamorgan 

Hereford 


Total 
Population. 


104,346 

39,941 

76,923 

326,254 

106,796 


Persons 

having  an 

Income  more 

than  100?.,  less 

than  2002. 


187 
354 
255 
1,350 
268 


Per.Wn3 

having;  an 

Income  of 

more  than 

•iWl. 


469 
375 
200 
1,689 
"76 


Persons 

having  Farms 

Total 

ofSOOi.aYe.^r 

Middle  Class 

and  upwards. 

1,.^09 

2,165 

1,100. 

1,389 

.  1,353 

1,873 

1,778 

4,817 

4,827 

5,871 

It  will  be  seen  that,  with  the  exception  of  Glamorganshire,  all  the 
counties  have  a  fiir  larger  population  devoted  to  agriculture  than 


6 


Schools  Inquiry  Ctmynission. 


Number  of 
children  of 
the  middle 

class. 


Character  of 
the  Welsh. 


to  all  other  pursuits  put  together.  It  will  also  be  remarked  that 
in  Flint,  Montgomery,  and  Glamorganshire  nearly  half  the  persons 
who  have  incomes  exceeding  lOOZ.  have  less  than  200/.  a  year. 

It  appears  from  the  census  tables  that  the  average  number  of 
children  in  a  family  where  the  father  and  mother  are  living  is  2-26, 
and  where  the  head  of  the  family  is  a  widow  or  widower  is  1"35, 
and  also  that  the  numbers  of  families  in  which  there  is  a  husband 
and  wife,  in  which  the  head  is  a  widow  or  widower,  and  in  which  the 
head  is  a  bachelor  or  spinster,  are  about  in  the  proportion  of  40, 19 
ahd  41.  'The  average  number  of  children  to  a  family,  therefore, 
may  be  reckoned  at  1'16.  About  one-third  of  these  may  be  taken  as 
the  number  of  children  between  the  ages  of  10  and  16,  giving  about 
■38  as  the  number  of  children  to  a  family  who  should  be  receiving 
a  middle-class  education.  Assuming  that  these  are  half  of  them 
boys,  we  may  say,  as  a  rough  approximation,  that  there  are  411 
boys  of  the  middle  class,  between  the  ages  of  10  and  16,  in  Denbigh- 
shire, 359  in  Flint,  356  in  Montgomeryshire,  915  in  Glamorganshire, 
and  1,115  in  Herefordshire,  or  a  total  of  3,156.  It  will  be  seen 
from  Table  3  that  this  is  considerably  above  the  numbers  of  boys 
actually  in  schools  in  the  five  counties,  as  might  be  expected  from 
the  fact  that  the  average  time  boys  remain  at  school  is  considerably 
less  than  six  years,  while  deductions  have  to  be  made  for  boys 
educated  at  home  and  boys  sent  to  national  schools.  In  Glamorgan- 
shire, however,  the  number  of  boys  in  school  is  in  excess  of  that 
given  above.  The  greatest  difference  in  the  numbers  is,  as  might 
be  expected,  in  the  agricultural  county,  Herefordshire,  the  educa- 
tion of  farmers'  children  being  much  below  that  of  other  classes  of 
the  community. 

A  few  remarks  may  also  be  desirable  with  respect  to  the 
character  of  the  Welsh,  and  the  effect  of  the  use  of  the  Welsh 
language  on  the  schools  in  my  district. 

The  Welsh,  as  a  rule,  are  wanting  in  enterprise,  .and  not 
willing  to  expend  or  risk  money  for  future  advantages.  They 
are,  however,  steady  and  industrious.  They  are  also  distinguished 
by  a  great  love  of  knowledge,  and  even  among  the  common 
miners  there  are  many  well  acquainted  with  the  highest  part  of 
mathematics,  and  it  is  quite  usual  for  servants  and  labourers  to 
compose  essays  and  poems  for  the  various  eistedtifods.  It  would 
iippear  to  result  from  these  two  characteristics,  that  on  the  one 
hand  parents  are  unwilling  to  spend  money  on  the  education  of 
I  heir  children  for  the  sake  of  the  future  advantages  that  may  flow 
to  them  from  it,  and  on  the  other,  those  very  children  when  ^rown 
up  will  pinch  themselves  to  save  enough  to  enable  them  to  go  to 
school  for  a  year  when  they  are  between  20  and  30.  The  presence 
in  Welsh  schools,  especially  those  in  South  Wales,  of  these  young 
men  is  a  very  marked  characteristic.  In  many  schools  there  are  a 
considerable  number  of  young  men  from  18  to  25  years  of 
age,  who  have  worked  either  as  miners  or  as  farmers,  and  saved 
just  enough  to  enable  them  to  live  for  a  year  in  the  cheapest 
way  and  attend  school.  At  the  end  of  the  time  they  either  return 
to  their  work,  and  occupy  in  it  a  rather  superior  position  to  that 


Mr.  Bompais  Heport.  7 

which  they  held  before,  or  go  to  some  college  and  enter  the 
dissenting  ministry.  They  not  unfrequently  go  to  schools  on  the 
borders  of  England,  as,  for  instance,  at  Shrewsbury,  or  Kington 
in  Herefordshire.  They  work  in  classes  with  boys  of  12  or  13 
without  the  least  hesitation,  and  apparently  with  no  disadvantage 
to  either.  The  fact  that  throughout  Wales  it  is  usual  for  the 
Sunday  sctoolo'  to  be  attended  by  grown-up  pei'sons  as  well  as 
children  seems  to  prevent  any  feeling  of  pride  in  the  matter,  and 
to  take  away  also  the  feeling  that  childhood  is  the  special  time  for 
education.  Except  as  above,  and  in  respect  of  the  language,  I 
do  not  think  "^ that  there  is  any  material  difference  between  the 
state  of  education  in  a  Welsh  and  an  English  county. 

One  important  consideration  in  Welsh  schools,  however,  is  the  Prevalence  of 
Welsh  language.  This  is  still  spoken  for  the  most  part  in  the  J'^^^^'s'i 
country  districts.  In  thfe  towns  English  is  spoken  almost  entirely, 
and  also  along  the  English  border.  In  all  schools,  whether  for 
elementary  education  or  otherwise,  English  is  the  language  taught, 
and  in  most  middle-class  schools  the  master  either  does  not  kViow 
Welsh,  or,  if  he  does,  abstains  from  using  it  in  school,  in  ordei: 
that  the  boys  may  speak  and  understand  English.  From  this 
and  other  causes  Welsh  is  gradually  disappearing  as  a  spoken 
language.  All  the  children,  in  fact,  learn  English,  though  many 
now  forget  it  as  they  grow  up ;  and,  as  the  railways  and  other 
causes  bring  into  the  country  those  who  can  speak  English  but  do 
not  know  Welsh,  there  will  be  an  additional  inducement  to  them 
not  to  do  so.  The  language  is  dying  out  most  rapidly  in  Glamorgan- 
shire, mainly  on  account  of  the  great  influx  of  English  and  Irish. 
Thirty  years  ago  Welsh  was  usually  spoken  in  Swansea  ;  now  it  is 
never  heard  there,  except  from  persons  coming  in  from  the  country. 
The  shopkeepers  and  others, however,  still  learn  it  in  order  to  be  able 
to  communicate  with  country  persons.  It  would  appear  that  it  is 
beginning  in  some  parts  to  be  considered  unfashionable  for  girls  to 
know  Welsh,  and  this  feeling  is  likely  to  make  the  language  die 
out  rapidly,  at  least  among  the  middle  classes.  The  Welsh  Its  effect  on 
language  interferes  in  two  ways  with  education.  In  many  cases  education. 
the  pupils  do  not  know  English  well  enough  to  understand  what 
the  master  says  for  a  considerable  time  after  they  come  to  school. 
I  met  with  several  schools  to  which  pupils  not  uncommonly  came 
who  could  not  speak  a  word  of  English,  the  master  or  mistress  of 
which  did  not  understand  any  Welsh.  Where  the  main  object  is 
to  learn  English  this  may  be  an  advantage ;  but  it  must  interfere 
greatly  with  the  acquisition  by  the  pupil  of  other  branches  of 
knowledge.  Even  when  the  pupils  know  English  suificiently  to 
understand  their  master,  they  often  think  in  Welsh,  and  have  to 
translate  the  lessons  they  receive  into  Welsh  before  xhey  fully 
comprehend  them ;  this  makes  them  seem  dull  and  slow  in  dnder- 
standing  what  is  taught  them.  Whenever  Welsh  is  the  Janguage 
usually  spoken  by  their  parents,  this  will,  I  think,  be  the  case  ; 
and  it  certainly  adds  greatly  to  the  difficulty  of  teaching,  especially 
in  day  schools  to  which  the  pupils  come  from  a  country  district. 
I  was  greatly  struck  by  the  fact  that  children  who  know  English 


8  Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 

very  imperfectly  speak,  nevertheless,  with  such  a  good  accent, 
and  so  grammatically,  that  their  deficiency  very  often  is  not 
perceived  at  first ;  I  am  convinced  that  in  some  cases  the  masters 
attribute  to  natural  deficiency  an  apparent  dullness  jthat  arises 
really  from  an  imperfect  knowledge  of  English,  i  can  only 
account  for  this  peculiarity  by  the  fact  that  the  pupils  learn  what 
little  English  they  know  when  they  are  children,  and  that  chil- 
dren can  imitate  accents  and  modes  of  speaking  better  than  older 
persons ;  certainly  any  foreigner  who  was  acquainted  with  as  few 
words  as  some  of  the  boys  are  in  Welsh  schools  would  speak  a 
broken  English  which  no  one  could  mistake.  I  think  this  fact 
may  be  worthy  of  consideration  in  determining  the  question,  at 
Avhat  age  and  in  what  manner  French  and  other  modern  lan- 
guages should  be  taught. 
Classes  of  I    proceed  to    consider  the  education  supplied  by  the  schools 

schools  usually  {^  t}jg  above  district.  It  may  be  well  to  state  first,  in  a  general 
toTTOs.  °  form,  the  result  of  my  inquiries.  In  the  large  towns  there  are  usually 
first,  National  and  British  schools,  to  which  the  children  of  the 
working  classes  and  the  small  shopkeepers  go.  These  charge  from 
2d.  to  6d.  a  week,  according  to  the  position  in  life  of  the  children 
who  attend.  2ndly,  there  are  usually  one  or  two  schools  kept 
either  by  masters  who  have  formerly  taught  a  National  school,  or 
by  persons  of  similar  position  ;  such  masters  for  the  most  part 
appear  to  take  an  interest  ia  their  work,  but  seldom  teacb  more 
ilian  is  taught  at  the  National  schools.  They  chai'ge  10s.  or  15s. 
a  quarter,  or  in  some  cases  by  the  week;  they  sometimes  have 
mixed  schools  for  boys  and  girls.  To  such  schools  the  smaller 
tradespeople  send  their  children  ;  and  many  who  at  first  go  to  a 
National  school  are  sent  when  11  or  12  yeai-s  old  for  a  year  to 
such  a  school  to  "  finish,"  more  for  the  sake  of  their  being  able  to 
say  that  they  have  been  educated  at  a  private  schoolthan  on 
account  of  any  difference  in  the  education  itself.  Some  of  these 
schools  are  very  bad,  but  I  think  such  are  exceptions ;  the 
masters  usually  do  their  best,  and  though  there  is  a  deficiency 
in  point  of  order  and  discipline,  the  boys  get  more  individual 
attention  than  can  be  given  in  a  National  school  to  any  except  the 
first  class.  The  chiklren  of  parents  of  a  rather  higher  class  of 
EDciety  often  attend  such  schools  for  the  first  few  years  of  tlieir 
education  ;  in  fact,  each  class  of  school  contains  boys  who  will  be 
reinoved  for  the  last  year  or  two  of  their  education  to  more 
expensive  schools.  Srdly.  Above  these  there  are  schools  which 
charge  from  one  guinea  to  two  guineas  a  quarter  for  day  boys,  and 
which  almost  invariably  have  boarders  also,  especially  if  chaiffinc 
tiie  higher  terms.  Of  these,  the  grammar  schools  for  the  mostpai^ 
still  make  classics  the  foundation  of  their  education,  but  other 
schools  almost  without  exception  have  ceased  to  teach  Greek 
except  occasionally,  and  pay  most  attention  to  the  more  practical 
subjects.  The  day  scholars  of  these  schools  are  the  sons  of  trades- 
men and  professional  men.  The  latter  very  usually  leave  and  oo 
to  a  boarding  school  in  England  for  the  last  year  or  two  oF  their 
education,  partly  for  the  sake  of  losing   any  peculiarities    which 


Mr.  Bompas's  Reporter  9 

they  may  have  as  Welshmen,  partly  that  they  may  break  off  the 
associations  which  they  have  formed  at  school  with  boys  of  the 
same  town  of  a  lower  position  in  society,  and  partly  in  some  cases 
from  a  preference  for  the  stricter  discipline  of  a  boarding  school. 
The  boarders  are  usually  from  some  distance ;  in  the  case  of  the 
grammar  schools  they  frequently  come  from  England;  in  the 
commercial  schools  they  are  mostly  the  sons  of  farmers,  not 
however,  at  all  universally  of  farmers  in  the  immediate  neigh- 
bourhood. 

To  illustrate  these  observations  we  may  take  the  instance  of  Schools  at 
Swansea,  the  most  important  town,  educationally  speaking,  in  my  '^^°^*^' 
district.  In  it  there  are,  besides  the  National  and  British  Schools, 
a  school  of  about  30  boys  at  10.s.  a  quarter,  a  school  of  about  80 
boys  at  one  guinea  a  quarter,  a  school  of  about  90  boys,  another 
of  60  boys,  and  another  of  30  boys  at  1^  guineas  a  quarter;  the 
grammar  school  of  about  90,  and  another  School  of  30,  charging  two 
guineas  a  quarter.  There  does  not  appear  to  be  much  distinction 
between  the  five  last-mentioned  schools,  with  respect  to  the  class 
of  boys  who  attend  them,  which  includes  the  sons  of  tradesmen, 
clerks,  and  professional  men ;  the  first-mentioned  school  is  attended 
by  boys  corresponding  to  the  upper  class  of  boys  attending  the 
National  schools,  and  the  second  is  almost  entirely  attended  by  the 
sons  of  tradesmen  and  farmers.  There  is  also  a  boarding  school  at 
the  Mumbles,  a  few  miles  from  Swansea,  containing  VO  boys  of  a 
class  similar  to  those  in  the  five  schools  above  mentioned.  In  the 
grammar  school,-  and  the  grammar  school  only,  are  classics  made 
the  principal  subject  of  education,  though  classics  are  taught  in 
diflTerent  degrees  in  all  but  one  of  the  other  schools. 

In  small  towns  there  is  usually  a  school  charging  10s.  or  one  Schools  in 
guinea  a  quarter,  and  sometimes  a  better  school  charging  one  and  a  small  towns, 
half  or  two  guineas.  The  principal  schools  in  small  towns  are, 
perhaps,  more  deserving  than  any  others  of  the  serious  attention  of 
the  Commission ;  they  are  far  more  difiicult  to  support  than  those  in 
larger  towns,  for  the  number  of  children  of  an  age  to  go  to  school 
varies' from  time  to  tiaie,  and  the  size  of  the  school  is  therefore 
necessarily  fluctuating;  and  if  such  schools  are  in  an  unsatisfactory 
state  in  any  townj  the  education  of  the  sons  of  the  tradespeople  is 
likely  to  suffer  seriously.  A  second  school  is  seldom  started,  the 
boys  in  the  town  not  being  sufficiently  numerous  to  support  two 
schools,  and  the  tradesmen  and  other  inhabitants  have,  therefore, 
no  alternative  but  either  to  send  their  sons  to  a  boarding  school, 
or  to  put  up  with  the  unsatisfactory  teaching  which  the  particular 
school  may  afford.  The  former  of  these  alternatives  often  entails 
a  greater  expense  than  they  are  well  able  to  afford. 

It  is  in  the  case  of  farmers  and  others  living  in  small  villages,  Education  in- 
however,  that  the  greatest  difficulty  occurs.  These,  if  they  are  country 
near  some  town,  often  send  their  boys  into  it  to  echool  by  day,  but 
otherwise  they  are  obliged  either  to  send  them  to  the  National 
school  or  to  a  boarding  school.  The  former  they  objec;  to  from  a 
feeling  that  they  do  not  need  charitable  help,  or  from  a  dislike  to 
the  associations  which  their  children  would  form  there ;  and  even  if 


10 


Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 


Favourable 
opinion  of  the 
educatioii 
given. 


Chief 
difficulties. 


Time  boys 
remain  at 
school. 


Irregularity  of 
attendance. 


Reir.cdy  for 
this  evil. 


they  do  send  their  children  to  them,  such  rural  schools  are  usually 
in  a  very  unsatisfactory  state.  The  latter,  if  the  family  be  large, 
is  often  beyond  their  means.  These  remarks  do  not  apply  merely 
to  farmers,  but  still  more  to  clergymen  and  other  professional  men 
living  in  country  villages,  and  I  fear  the  education  obtained  by  the 
children  of  such  persons  is  often  very  unsatisfactory.  I  shall  refer 
to  this  question  again  when  treating  of  endowments. 

With  respect  to  the  education  given  at  the  schools,  I  may  state 
that  I  have  formed  on  the  whole  a  favourable  opinion.  It  of 
course  varies  greatly  in  different  schools,  and  there  are  still  many 
schools  in  which  it  is  exceedingly  unsatisfactorj^  In  most  cases, 
however,  the  masters  are  really  in  earnest  in  their  work  and 
endeavouring  to  do  their  best.  The  result  of  the  examinations  to 
be  presently  detailed  will  afford  more  distinct  information  on  this 
point. 

The  great  difficulty  in  the  way  of  education  appears  to  be  the 
short  time  that  the  pupils  remain  at  school,  and  the  irregularity  with 
which  they  attend  even  during  the  few  years  that  they  are  there. 
The  time  boys  remain  at  school  appears  to  be  diminishing ;  this  is 
partly  owing  to  the  much  larger  number  of  boys  who  can  find 
employment  in  various  ways  than  formerly,  and  partly  to  the  fact 
that  boys  now  acquire  more  readily  the  elements  of  reading, 
writing,  and  arithmetic,  on  account  of  the  better  books  in  use  and 
better  methods  of  teaching  employed ;  and  in  many  cases  parents 
take  their  sons  away  as  soon  as  they  are  able  to  read,  write, 
and  cipher  tolerably,  without  reference  to  their  age.  A  still 
greater  evil,  at  least  in  the  cheaper  schools,  is  the  irregularity  of 
the  attendance  of  the  pupils.  It  is  a  very  common  thing  for  a  boy 
to  be  kept  away  from  school  for  a  quarter  on  account  of  harvest, 
or  because  his  parents  are  going  to  the  sea-side ;  and  in  some  cases 
boys  are  only  sent  to  school  the  longest  quarters,  in  order  that  their 
parents  may  get  as  much  as  possible  for  their  monej'.  So  common 
is  this  in  some  places,  that  the  schools  have  adopted  the  plan  of 
dividing  the  year  equally,  independently  of  Easter,  in  order  to 
avoid  it.  In  some  cases  this  irregularity  of  attendance  seems 
almost  unavoidable,  as  in  parts  of  Glamorganshire,  where  labour  at 
harvest  and  other  busy  times  actually  cannot  be  obtained,  and  the 
assistance  of  his  sens  is  absolutely  necessary  to  the  farmer  to 
preserve  his  crops.  In  most  cases,  however,  it  arises  simply  from 
the  apathy  of  the  parents,  and  their  carelessness  respecting  the 
education  of  their  children.  The  masters  everywhere  complain  of 
this  most  bitterly  and  apparently  with  good  reason.  Until  parents 
can  be  made  to  feel  that  it  is  necessary  for  the  purposes  of  educa- 
tion that  the  boys  should  attend  school  regularly,  and  that  to  keep 
them  away  is  as  real  a  crime  as  to  ill-treat  their  children  physically, 
it  is  vain  to  hope  that  education  will  be  really  successful.  Various 
remedies  for  this  evil  have  been  suggested.  It  is  hoped  by  many 
that  the  generation  who  are  now  being  educated,  having  learnt 
more  than  their  predecessors,  will  have  also  learnt  to  value  education 
more  highly.  Some  think  that  an  improvement  might  be  effected  in 
the  case  of  farmers,  the  class  whose  children  are  the  most  frequently 


Mr.  Bompas's  Report. 


11 


kept  away,  if  the  principal  landholders  of  each  district  would  use 
every,  occasion  and  all  the  influence  they  possess  to  impress  on  them 
•  the  importance  of  a  regular  education.  ,  A  system  of  examinations 
would  probably  have  much  influence  in  the  same  direction,  both  by 
keeping  the  question  of  education  before  the.  public  mind,  and  by 
inducing  the  boys  to  wish  really  to  be  regular  in  order  to  secure  a 
prize — the  will  of  the  children  having  but  too.much  influence  with 
their  parents  in  this  matter^  I  hope  the  present  inquiry  may  do 
much  good  in  the  same  way,  by  calling  the  attention  of  the  public 
in  the  districts  in  which  the  inquiry  has  been  prosecuted  to  the 
evils  of  irregular  attend£!,nce  at  school. 

I  proceed  now  to  give  the  statistics  of  the  schools  in  my  district.  Statistics. 
drawn  mainly  from  the  answers  I  received  to  the  questions  supplied 
to  me  by  the  Commissioners,  and  shall  illustrate  the  results  by  such 
information  as  I  have  been  able  to  obtain  by  personal  inquiries. 

I  felt  some  difficulty  in  deciding  what  schools  came  within  the  Difficulty  in 
terms  of  the  Commission ;  on  jthe  one  hand  many  National  Schools  Jh^i'g^n- 
have  a  senior  class  in  which  the  boys  are  taught  Euclid  and  alge-  eluded  in  the 
bra,  and  on  the  other  hand  there  are  private  schools  to  which  well-  Commission. 
to-do  tradesmen  send  their  sons,  at  which,  lit  tie,  more  than  reading, 
writing,  and  arithmetic,  and  the  elements  of  history,  geography, 
and  grammar,  are  taughf.     I  have  drawn  the  line  as  well  as  I  have 
been  able,  excluding  for  the  most,  part  weekly  schools,  and  includ- 
ing all  schools  for  the  children  of  farmers  and  tradesmen,  unless 
they  were  only  preparatory  sphools.     The  number  and  size  of  the 
schools  in  the  different  counties  and  the  number  of  children  in 
them,  whether  as  day  boys  or .  boarders,  will  be   seen  from  the 
following  tables: — 

Table  3.  No.  of  boys' 

schools  and 
scholars. 


County  of 

No.  of 

Day 

Schools. 

No.  of 
Mixed 
Schools. 

No.  of 
Boarding 
Schools. 

Total 
Schools. 

No.  of 
Day  Boys. 

No.  of 
Boarders. 

Total 
Boys. 

Denbigh 
Flint      - 
Montgomery  - 
Glamorgan 
Hereford 
Chester  (city)  - 

3 
2 
1 
10 
2 

5 
4 
4 
14 
8 
5 

3 
0 
0 
0 
2 
1 

11 

6 

5 

24 

12 
7 

167 
179 
12S 
840 
286 
130 

163 
33 
60 
226 
227 
138 

330 
212 

188 

1,066 

513 

268 

Total  - 

20 

40 

6 

65 

1,730 

847 

2,577 

Table  4. 


Size  of  schools. 


County  of 


Denbigh 
Flint   - 
Montgoinery 
Glamorgan 
Hereford 
Chester  (city) 

Total 


No.  of  Schools 
containing  less 
than  25  Boys. 


3 
1 
1 
2 
4 
3 

14 


No.  of  Schools 
containing  more 
than  25  Boys  and 
less  than  50  Boys. 


7 
4 
2 
14 
4 


33 


No.  of  Schools 

containing  more 

than'  50  Boys. 


18 


12 


Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 


No.  of  endowed 
and  private 
schools,  and 
scholars  in 
them 
respectively. 


Endowed 
larger  than 
private  schools. 


Proprietary 
schools. 


Comparative 
merits  of 
hoarding  and 
day  schools. 


Table  5 

. 

County  of 

"gel 

mg 

M 

46 
30 
20 
29 
49 
0 

^11 

it 

91 
76 
75 
768 
112 
60 

.5- 
d|l 

«i 

117 
3 
40 
197 
178 
138 

III 

Denbigh     - 

Flint  - 

Montgomery 

Glamorgan 

Hereford    -        .        - 

Chester  (city)    -   '     - 

3 
1 
2 

4 
1 

76 
103 

53* 

72 
174 

70 

122 
133 

73 
101 
223 

70 

722 

7 
3 
4 
22 
8 

208 
79 
115 
965 
290 
198 

Total    - 

15 

548 

174 

.50     1  1,182 

i 

673 

1,855 

It  will  be  seen  from  the  last  table  that  endowed  schools  are  on 
an  average  rather  larger  than  private  schools,  the  diflference  being 
in  the  number  of  day  boys ;  the  average  for  endowed  schools 
being  37  day  scholars  and  11  boarders,  and  in  private  schools 
24  day  scholars  and  13  boarders.  This  is  partly  due,  no  doubt,  to 
the  fact  that  the  endowments  enable  them  to  give  a  good  educa- 
tion for  a  very  small  payment,  especially  in  the  case  of  day  boys. 
The  system  of  proprietary  schools  seems  hardly  as  yet  to  have 
been  introduced  into  my  district — one  in  the  city  of  Hereford, 
and  one  small  one  in  Denbighshire,  being  the  only  examples ;  tlie 
Ladies'  College  at  Hereford,  however,  is  a  remarkable  instance  of 
a  similar  principle  being  applied  to  ladies'  schools,  it  having  been 
established  by  a  joint  stock  company  \7ith  limited  liability. 

If  any  difficulty  should  arise  hereafter  in  the  formation  of  pro- 
prietary schools,  either  from  the  provisions  of  the  "  Joint  Stock 
Companies  Act,  1862,"  which  renders  a  partnership  of  more 
than  20  persons  for  purposes  of  profit  illegal,,  or  from  the  fact  that 
an  action  cannot  be  brought  against  any  of  their  own  body  to 
enforce  the  payment  of  the  school  fees.  It  may  be  desirable  to 
adopt  this  plan,  and  form  the  proprietary  body  into  a  joint-stock 
company. 

There  is  some  difference  of  opinion  as  to  the  relative  merits  of 
day  schools  and  boarding  schools  as  places  of  education.  Almost 
all  the  masters  of  schools  agree  in  saying  that  it  is  better  for  a  boy 
to  be  a  boarder  than  a  day  scholar.  Their  reasons  appear  to  be  prin- 
cipally two  :  1st,  that  day  boys  are  liable  to  interruptions  at  home 
which  prevent  them  from  properly  preparing  their  lessons  in  the 
evening,  and  have  their  minds  so  taken  up  with  other  interests,  that 
they  cannot  fix  them  on  their  work ;  and,  2ndly,  that  a  boarding 
school  affords,  on  account  of  its  stricter  discipline,  the  best  moral 
training,  and  gives  the  master  greater  opportunities  of  knowing  the 
boys  thoroughly,  and  so  enables  him  to  train  iiiore  effectually  their 
characters  and  dispositions.  The  over  indulgence  of  parents,  or 
their  failing  to  support  the  authority  of  the  masters,  often  occasions 
difficulty  in  the  education  of  day  boys. 

*  The  day  scholars  at  this  Grammar  School  are  of  the  same  class  as  attend  a 
National  school. 


Mr.  Bompas's  Report.  13 

Boarders  appear  in  many  cases  to  be  less  remunerative  to  the 
masters  than  their  day  scholars,  and  I  have  no  reason  therefore  to 
attribute  the  above  opinion  to  prejudice.  Among  parents  there  is 
more  difference  of  opinion,  but  very  many  of  them  also  prefer 
boarding  schools. 

In  very  many  cases,  however,  that  which  decides  the  mode  of 
education  is  the  question  of  expense.  Boarding  schools  are  neces- 
sarily much  more  expensive  than  day  schools  need  be,  or  usually 
iare,  and  most  parents,  therefore,  unless  wealthy,  are  glad  to  avail 
themselves  of  a  good  day  school,  if  there  be  one  in  the  town  in 
which  they  ai'e  living.  On  the  other  hand,  farmers  (avHo  it  will  be 
remembered  are  as  numerous  as  all  those  who  derive  their 
incomes,  from  any  other  trade  or  profession)  have  for  the  most 
part  no  day  schools  to  which  they  can  send  their  sons  except  the 
Ifational  or  British  schools,  and  they  therefore  are  compelled  to 
send  their  sons  to  bbarding  schools,  at  any  rate  for  the  latter  part 
of  their  education. 

Most  schools   consist   partly   of  boarders   and   partly   of  day  Schools  having 
scholars.     Those  that  take  only  day  scholars  are  usually  schools  ^oarders  and 
for  the  lower  middle   class.      Only  six  schools   in  my   district     ^  <=  o  ars. 
ta,ke   only  boairders.     Almost  all  the   masters,   however,  that  I 
have  spoken  to  on  the  subject  think  that  the  presence  of  day 
scholars  is  an  injury  to  a  boarding  school;  they  give  as  reasons 
that  the  day  scholars  bring  the  news  of  the  town  into  the  school, 
and  so  distract  the  attention  of  the  boarders  from  their  work ;  that 
the  preservation  of  the  discipline  of  the  school  is  rendered  more 
difficult  by  the  boys  having  a  means  of  communiciitlng  with  the 
town  ;  that  the  day  boys  are  apt  to  come   with  their  lessons  un- 
prepared, and  thus  delay  the  class ;  and  that  the  hours  of  the  day 
scholars  being  fixed,  they  cannot  alter  the  school  hours  to  suit  the 
weathei",  or   any   special   circumstances   that   may   arise ;    these 
remark^  seem  t6  apply- with  more  force  to  girls'  schools  than  to 
boy's'  schools.  '  On  the  other  hand,  the  masters  of  most  day  schpols 
seeni  to  be  of  opinion  that  the  presence  of  a  few  boarders  in  the 
sdhool  is  an  advantage.     It  appears  to  raise  the  estirnation  and 
standing  of  the  school,  and  creates  a  degree  of  esprit  de  corps 
aniong  the'  scholars.     In  the   case  of  high  class  schools  it  also 
adds  considei'ably  to  the  income  of  the  schoolmaster,  and  thus 
enables  him  to  render  the  school  more  efficient.     In  the  lower 
class  6f  schools  the  boardefs  appear  to  be  less  profitable  than  the 
day  scholars.     Against  these  advantages  it  is  urged  by  others  that  Objection  to 
the  toasters  are  apt  to  neglect  the  day  scholars  for  the  sake  of  the  ^oarders  in 
boarders,  in  whom  they  feel  a  stronger  interest.  In  the  new  scheme  Monmonth" 
for  the  Llanrwst  Grammar  School,  the  number  of  boarders  allowed  grammar 
to  be  taken  by  the  head-master  has  been  limited  to  12,in  consequence  s<='i°<'ls. 
of  this  feeling ;    and  a  strong  party  at  Monmouth  are  using  every 
endeavour  to  prevent  any  alteration  in  the  present  rules,  which  pro- 
hibit the  master  of  the  grammar  school  there  from  taking  any  board- 
ers. AtButhin,  on  the  contrary,  great  opposition  was  shown  to  the  Contrary 
late  master,  on  the  ground  that  he  was  unwilling  to  take  any  S^^?.^  ^* 
boarders,  from  which  it  was  said  (and  I  think  with  more  reason)  that    "    °* 
the  school  was  likely  to  suffer.     My  own  impression  is,  that  it  is 


14 


Schoofs  Inquiry  Commission. 


Relative 
advantages  of 
large  and 
small  schools. 


Size  of  classes 
and  number  of 
masters. 


Number  of  boys 
in  a  class 
varies  Trith 
subjects 


always  a  benefit  to  the  day  scholars  in  a  school'  when  the  master 
takes  some  boarders,  and  that  in  many  cases  the  boarders  also  in 
mixed  schools  are  more  favourably  situated  than  those  in  schools 
where  there  are  only  boarders,  because  while  they  have  the  advan- 
tage of  large  numbers  when  in  school,  they  have  more  of  the, 
individual  care  and  personal  influence  of  the  master  out  of  school. 

The  size  of  the  schools  in  my  district  is  shown  by  Table  4. 
AU  masters  almost  desire  that  their  schools  should  be  as  large  as 
possible,  and  their  evidence,  therefore,  is  of  little  value  as  to  the 
best  size  for  a  school.  The  general  impression  of  parents,  also, 
however,  is,  I  think,  in  favour  of  a  large  school.  The  advantages 
of  such  a  school  appear  to  be  that  the  boys  can  be  divided  into 
classes  of  a  sufficient  size,  and  yet  the  boys  in  each  class  be  nearly 
equal  to  one  another  in  knowledge ;  and  thus  larger  classes  can  be 
taught  efficiently  by  one  master.  There  can  also  be  a  more  per- 
fect division  of  labour  among  the  mastert!,  each  taking  the  duties 
for  which  he  is  most  fit.  From  these  causes,  and  from  the  fact  ■ 
that  many  of  the  household  expenses  are  the  same  for  a  large  school 
as  a  small  one,  the  education  is  or  should  be  cheaper.  There  is  also 
more  competition  among  the  boys  and  more  esprit  de  corps.  The 
objections  to  a  large  school  are,  that  the  boys  must  be  left  more  to 
assistant  masters,  who  are  usually  not  men  of  the  same  ability  and 
who  have  always  far  less  motive  to  exertion  than  the  head-master ; 
and  that  while  the  head-master  will  have  less  personal  influence 
oh  each  of  the  boys  in  a  large  number,  it  is  not  the  duty  of  the 
assistant  masters  to  supplement  that  influence  in  the  case  of  any 
individual  boys.  Of  this,  however,  being  rather  a  question  of  moral 
influence  than  of  intellectual  training,  I  cannot  speak  with  any 
authority.  It  may  be  remarked  that  the  cheaper  schools,  charging 
one  guinea  a  quarter,  or  less,  are  usually  taught  entirely  by  the 
head-master,  and  seldom  contain  more  than  30  or  40  boys. 

The  size  of  the  classes  into  which  the  boys  are  divided  varies 
both  with  the  schools  and  with  the  subjects.  Omitting  one  or  two 
schools,  which  from  their  small  size  or  other  reasons  would  not 
give  any  true  criterion  on  the  subject,  out  of  18  private  schools 
from  which  I  have  returns,'  I  find  seven  taught  entirely  by  the 
master  himself,  with  an  average  of  39  boys  in  each  school ;  this 
number  is,  however,  increased  by  one  large  school  of  70  boys 
taught  by  the  master  alone,  with  some  assistance  from  the  elder 
boys.  The  average  without  this  would  be  34,  which  may  perhaps 
be  taken  as  a  fair  average  for  schools  of  that  class.  The  other  11 
schools  contain  517  boys  and  31  teachers,  or  one  teacher  to 
17  boys.  The  number  of  masters  is  greatest  in  the  most  expensive 
schools ;  thus,  in  the  four  most  expensive  of  the  above  schools, 
there  are  157  boys  and  12  masters,  or  one  master  to  every  13  boys. 

The  number  of  boys  taught  in  class  at  one  time  is  not  of  course 
so  large  as  the  above.  It  varies  considerably  with  the  subjects 
taught,  the  classes  in  Latin  and  Greek  being  decidedly  smaller 
than  those  in  history  and  grammar,  &c.  Thus  on  an  average  of 
eight  schools  I  find  the  average  size  of  a  class  in  the  English°sub- 
jects  is  13,  and  in  Latin  only  seven.  This  diflference  may  partly 
atise  from  the  fact  that  in  almost  every  school  the  number  of  boys 


Jlir.  I^umpas^s  Report. 


15 


learning  Latin  is  smaller  than  that  of  those  learning  English  gram- 
mar, history,  and  geography ;  but  most  masters  agree  that  it  is 
possible  to"  teach  a  larger  class  of  boys  well  in  the  English  subjects 
than  in  Latin.  The  general  opinion  is,  that  12  is  about  the  largest 
number  that  can  be  properly  taught  classics  in  one  class,  but  that 
15  or  even  20  may  by  a  good  master  be  taught  history  or  geogra- 
phy quite  as  well  as  a  smaller  number.  This  probably  arises  partly 
from  the  fact  that  to  translate  even  one  sentence  in  Latin  takes 
longer  than  to  answer  several  questions  in  history  or  geography ; 
and  a  master  can,  therefore,  test  the  knowledge  of  a  larger  number 
of  boys  in  a  given  time  in  the  latter  subject  than  the  former.  It 
is  possible  that  the  necessity  in  classical  schools  of  the  classes  being 
smaller  is  one  reason  why  such  schools  are  usually  the  most  expen- 
sive. 

The  following  table  will  show  the  usual  charge  for  education  Terms  charged 
in  my  district. 

Table  6. — Day  Schools. 


to  day 
scholars. 


Glan 

lorganshire. 

De^i 

biglishire. 

I'lintshire. 

Montgomeryshire.. 

» 

« 

13 

-a 

,! 

^'o 

°o 

°o 

o 

On 

o 

,^" 

m 

6V 

^ 

w 

,m 

^ 

H 

,"" 

^ 

W 

^^ 

a 

■s 

'''-'^ 

«M 

O 

^^ 

■o 

^^ 

n 

■s 

d 

d 

o 

o 

-A 

O 

1? 

d 

12; 

6 

;? 

-A   i    ' 

f<:, 

^ 

!2i 

Sphools  charg- 

"    ^ 

313   !    10 

O 

55 

7 

5 

171 

30 

1 
3 

83 

28 

.ingrot  inore 

!  than  Iguinea 

■  per  quarter. 

More    than    1 

11 

451   '  185 

5 

92 

39 

1 

2 

40 

32 

guinea     and 

not  more  tlian 

2  guineas  per 

quai'ter. 

More    than    2 

3 

74 

25 

1 

20 

3S 

1 

8 

3- 

._ 

- 

guin'ea^<i    per 

quarter. 

[continued) . 


Herefords 

liiro. 

Chcste 

r. 



Total. 

1       rt 

n 

<« 

g 

n 

3 

fe 

'o 

■3 

S^ 

,^ 

13 

rd 

/                                       : 

A 
& 

^^1 

o 

°1 

m 

'^£. 

■s 

'^OQ 

P 

o 

12;  o 

P 

•s 

d 

o 

o 

0 

d 

d 

^ 

o 

ki 

d 

|2; 

fe 

^ 

^ 

ScTiools  charging  not  more  than 

5 

161 

42 

23 

787 

163 

1  guinea  per  qiuirter. 

More  than  1  guinea  and  not  more 

3 

63 

96 

1 

70 

25 

719 

34,2. 

than  2  guineas  per  quarter. ' 

More  than  2  guineas  per  quarter. 

2 

02 

43 

5 

60 

78 

12 

224 

186 

The  above  are,  of  course,  exclusive  of  extra  charges.  In  some 
cases  there  is  a  lower  charge  for  boys  under  a  certain  age.  1 
have  in  most  cases  clMSsified  the  school  according  to  the  liigher 
charge.  .  , 


16 


Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 


Terms  charged 
l)y  boarding 
schools. 


Table  7.— Boaeding  Schools. 


Glamorganshlrp. 

Denbighshire. 

Flintshire. 

Montgomerj'shjre 

■i 

M 

k 

II 

■§ 

1"^ 

1 

ll 

II 

Hi's 

3 

S4 

©'3 

Is 

M^ 

7?' 

w™ 

el 

75 

fe«! 

•s 

B"j 

S";; 

O 

r§ 

o 

o  p 

O 

Si 

o 

■og 

S'i 

d 

feifl 

n.S 

o 

;2;.S 

O.S 

d 

S.S 

o.t! 

o 

^.H 

n.S 

Iz; 

■12 

15 

^ 

^ 

K 

fe 

% 

iz; 

Schools   charg- 

4 

202 

1  ' 

.SI 

1 

8 

57 

2 

8 

35 

ing  less  than 

25   guineas    a 
year, 
liess    than    35 

4 

73 

155 

4 

63 

29 

2 

22 

46 

2 

52 

83 

guineas     and 

not  less  than 

25   giiineas   a 
year, 
less    than    BO 

p 

5 

95 

137 

o 

42 

45  . 

1-    _ 

_ 

_ 

^ 

guineas     and 

not  less  than 

' 

S5   guineas    a 

year. 

Hot   less  than 

1 

10 

27 

1 

22 

22 

1 

3 

3 

-. 

50   guineas    a 

year. 

(contimted.) 


Herefordshire. 

Chester, 

Total 

?'    CB 

1^. 

m  a 

^  09 

§,- 

o 

Si 

■§ 

02 

■3 

6" 

1 
o 

5cQ 
d  " 

d 

^.s 

d.3 

o 

S.S 

o.S 

£ 

;z;.S 

n=- 

^ 

fe 

^ 

^ 

fe 

;z; 

Schools  cliarging  less  tliati  25  gui- 

4 

83 

65 

12 

172 

359 

neas  a  year. 

Less  than  35  guineas  and  not  less 

3 

75 

47 

_ 

15 

290 

360 

than  25  tineas  a  year. 

Xess  than  50  guineas  and  not  less 

1 

8 

63 

3 

54 

51 

11 

200 

301 

than  35  guineas  a  yesr. 

Not  less  than  50  guineas  a  year. 

2 

60 

60 

3 

84 

9 

8 

179 

126 

Pupils  taken  at 
less  than  the 
terms  named. 


Extras. 


There  is  one  subject  connected  with  these  schools  on  which  I 
have  not  been  able  to  obtain  exact  information,  but  which  renders 
it  necessary  to  receive  the  results  with  caution.  It  is  very  usual 
for  schoolmasters  to  take  some  pupils  at  less  than  the  terms  named 
in  their  prospectus.  This  is  sometimes  confined  to  the  sons  of  clero-y- 
men,  or  boys  having  some  special  claim  to  consideration,  while 
in  others  it  extends  to  any  who  are  unwilling  or  unable  to  pay 
the  full  terms.  It  is,  I  think,  done  principally  in  unsuccessful 
schools,  in  which  it  is  difficult  to  obtain  the  full  terms.  I  do  not 
think,  however,  that  this  will  materially  affect  the  results  given 
in  the  table,  which  are  formed  from  the  terms  mentioned  in  the 
prospectuses. 

French,  German,  drawing,  drilling,  and  music,  if  taught,  are 
usually  extras,  and  in  some  cases  Latin  and  Greek  also.  These  latter 
are  made  extras  chiefly  in  small  schools,  where  they  are  required 


Mr.  Bompai's  Efiporf. 


17 


by  one  or  two  boys  only.  I  found  some  masters  who  had  formerly 
made  Latin  an  extra  had  given  up  doing  so,  on  the  ground  that 
the  extra  charge  preyented  many  from  learning  it,  while  they 
thought  it  was  a  subject  which  it  was  desirable  should  be  learned 
by  all  their  pupils. 

It  is  difficult  to  give  more  than  a  general  idea  of  the  ages  of  the  Ages  of  the 
scholars.  Out  of  1,094  scholars  mentioned  in  the  returns  from  25  ^'^'^o'^i's- 
schools  in  my  district,  205  are  under  10 ;  559  between  10  and  14  ; 
230  between  14  and  16 ;  and  100  over  16.  The  latter  include  the 
young  men  whom  I  have  mentioned  above,  and  whose  presence  in 
the  schools  of  Wales  and  the  neighbouring  English  counties  is  one  of 
their  most  marked  characteristics.  In  the  cheaper  schools  the  boys 
leave  earlier,  because  they  are  usually  of  a  lower  grade  of  society, 
and  therefore  have  to  enter  when  younger  on  some  employment. 
Thus  in  schools  charging  two  guineas  or  upwards,  the  per-centage 
of  the  pupils  more  than  14  years  of  age  is  32  per  cent.,  while  for 
schools  charging  one  guinea  or  less  per  quarter  it  is  28  per  cent. 
The  age  at  which  boys  leave  school  depends,  however,  a  good  deal 
upon  the  master :  if  parents  see  their  son  making  real  progress, 
they  are  usually  ready  to  allow  him  to  remain  another  year  at 
school  if  the  master  advises  it.  It  will  be  remembered,  however, 
that  for  the  reasons  given  above  the  difficulty  of  retaining  boys 
long  at  school  appears  to  be  increasing. 

In  considering  the  subjects  that  are  taught  at  the  various  schools, 
I  shall  first  give  a  Table  showing  the  per-centage  of  schools  which 
teach,  and  of  boys  who  learn,  the  more  important  subjects,  and  then 
make  some  remarks  upon  the  subjects  separately. 

Number  of 
schools  at 
which  the 
more  im- 
portant subjects 
are  taught, 
and  number  of 
boys  who  learn 
them. 


Table  8. 

^ 

J-  w 

.| 

I 

%k% 

Boysi 
above 
arter 
n. 

.1 

II 

Subjects. 

II 

s 

« to  ^ 

b 

1^ 

1 

Per-oentag 

Schools  char 

Guinea 

who 

n 

Greek   - 

59 

83 

15 

23 

23 

30 

4 

Latin     -        -                 _        -  , 

87 

100 

46 

56 

59 

80 

32 

French  ~ 

76 

100 

26 

31 

37 

73 

21 

German 

14 

23 

1 

4 

2 

— 

— 

Book-keeping 

75 

66 

11 

16 

7 

78 

1  + 

Mensuration  and  surveying     - 

65 

54 

8 

11 

4 

73 

in 

Mathematics  beyond  arithmetic 

80 

92 

28 

32 

32 

71 

24 

English  Grammar  - 

86 

77 

71 

86 

72 

lOo 

86 

Miisic    - 

45 

50 

11 

26 

13 

50 

9 

Drawing 

95 

)00 

37 

38 

33 

92 

32 

Chemistry      - 

19 

13 

2 

12 

1 

31 

3 

These  Tables  are  formed  from  the  returns  that  I  have  received,  Remarks  on 
which  are  not  sufficiently  numerous  to  make  the  results  perfectly  the  difterent 
accurate.    I  think,  however,  they  give  a  substantially  correct  view  ^'^  ^^'^  s  aug   . 


n.  c.  3. 


18  Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 

of  the  extent  to  which  the  diflferent  subjects  are  taught  in  my 
district.  The  returns  do  not  include  the  schools  in  Chester,  but 
only  in  the  five  counties  of  my  district.  The  returns  from  Chester 
would  differ  in  some  degree,  though  in  the  main  analogous. 
It  will  be  seen  that  German  and  chemistry  are  hardly  taught  at 
all ;  they  are  not  taught  in  fact  as  part  of  the  school  course  any- 
where. Book-keeping  and  mensuration  are  most  taught  in  the 
cheap  schools,  while  Latin  and  Greek  are  most  taught  in  the 
more  expensive  schools;  and  especially  in  grammar  schools; 
English  grammar  is  taught  everywhere  except  in  two  or  three 
of  the  leading  grammar  schools.  Euclid  and  algebra  are  much 
less  taught  than  Latin,  though  more  so  than  Greek,  and  there 
is  less  difference  in  the  amount  of  them  taught  in  the  cheaper 
and  more  expensive  schools.  A  good  deal  of  the  teaching  of 
Euclid  is,  I  think,  of  a  very  unsatisfactory  kind,  many  of  the 
boys  who  profess  to  learn  it  really  knowing  nothing  at  all  of  the 
subject.  There  is,  I  think,  rather  more  music  taught  than  appears, 
some  boys  learning  it  away  from  school,  and  some  schools  having 
classes  for  the  boys  in  play  hours  as  part  of  their  recreation. 

Eeligious  teaching.  In  almost  all  schools  some  time  is  given 
to  direct  religious  teaching.  The  nature  of  this  varies  in  different 
schools.  In  grammar  schools,  and  in  some  other  schools,  it 
includes  the  teaching  of  the  Church  catechism,  but  boys  are 
usually  allowed  to  omit  this  at  the  request  of  their  parente.  In 
schools  where  the*  boys  are  required  to  bring  a  written  request 
from  the  parents  before  they  are  excused,  such  a  request  is  seldom 
sent.  This,  however,  probably  does  not  so  much  arise  from  a 
willingness  that  their  boys  should  learn  it  as  from  a  dislike  to 
interfere.  In  one  or  two  schools  the  masters  have  told  me  that  it 
would  create  a  difficulty  if  some  boys  learned  jt  and  others  did 
not,  and  that  it  was  desirable,  therefore,  that  it  should  be 
compulsory  on  all ;  others,  however,  stated  that  there  was  no 
difficulty  in  so  arranging  the  times  for  learning  it,  that  it  should 
not  interfere  at  all  with  the  work  or  discipline  of  the  school.  At 
Cowbridge  Grammar  School  the  Church  catechism  was  at  one  time 
taught  to  all  the  boys  in  the  school ;  but  it  having  been  suggested 
that  some  of  the  answers  when  put  into  the  mouths  of  Dissenters 
were  absolutely  untrue,  and  that  repeating  them  therefore  taught 
such  boys  to  undervalue  truth,  or  to  disbelieve  the  whole — a  view 
in  which  the  present  head-master  seems  to  fully  concur — it  has  for 
some  years  past  been  taught  only  to  the  sons  of  members  of  the 
Church  of  England.  Most  of  the  larger  private  schools  in  my 
district  are  kept  by  Dissenters.  I  believe  there  is  only  one 
private  school  in  the  four  Welsh  counties  containing  more  than 
50  boys  that  is  not.  They,  however,  contain  boys  whose  parents 
are  members  of  the  Church  of  England,  as  the  grammar  Bchools 
contain  many  boys  whose  parents  are  Dissenters. 

Greek  This  subject  is  but  little  taught,  as  will  be  seen  from 
the  Tables,  except  in  the  grammar  schools,  and  the  almost 
unanimous  opinion  of  the  masters  of  schools  is  that  Greek  ought 
not  to  form  a  branch  of  ordinary  education,  except  in  the  case  of 


Mr,  Bompas's  Report.  19 

boyg  whp  are  going  up  to  one  of  the  universities,  or  are  going  to 
eoter  one  of  the  learned  professions.  The  wishes  of  the  parents 
appear  to  be  the  s*me,  although  in  towns  like  Jluthin  and 
Cowbridge,  where  thei'e  are  old  and  important  grammar  schools 
forming  the  chief  point  of  interest  in  the  town,  many  tradesmen 
are  anxious  that  their  sons  sh-ould  have  a  classical  education. 
Teaching  it  to  one  or  two  boys  causes  such  an  interruption  to  the 
routine  of  the  school  that  in  some  of  the  larger  schools  which  are 
intended  to  give  a  commercial  education  Greek  is  not  taught  at 
all.  In  smaller  schools  where  the  boys  necessarily  receive  more 
individual  teaching  it  is  sometimes  taught  to  two  or  three  boys  ; 
but  such  teaching  does  not  usually  extend  further  than  the 
grammar  and  the  translation  of  some  easy  author. 

Latin  is  taught  in  almost  all  schools,  but  in  the  lower  middle 
class  schools  only  to  a  small  proportion  of  the  boys.  The  masters, 
however,  are  almost  unanimous  in  wishing  that  all  boys  should 
learn  it,  except  those  who  come  for  only  a  quarter  or  two,  and 
know  hardly  anything  when  they  come.  Various  reasons  are 
given  for  this  wish.  TIjb  principal  are  the  help  that  it  aifords  to 
boys  in  understanding  English  and  learning  other  languages,  and 
the  discipline  it  exercises  on  their  minds  :  this  latter  appears  to 
be  the  great  reason  for  which  it  is  valued  by  masters.  They  say 
that  it  is  the  hardest  subject  which  the  boys  learn,  and  that  it 
produces  in  them  habits  of  industry  and  attention  which  would 
more  than  compensate  for  the  time  spent  upon  it  if  it  had  no 
further  use.  Many  masters  say  that  they  find  that  boya  who 
learn  Latin  get  on  fiaster  with  their  history,  geography)  and 
English  grammar,  &c.,  than  boys  who  do  not  do  so,  but  give 
their  time  to  additional  lessons  in  those  other  subjects.  In  many 
schools,  however,  the  boys  are  not  taught  more  Latin  than  ig  suffi- 
cient to  enable  them  to  translate  a  Pelpetus  or  a  few  sentences  in 
Henry's  First  Book.  This  will  be  best  seen  from  the  results  of 
the  examination  to  be  given  hereafter.  The  opinions  of  the 
parents  of  the  pupils  is  less  favourable  to  the  study  of  Latin. 
Very  many  of  them  prefer  their  sons  confining  their  attention  to 
reading,  writing,  arithmetic,  and  similar  subjects;  or  learning 
the  modern  languages  and  the  sciences  instead  of  Latin.  The 
opinions  and  wishes  of  the  masters  exert  a  great  influence,  how- 
ever, and  the  number  of  boys  who  learn  Latin  usually  increases  in 
a  well  managed  school  on  this  account.  Thus,  one  master  told  me 
that  when  he  commenced  his  school  only  15  per  cent,  of  his  boys 
learnt  Latin ;  but  that  after  7  years  80  per  cent,  did  so,  though  tlie 
class  of  boys  was  the  same,  and  at  the  Llanrwst  grammar 
school  the  head-master  was  at  first  obliged  to  give  up  a  rule  he 
had  made,  that  all  the  boys  should  learn  Latin  on  account  of  the 
strong  opposition  of  the  parents  ;  but  after  a  few  years  he  found 
that  all  the  boys  but  one  or  two  ^d  learn  Latin,  and  was  able  to 
re-establish  the  rule. 

The  abstract  .question  whether  any  other  subject  could  be 
made  to  supply  the  place  of  Latin  as  a  mental  discipline  is  a 
question  rather  of  opinion  than  of  fact,  though   some   degree  of 

B  2 


20  Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 

light  may  be  thrown  on  it  by  the  results  of  my  examinations.  One 
master,  whose  school  showed  that  he  was  competent  to  express  an 
opinion  of  some  value,  said  that  he  thought  the  modern  languages 
might  be  made  to  supply  the  place  of  Latin,  and  with  advantage, 
were  it  not  that  ao  many  of  the  examinations  of  the  present  day 
require  a  knowledge  of  Latin,  such,  for  example,  as  the  preli- 
minary examinations  for  attorneys  and  medical  men,  and  that 
schools  are,  therefore,  obliged  to  teach  it  to  enable  the  boys  who  are 
preparing  for  such  positions  to  pass  the  examinations :  but  that 
that  being  so  it  became  almost  impossible  to  have  a  second  system 
in  the  school  for  the  education  of  the  other  boys.  It  is,  I  think, 
a  fact,  and  one  worthy  of  consideration  that  the  subjects  of 
examination  do  thus  compulsorily  fix  the  course  of  study  in  all 
schools,  and  oblige  them  to  be  to  a  great  extent  the  same.  If  a 
choice  of  subjects  were  given  to  the  candidates  at  the  examinations 
it  would  allow  different  systems  of  instruction  to  be  pursued  by 
different  masters,  and  might  end  in  a  lasting  improvement  in  the 
education  of  the  country. 

The  same  master  said  that  he  found  that  the  boys  who  did  not 
learn  Latin  were  usually  behind  the  boys  who  did  so  in  all  their 
other  subjects,  but  that  he  intended  for  the  future  to  make  them 
learn  Euclid  during  the  time  that  the  others  were  learning  Latin. 
I  asked  him  to  let  me  know  the  result,  and  have  since  heard  from 
him  that  though  at  present  there  has  not  been  time  to  make  any 
wide  generalization,  his  last  school  examination  showed  a  great 
advance  in  those  who  had  done  extra  Euclid,  and  they  were  not 
at  all,  as  before,  behind  the  other  boys  in  general  subjects.  If  the 
effect  of  different  studies  upon  the  general  position  of  boys  in  the 
school  were  more  carefully  noted  by  other  masters,  it  might  lead 
to  very  valuable  results. 

French  is  taught  more  in  some  districts  than  others.  It  will  be 
seen  that  the  number  of  boys  .learning  it  is  larger  than  that  of 
those  learning  Greek,  though  much  smaller  than  that  of  those  who 
learn  Latin.  Most  of  the  masters  consider  it  a  useful  and  impor- 
tant subject,  but  as  it  is  useful  rather  for  its  own  sake  than  for  its 
influence  on  the  school  work,  as  a  whole  they  do  not  press  it  upon 
the  parents  so  much  as  they  do  Latin.  The  wishes  of  the  parents 
vary  greatly  in  different  districts :  in  Swansea,  Neath,  and  Cardiff) 
at  which  there  is  a  large  trade  with  France,  it  is  considered  very 
important ;  but  in  other  parts,  even  of  Glamorganshire,  though  boys 
often  go  on  leaving  school  to  one  of  the  places  I  have  named,  the 
parents  appear  to  care  very  little  for  it.  Two  reasons,  probably, 
have  made  it  less  usually  learned  than  it  would  otherwise  have  been. 
In  most  schools  it  is  charged  as  an  extra :  this  is  the  case  in  three- 
fourths  of  the  schools  from  which  I  have  returns.  None  of  the 
boys,  therefore,  learn  it  if  the  parents  are  indifferent  about  it, 
while  if  it  were  not  an  extra  th^  would  do  so,  nnless  the  parents 
actually  objected,  in  those  schools  in  which  the  masters  wished  it. 
The  other  reason  affects  the  masters  rather  than  the  parents,  and  is 
the  difficulty  of  teaching  it :  the  master  of  the  school  is  seldom  able 
to  teach  it  himself,  while  it  is  difficult  to  obtain  an  assistant  who  is 


Mr.  Bompas's  Report.  2 1 

able  to  do  so  who  is  also  well  fitted  to  aid  ia  the  other  parts  of  the 
school  work.  It  seems  usually  considered  best  that  it  should  be 
taught  by  a  Frenchman,  though  on  this  there  is  some  difference  of 
opinion.  On  the  one  hand  a  Frenchman  is  seldom  able  to  maintain 
discipline  among  English  boys,  or  to  understand  their  difficulties 
and  requirements;  on  the  other  hand,  few  Englishmen  can  teach 
either  the  accent  or  the  minutiae  of  the  idioms.  In  practice,  it  is,  I 
think,  usually  taught  by  a  Frenchman.  One  disadvantage  of  the 
subject  being  charged  for  as  an  extra  is,  that  the  boys  commence 
learning  the  subject  later  than  they  otherwise  would.  It  would 
seem,  as  I  have  before  pointed  out,  when  speaking  of  the  Welsh 
language,  that  the  younger  children  are,  the  more  readily  they 
catch  the  accent  of  a  foreign  language,  and  it  is  an  advantage 
therefore  for  boys  to  commence  learning  modern  languages  when 
quite  young.  The  boys  do  not  usually  attain  any  great  pro- 
ficiency, and  very  few,  I  think,  learn  to  speak  the  language 
fluently. 

German,  as  will  be  seen,  is  taught  to  hardly  any  boys  in 
my  district  though  some  of  the  parents  would,  I  think,  be  glad 
that  their  children  should  learn  it.  There  is  not,  however,  time  to 
teach  all  the  subjects  that  are  desirable  when  the  boys  remain  so 
few  years  at  school. 

Arithmetic  is  taught  to  almost  all  the  boys  in  all  schools,  and  in 
the  lower  schools  a  good  deal  of  time  is  spent  on  it.  By  some 
masters  a  good  deal  of  attention  is  paid  to  mental  arithmetic.  The 
results  of  the  teaching  vary  greatly  in  different  schools,  and  are 
not  for  the  most  part  very  satisfactory,  though  this  is  in 
many  cases  due  to  the  class  of  boys  taught  and  their  irregular 
attendance.  ' 

Book-keeping  and  mensuration,  especially  the  former,  are  taught 
in  very  many  schools,  and  mainly  because  they  are  likely  to  be  of 
real' value  to  the  boys  in  after  life.  It  is  thought  by  some,  how- 
ever, that  book-keeping  is  so  soon  leariit  practically  when  a  boy 
goes  into  business,  that  it  is  not  worth  while  to  teach  it  to  him  in 
school.  The  study  has,  however,  an  additional  value  as  an  exercise 
in  writing,  and  as  teaching  habits  of  order  and  neatness,  and  seems 
to  be  well  worth  the  time  bestowed  on  it  even  on  those  grounds. 
It  is  usually  taught  by  means  of  books  published  for  the  purpose 
by  Chambers. 

The  other  branches  of  mathematics  usually  taught,  are  Euclid 
and  algebra;  in  very  few  schools  do  the  boys  get  to  anything 
higher.  Euclid  is  very  generally  taught  to  some  of  the  boys, 
and  in  some  schools  seemed  to  be  well  taught ;  but  the  results 
given  by  the  examination  do  not  seem  to  me  to  be  at  all  satisfac- 
tory :  a  large  number  were  just  beginning  and  had  only  learnt  two 
or  three  propositions  of  the  first  book.  I  think  about  the  same 
number  of  boys  learn  algebra  as  Euclid,  or,  if  anything,  rather 
fewer. 

Science  is  but  little  taught  except  in  quite  an  elementary  form  : 
the  great  difncuity  appears  to  be  the  expense.  In  those  parts  of 
my  district,  where  there  is  much  mining  or  manufacturing  employ- 


22  Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 

ment,  there  seemed  to  be  a  wish  both  among  masters  and  parents 
that  it  could  be  taught  more  extensively.  The  owners  of  chemical 
and  other  manufacturing  works  with  whom  I  conversed,  seemed, 
however,  to  think  it  undesirable  that  the  persons  employed  on 
thgir  works  should  have  any  knowledge  of  science,  as  it  rendered 
them  less  likely  to  follow  implicitly  the  instructions  given  them. 
I  think,  however,  this  must  be  a  mistake.  Chemistry  is  taught 
practically  in  one  or  two  schools,  and  in  one  it  was  taught 
practically  and  apparently  efEciently  for  a  charge  of  1/.  a  year, 
which  I  was  told  covered  all  expenses.  It  seems  generally  con- 
sidered, however,  too  expensive  to  be  introduced  into  ordinary 
schools,  and  it  is  impossible  for  it  to  be  so  where  the  number  of 
boys  is  small. 

History  and  Geography  receive  a  good  deal  of  attention  in  the 
lower  schools  :  in  the  grammar  schools  there  is  often  but  little  time 
allowed  for  them.  I  think  there  is  usually  too  little  attention 
•paid  to  the  constitutional  part  of  our  history,  or  to  the  lives  of 
scientific  and  literary  men.  Very  few  of  the  boys  in  the  schools  I 
examined  viva  voce  knew  anything  of  Lord  Bacon,  and  their  only 
acquaintance  with  the  Magna  Charta  for  the  most  part  was  that  it 
was  the  Charter  of  English  liberties ;  but  why,  they  could  not  tell. 
In  some  schools,  however,  history  is  well  taught.  A  difficulty 
arises  in  the  study  of  geography  in  classifying  boys :  a  class  which 
one  year  has  been  learning  the  geography  of  England  will  the 
next  year  go  on  with  that  of  Europe,  and  the  third  year  perhaps 
with  that  of  America.  A  new  boy  coming  the  second  or  third 
year,  who  knows  but  little  geography,  may  thus  learn  the  geography 
of  America  before  he  knows  that  of  his  own  country.  This  diffi- 
culty is  got  over  in  some  schools  by  giving  each  boy  a  special 
lesson  of  his  own  as  well  as  a  class  lesson,  and  sometimes  in  other 
ways,  but  the  difficulty  seems  to  be  inherent  in  the  subject.  The 
lessons  in  geography  are  I  believe  usually  said,  viva,  voce,  and  the 
results  of  this  are  apparent  in  the  examination,  from  the  fact  that 
few  boys  know  how  to  spell  correctly  the  names  of  places,  or  even 
geographical  terms,  though  they  write  words  which  have  a  similar 
sound.  To  prevent  this,  I  think  it  would  be  desirable  that  lessons 
in  geography  should  be  more  frequently  written  out.. 

English  Grammar  is  now  taught  in  all  except  one  or  two  of  the  old 
grammar  schools,  and  the  importance  of  the  study  of  English  as  a 
part  of  education  is  being  increasingly  recognized.  In  one  gram- 
mar school  in  which  it  had  been  recently  introduced,  the  master 
told  me  that  he  found  the  subject  of  j  great  value,  not  only  for  its 
own  sake,  but  as  assisting  the  boys  in  the  study  of  Latin.  The 
inability  that  is  shown  in  my  examination  to  parse  an  English 
sentence  proves,  I  think,  the  necessity  of  still  further  teaching, 
and  shows  that  the  study  of  Latin  grammar  is  not  alone  sufficient. 
In  some  of  the  classical  schools  the  attention  paid  to  the,  English 
in  the  exercises  of  translation  sent  up  by  the  boys  is  considered  the 
chief  means  of  teaching  English,  and  takes  the  place  of  any  special 
^tudy  of  English  grammar.  It  would  be  well  if  more  attention  were 
paid  in  all  schools  both  to  the  English  and  the  writing  of  exercises 


Mr,  Bompas^s  Report.  23 

sent  up  in  other  subjects.  Various  grammars  are  used,  but  meet 
schools  use  either  Lennie's,  or  Allen  and  Cornwall's  for  the  lower, 
and  Morell's  for  the  upper  classes.  A  good  deal  of  attention  is  paid 
to  Morell's  System  of  Analysis  in  some  of  the  higher  schools. 

English  literature  seems  seldom  to  be  made  a  distinct  branch  of 
study. 

Musio  is,  I  think,  taught  more  than  formerly,  though  still  only 
to  a  very  limited  extent.  In  some  schools  it  is  taught  out  of 
school  hours,  a  band  being  formed  among  the  boys  as  one  of  their 
recreations.  I  shall  have  to  treat  more  at  length  on  the  subject 
of  music  when  speaking  of  girls'  schools,  and  shall  have  then  to 
point  out  the  disadvantages  of  instrumental  music  as  a  general 
branch  of  education. 

Drawing.  I  was  surprised  to  find  how  very  generally  drawing 
was  taught,  and  it  will  be  seen  that  in  this  respect  it  is  next  to 
Latin,  far  more  boys  learning  it  than  learn  either  Greek,  French, 
or  mathematics  (excluding  arithmetic).  In  some  schools  it  is 
taught  to  all  the  boys  as  a  part  of  the  necessary  school  work,  a 
given  time  being  set  apart  during  which  all  the  boys  draw.  It 
is  the  more  remarkable  that  it  is  so  generally  learnt,  because  it  is 
usually  charged  as  an  extra,  as  much  so  as  French.  It  seems  to  be 
thought  highly  of  as  a  branch  of  education  both  by  parents  and 
masters,  and  I  think  it  is  likely  to  become  even  more  general. 
Various  kinds  of  drawing  are  taught,  but  principally  mechanical 
drawing,  and  freehand  drawing  from  the  flat.  Several  of  the 
masters  have  complained  to  me  that  the  parents  insist,  or  at  least 
expect,  that  their  sons  shall  bring  home  at  the  end  of  the  half- 
year  drawings  that  will  look  pretty,  and  that  they  cannot  there- 
fore teach  them  in  a  really  scientific  manner.  The  necessity  of 
pleasing  parents  in  such  things,  and  making  the  result  of  the 
teaching  apparent  to  them,  is  certainly  one  of  the  difficulties  of 
education  at  the  present  time,  and  tends  to  make  it  superficial ; 
it  might  perhaps  be  partially  met,  as  will  be  suggested  hereafter  by 
a  system  of  examinations. 

Table  9  is  taken  from  the  answers  received  from  schools  Occupation  of 
respecting  the  profession  or  occupation  of  the  parents  of  the  ^  parents^of 
pupils.  The  classification  is  necessarily  a  rough  one,  but  will 
serve  to  show  the  nature  of  the  schools  in  my  district.  It  will  be 
observed  that  the  social  position  of  the  boarders  is  almost 
invariably  higher  than  that  of  the  day  scholars,  and  that  in 
grammar  schools  there  is  usually  a  greater  number  of  boys  of 
diflferent  classes  than  in  any  others.  The  lower  class  of  boys  are 
attracted  to  them,  either  by  free  admissions,  or  at  least  a  lower  rate 
of  charge  than  would  be  possible  if  it  were  not  for  the  endowments. 
The  higher  class  of  boys  are  attracted  partly  by  the  name  of  the 
school,  partly  by  the  exhibitions,  and  partly  by  the  abilities  of  the 
masters,  who  are  induced  by  the  endowments  to  settle  in  them. 


24 


Salaries  of 

assistant 

masters. 


Superiority  of 

trained 

masters. 


Schdols  Inquiry  Commission. 
Table  9. 


BOAEDEES.       , 

DAT  SCHOLAES. 

Sons  of 
S         Erofesional 
Men. 

S=3 

J 
Zt 

o  pi 
CO  o 

1 

1 

.11 

5 

m        ^ 

10 

4 

.5 

6 

a 

%    ' 

8 

4 

2 

20 

5 

2 

4 

6 

2     1       7 

1 

1      4 

9 

10 

7 

2 

1      j     10 

a    :-, 

8 

4 

3 

7 

5 

'       8     i 

Average 

8 

6 

1 

41 

2t     i     1*     1   lOi 

H 

2    ,    1 

O 

3 

1 

1 

6 

11 

i 

i       3 

sea     - 

13 

2 

3 

4 

9     j        1 

4 

■§160      3 

14 

3 

4 

6 

i 

5 

4 

« 

1 

1 

11   ; 

8 

1-      5 

u 

I 
1 

1 
1 

Average 

8^ 

H 

2 

i!     3i 

94     i       1     i     3J     i 

3^  on 

S  S 

O    0) 

O    fcD 
02    g 


Averai^e  i 


6 

14 

1     20 

5 
2i 

15 

1* 

H 

12 

The  salaries  of  the  assistant  masters  are  for  the  most  part  very- 
small,  of  eighteen  private  schools  from  which  I  have  complete 
returns  (the  endowed  schools  make  no  return  on  this  point)  ten 
have  no  assistant  masters,  and  at  the  other  eight  schools  there  are 
sixteen  assistant  masters,  whose  salaries  are  as  follows : — one  70/. 
one  601,  two  50L,  five  40/.,  one  35/.,  two  30/.,  one  25/.,  three 
20/.,  with  in  each  case,  board  and  lodging ;  the  average,  therefore, 
being  .38/.  2s.  6d.  Only  a  few  of  these  are  classical  masters,  and 
they  are  the  best  paid.  I  am  told  that  the  salaries  of  good  assis- 
tants are,  however,  increasing.  The  general  opinion  among  the 
head-masters  of  schools  seems  to  be  that  masters  who  haveT)een 
trained  at  one  of  the  Government  training  colleges  are  most  effi- 
cient teachers  of  English  grammar  and  history,  geography,  &c., 
more  so  than  even  graduates  of  either  of  the  Universities.  This  is 
a  striking  proof  of  the  need  there  is  that  a  master  should  know  how 


Mr.  Bompas's  Report,  25 

to  teach  and  how  to  maintain  discipline,  and  not  merely  possess 
a  knowledge  of  the  subject  to  be  taught,  and  is  a  proof  also  that  it 
is  possible  to  learn  how  to  teach.  It  appears  to  me  that  one  of  the 
great  deficiencies  in  our  present  school  system  is  the  absence  of 
any  special  training  for  the  masters  of  our  middle-class  schools. 
Those  who  devote  themselves  to  tuition  are  not  articled  to  some 
good  master,  or  in  any  way  taught  the  special  knowledge  required 
in  their  profession,  as  is  the  case  in  almost  all  other  employments, 
but  are  left  to  gather  up  the  knowledge  of  the  best  mode  of  per- 
forming their  duties  from  their  own  personal  experience.  This 
no  doubt  saves  them  from  expense  at  the  commencement  of  their 
career,  but  it  may  account  in  some  degree  for  the  small  salaries 
they  receive,  and  the  small  success  that  often  accompanies  their 
teaching.  This,  however,  is  not  the  place  to  suggest  remedies 
for  this  evil. 

With  respect  to  the  desirability  of  schools  being  examined  and  Examination 
publicly  reported  on,  there  is  not  much  difference  of  opinion.  °fs<=''°°ls. 
Out  of  27  answers  that  I  have  received  to  the  question  asked 
by  the  Commission  on  this  subject,  18  are  favourable;  some  of 
them  being  expressed  most  strongly,  and  only  two  are  distinctly 
opposed  to  it,  both  of  them  from  schools  in  which  an  investigation 
is  much  needed.  In  the  remaining  cases  the  masters  do  not  see 
any  particular  advantage  in  it,  or  feel  unable  to  give  a  decided 
opinion.    The  advantage  of  an  examination  appears  to  be  threefold — 

First,  it  enables  the  parents  of  the  pupils  to  select  the  best  Advantages  of 

schools.     This  is  only  partially  the  case,  because  it  can  afford  but    ~ "' 

very  small  indication  of  the  moral  influence  and  training  of  the 
school,  which,  after  all,  is  the  most  important  consideration.  The 
parents  are,  however,  for  the  most  part  better  able  to  judge  of  that 
than  of  the  actual  progress  made  by  their  boys  in  their  studies, 
for  they  are  often  unacquainted  with  the  subjects  taught,  and 
almost  always  have  partially  forgotten  them  ;  they  cannot,  there- 
fore, apply  any  efficient  test  of  their  sons'  proficiency  in  them,  and 
must  leave  it  to  the  master.  I  believe  that  a  really  good  school 
usually  increases,  and  an  inferior  one  fails  even  now  ;  but  I  think 
this  is  by  no  means  always  the  case,  and  that  any  means  which 
would  throw  light  on  the  practical  working  of  schools  would  be 
considered  by  most  parents  a  great  boon. 

Secondly,  it  acts  as  an  incentive  to  the  masters,  and  rewards 
those  who  are  really  efficient.  In  the  case  of  some  mastei's  such 
an  incentive  is  greatly  needed,  and  in  the  case  of  most  it  would 
be  beneficial,  while  all  probably  would  be  glad  to  see  some 
tangible  result  of  their  labours.  They  are  at  present  greatly 
tempted  to  teach  mainly  such  subjects  as  can  be  appreciated  by 
the  parents,  and  to  teach  those  subjects  in  a  way  which  will 
produce  the  most  visible  results.  This  temptation  would  be  done 
away  if  they  knew  that  the  result  of  their  teaching  was  to  be 
tested  by  men  really  versed  in  the  subjects  instead  of  by  the 
parents  only. 

Thirdly,  it  acts  as  an  incentive  to  the  boys,  and  puts  in  the 
hands  of  the  masters  a  means  of  encouraging  and  spurring  on  their 


an  examina- 
tion. 


26  Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 

pupils  which  might  in  many  cases  go  far  to  replace  punishments. 
It  would  give  them,  too,  a  motive  for  acquiring  a  real  and  thorough 
knowledge  of  the  subjects  they  learn,  instead  of  such  a  smatter- 
ing as  might  please  a  superficial  observer. 
Ways  in  which      At  present  the  want  is  met  in  various  ways.     The  larger  schools 
this  want  is       Jq  gome  instances  are  examined  by  examiners  from  Oxford    or 
now  met.  Cambridge,  or  through  the  College  of  Preceptors.     The  expense 

of  the  former  is  too  great  to  be  incurred  except  by  the  highest 
class  of  schools,  while  the  latter  does  not  appear  to  be  generally 
popular,  though  I  am  not  cerjfiin  of  the  reason.  I  believe, 
however,  the  College  of  Preceptors  has  not  such  a  standing  in 
public  estimation  as  to  make  masters  seek  its  certificates.  In  the 
smaller  schools  the  masters  either  examine  their  pupils  themselves, 
or  ask  some  neighbouring  gentleman  to  examine  them.  Both  these 
plans  are  unsatisfactory.  If  the  master  examines,  it  is  no  incen- 
tive to  himself,  and  affords  no  guarantee  to  the  parent,  and  the 
influence  on  the  boys  is  not  wholly  satisfactory,  for  if  prizes  are 
not  given  they  care  little  for  the  result,  and  if  prizes  are  given  the 
master  is  apt  to  be  accused  of  favouritism,  and  jealousy  springs  up. 
This  latter  is  so  diflBcult  to  prevent,  that  in  several  schools  prize 
giving  has  been  given  up  in  consequence.  If  a  friend  examines 
he  is  seldom  really  competent  for  a  duty  which  requires  much 
more  than  a  mere  knowledge  of  the  subject,  and  if  he  is,  he  is  pre- 
judiced in  favour  of  his  friend,  and  the  results  of  the  examination, 
therefore,  cannot  be  relied  on,  even  if  they  are  not  purposely 
one-sided.  The  result  of  this  is  not  only  that  no  dependence  can 
be  placed  on  such  reports,  but  that  if  any  school  is  carefully 
examined,  and  the  report  fairly  states  the  defects  which  are  sure 
to  exist,  it  is  in  danger  of  being  considered  worse  than  other 
schools  on  account  of  its  honesty.  It  is  these  smaller  schools 
which  most  need  an  examination  on  all  the  grounds  I  have 
mentioned  above,  and  they  at  present  have  no  means  of  obtaining 
one. 
The  Oxford  An  attempt  has  been  made  to  supply  the  want  by  the  Oxford 

and  Cambridge  and  Cambridge  Local  Examinations.     I  have  inquired  carefully 
Examinatious.    ^°*°  ^"^^  working  of  these,  and  I  believe  that  on  the  whole  they 
are  very  beneficial.     The  objection  has  been  urged  against  them 
that  they  lead  masters  to  give  special  attention  to  some  boys  and 
to  neglect  others.     I  believe  that  in  some  schools  this  is  so  to  a 
limited  extent.     I  think,  however,  the  evil  is  not  so  great  as  some 
have  supposed,  and  that  the  good  gained  by  the  encouragement 
given  both  to  masters  and  pupils  exceeds  the  evil.  It  does,  however, 
increase  the  temptation  which  all  masters  must  feel  to  help  on  the 
Insufficiency  of  clcver  boys  to  the  neglect  of  the  more  backward  ones.     These 
these.  examinations,  however,  do   not   at   all    supply  the  want  I  have 

mentioned,  for,  first,  they  do  not  at  all  affect  the  lower  middle- 
class  schools :  when  boys  leave  school  at  14  it  is  in  vain  for  the 
master  to  hope  that  he_  can  fit  them  for  the  local  examinations. 
Secondly,  they  do  not  influence  or  affect  any  but  the  higher  classes 
in  any  schools :  the  lower  boys,  who  most  need  an  inducement  to 
work,  are  not  affected  at  all.    Thirdly,  it  is  a  very  uncertain  test  of 


Mrt  Bomfais  Report  27 

the  work  of  a  school,  because  the  number  of  boys  who  go  up  is 
smallj  and  depends  not  only  on  the  ability  of  the  boys  to  pass  the 
examinations,  but  upon  the  wishes  of  the  parents  and  their  wil- 
lingness to  pay  the  necessary  expense.  This  latter  is  the  great 
difficulty ;  very  many  parents  are  unwilling  to  pay  the  cost  of 
their  sons  going  to  one  of  the  local  centres  and  residing  there 
during  the  examination.  Several  masters  have  told  me  that  unless 
they  are  prepared  to  pay  that  expense  themselves  they  cannot 
persuade  their  pupils  to  go  up ;  and  I  have  heard  of  schools  in 
which  the  masters  do  pay  all  the  ^xpenses,  considering  it  a  good 
investment  as  a  means  of  advertising  their  school. 

There  seems,  therefore,  still  to  be  required  a  systematic  ex-  Modes  of 
amination  of  schools  as  a  whole.  Almost  every  possible  mode  of  selecting 
appointing  examiners  has  been  suggested  by  different  masters —  examiners, 
as  a  rule  the  lower  schools  say  by  Grovernment,  the  upper  schools 
say  by  the  Universities.  Some  think  they  should  be  elected  by 
the  masters  of  schools  as  a  body ;  and  one  has  suggested  that  they 
should  be  selected  by  the  parents.  I  think  the  parents,  at  any  rate 
where  they  belong  to  the  lower  middle-class  would,  as  a  rule, 
prefer  the  examination  being  conducted  by  Government.  It  is 
probable  that  in  some  cases  the  parents  would  object  to  the 
examination  altogether,  as  I  have  been  told  by  several  masters  and 
mistresses  that  the  parents  objected  to  their  children  taking  part  in 
my  examination.  I  think,  however,  this  objection  arises  from  a 
misapprehension,  and  would  cease  if  the  examinations  were  once 
established.  It  applies,  too,  more  to  girls  than  boys.  All  the 
masters  agree  that  the  examination  should  be  voluntary,  and 
though  they  would,  I  think,  be  willing  to  contribute  something 
they  would  not — at  any  rate  in  all  cases — be  willing  or  able  to 
contribute  a  sufficient  sum  to  cover  all  the  expenses. 

It  was  partly  with  a  view  to  test  the  possibility  of  such  an  Reasons  for 
examination  by  written  papers  of  whole  schools  that  I  adopted  the  examining  the 
mode  which  I  did  of  examining  the  schools  in  my  district.    It  was,  ^^^^n  papers 
however,  mainly  for  the  following  reasons  : — 1st,  I  found  it  diffi- 
cult for  want  of  time  to  examine  more  than  a  part  of  a  school 
viva  voce  in  one  day ;  2ndly,  I  felt  that  it  would  be  difficult  to  keep 
the  same  standard  before  my  mind  in  going  from  school  to  school ; 
3rdly,  1  felt  that  any  opinion  I  should  express  as  the  result  of  such 
an    examination   could    have    only   the   uncertain   value   always 
attaching  to  an  opinion  while  the  results  of  a  written  examination 
could  be  put  In  the  form  of  statistics,  and  would  speak  for  them- 
selves. 

The  plan  I  adopted  was  as  follows.     I  prepared  a  paper  of  Mode  of  con- 
questions   in   dictation,   English    grammar,  geography,    history,  ducting  the 
French,  and  arithmetic  to  set  inthe  morning,  and  two  papers    to  examination. 
be  set  together  in  the  afternoon,  including  questions  in  Greek, 
Latin,  German;  modern  history,  algebra,  Euclid,   book-keeping, 
mensuration,  natural  philosophy,  and  natural  science,  the  list  of 
subjects  being  taken  from  that  given  in  form  B  of  the  papers  of 
questions  sent  to  private  schools.    These  papers  are  given  in  the 
Appendix.  I  did  not,  as  will  be  seen,  set  any  questions  in  religious 


Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 


knowledge.  This  was  partly  because  I  felt  that  it  would  be  diflS- 
cult  to  set  questions  which  should  test  fairly  schools  in  which  such 
very  different  religious  teaching  took  place,  but  mainly  because  I 
thought  it  objectionable  to  mix  up  such  questions  with  those  in 
other  subjects,  and  I  could  not  for  want  of  time  give  a  separate 
paper  to  them.  I  allowed  three  hours  in  the  morning  and  three 
hours  in  the  afternoon  to  answer  these  papers,  and  in  practice 
I  found  that  the  examination  never  occupied  the  whole  time. 
None  of  the  questions,  therefore,  were  left  unanswered  from 
want  of  time.  As  it  was  necessary  to  compress  so  many  sub- 
jects into  so  short  a  time,  I  was  compelled  to  ask  only  questions 
admitting  of  short  answers,  which  will  account  for  some  of  the 
questions  that  I  have  set.  It  will  be  seen  that  in  each  subject  I 
set  a  very  easy  question,  and  then  others  gradually  increasing  in 
difficulty.  The  younger  children  thus  had  an  opportunity  of 
answering  the  first  ones,  while  the  elder  pupils  took  but  a  little 
while  in  answering  those,  and  were  then  tested  by  the  harder  ones 
JMumber  of  which  succeeded. '  I  examined  in  all  1,485  boys  belonging  to  39 
boys  exammed.  different  schools.  In  each  case  I  asked  leave  to  examine  all  the 
boys  in  the  school  who  could  write  an  intelligible  answer  to  a 
question,  and  in  most  cases  I  did  so,  though  in  some  instances  a 
few  of  the  younger  boys  were  not  present,  though  old  enough  to 
write,  and  a  few  of  the  more  backward  elder  boys  were  also 
absent.  The  number  of  boys  returned  as  belonging  to  the  3? 
schools  is  1,887.  In  some  of  the  increasing  schools  the  number  of 
boys  I  examined  was  greater  than  that  returned  as  belonging  to 
the  school.  At  Swansea,  Cardiff,  Hereford,  and  Chester,  the 
schools  met  in  a  central  building  for  the  purpose  of  examination. 
At  other  towns  I  examined  the  schools  in  their  own  schoolrooms, 
and  if  there  was  more  than  one  school  to  be  examined,  asked  some 
gentlemen  to  act  as  my  deputies  to  superintend  the  examinations  in 
those  schools  at  which  I  could  not  be  present  myself. 

In  the  towns  in  which  the  different  schools  met  I  found  no 
difficulty  in  obtaining  suitable  rooms  for  the  examination  of  the 
schools,  nor  in  obtaining  the  necessary  tables  and  other  appliances 
— thanks  to  the  very  kind  assistance  I  received  on  all  hands — and  I 
am  strongly  of  opinion  that  an  examination  of  several  schools 
together  out  of  their  own  schoolrooms  is  the  most  satisfactory  to 
all  parties. 

The  result  of  my  examinations  seems  to  me  to  show  that 
there  is  no  difficulty  in  examining  whole  schools  instead  of 
only  selected  boys  presenting  themselves  at  some  central  spot.  I 
found  it  best  that  the  masters  should  be  present,  both  that  they 
might  be  satisfied  that  all  was  conducted  fairly,  and  because  their 
presence  formed  a  check  upon  their  boys  and  rendered  it  easier 
to  maintain  order.  There  was  in  the  present  case  no  inducement 
to  the  masters  to  aid  their  boys  or  to  endeavour  to  obtain  sur- 
reptitiously a  knowledge  of  the  papers,  because  the  results  of  the 
examination  of  particular  schools  were  not  to  be  made  known.  In 
the  case  of  an  annual  examination  in  which  there  would  be  a 
report  on  each  school^  some  further  precautions  would  have  to  be 
taken  upon  which  it  is  unnecessary  to  enter  here. 


Possibility  of 
obtaining 
rooms  for 
central 
examinations. 


Mr.  Bompas's  Report.  :i9 

It  is  hardly  necessary  to  say  that  the  results  of  such  an  exaraina-  Degree  iu 
tlon  cannot  be  considered  as  minutely  accurate.  A  s.  it  was  not  to  be  which  the 
a  competition  between  the  different  schools,  and  was  in  all  cases  a  reUe/o™.^^ 
voluntary  act  of  courtesy  on  the  part  of  the  masters,  I  imposed 
no  more  restrictions  than  I  thought  necessary  for  the  purpose 
of  obtaining  a  substantial  accuracy ;  there  was  iu  some  schools 
a  good  deal  of  copying,  which  may  tend  to  make  the  results  appear 
too  favourable,  on  the  other  hand,  many  of  the  boys  had  never 
been  in  an  examination  before,  and  did  not  show  half  the  knowledge 
they  possessed.  Again,  the  questions  being  necessarily  such  as 
admitted  of  short  answers,  many  of  the  latter  are  only  guesses, 
and  as  I  have  not  taken  off  marks  for  mistakes  in  marking  the 
questions,  this  will  make  some  cf  the  subjects — such  as  botany  and 
natural  philosophy — appear  better  known  than  is  really  the  case.  I 
believe  that  all  these  uncertainties  might  be  obviated  without 
difficulty  in  an  annual  examination.  I  should  have  been  able  to 
lessen  them  to  a  considerable  extent  myself  if  I  had  had  at  the 
commencement  the  experience  I  now  possess.  The  results  of  the 
examination,  however,  may,  I  think,  be  trusted  as  substantially 
accurate,  and  wiU  give  a  fair  idea  of  the  knowledge  possessed  by 
boys  at  different  ages  and  of  the  education  actually  given  by 
different  classes  of  schools. 

To  persons  unaccustomed  to  examinations  the  results  may  seem  Reasons  for 
small,  and  undoubtedly  in  some  schools  and  on  some  subjects  they  requite, 
are  so.  It  is,  however,  I  need  hardly  say,  more  difficult  to  answer  a 
sei'ies  of  questioiis  in  an  examination  than  it  would  appear  to  be  to 
anyone  who  has  not  tried.  It  must  be  remembered,  also,  that  the 
examination  took  place  in  the  middle  of  a  quarter,  and  without 
any  special  preparation  on  the  part  of  the  schools.  Much  better 
results  would  be  no  doubt  obtained  by  an  examination  held  at  the 
end  of  the  half-year,  and  of  which  the  schools  had  due  notice. 
Much  allowance  also  must  be  made  for  the  fact  that  it  was  boys, 
not  men  who  were  examined;  and  boys,  especially  when  young, 
are  unable  to  produce  at  will  the  knowledge  they  really  possess. 
I  think,  however,  the  results  do  show,  that  boys,  unless  excep- 
tionally clever,  cannot  be  taught  in  the  limited  time  at  which 
they  are  at  school  so  much  as  is  usually  supposed.  That  it  is  to  a 
great  extent  this  fact,  and  not  a  deficiency  in  the  teaching  which 
prevents  the  results  being  more  satisfactory,  is  shown  by  the  fact 
that  they  are  the  same  in  all  schools.  There  are  several  school.'* 
in  my  district  carefully  taught  by  able  and  experienced  men,  but 
the  results,  though  certainly  better  than  those  obtained  at  cheaper 
schools,  are  not  so  to  any  great  extent.  On  tlie  other  hand,  in 
some  of  the  schools  in  which  the  master  Avas  really  incompetent, 
the  difference  is  marked.  In  judging  of  the  results  fairly,  it  is 
necessary,  also  to  take  account  of  the  early  training  of  the  boys 
and  the  difficulties  the  masters  have  to  contend  against  from  their 
irregular  attendance  :  these  hindrances  are  greater  in  my  district 
than  they  would  be  in  some  parts  of  England  or  in  more  expensive 
and  high-class  schools. 

The  papers  which  I  set,  with  the  number  of  marks  I  gave  for 
each  question,  are  to  be  found  in  Appendix  A. 


30 


Schools  Inquiry  Corfimimon. 


Number  pf 
marks  giTen 
for  eapji 
subject. 

The  marks  allotted 

Dictation 
English  Grammar 
Geography    - 
English  History 
French 

Arithmetic    - 

Writing 

to  the  different  subjects  were— 


Ages  of  the 
boys  examined. 


150 

150 
50 
50 

100 
50 
50 

100 
40 
50 

120 
90 


Total  morning  paper  600        Total  afternoon  papers  1,000 

Before  giving  the  results  of  the  examination  I  shall  give  a  few 
tables  of  the  ages,  &c-,  of  the  boys  examined,  as  the  number  of 
schools  examined  was  larger  than  that  of  those  who  answered  the 
questions  sent  by  the  Commissioners,  and  such  Tables  will,  there- 
fore, be  useful  for  purposes  of  comparison  with  those  given  above. 

I  examined  in  all  1,485  boys  and  their  ages  are  given  in  the 
following  Table : — 

Table  10. 


50 

Latin 

100 

Greek 

100 

German 

100 

Modem  History 

100 

Algebra 

100 

Trigonometry 

50 

Conic  Sections 

Euclid 

Mensuration 

Book-keeping 

Natural  Philosophy 

Natural  Science 

Ages       -         A 

20 

warcls 

18 

18 

17 

16 

16 

U 

13 

12 

11 

10 

S 

8 

7 

Total. 

Glamorganshire 

23 

r. 

8 

21 

17 

68 

78 

117 

lOS 

102 

76 

42 

le 

3 

663 

DeuWehshire     - 
FlintsSire 

1 

2 

8 

10 

27 

S9 

»1 

24 

17 

11 

4 

i 

1 

177 

1 

- 

- 

2 

7 

16 

35 

22 

13 

12 

s 

1 

— 

112 

le- 

- 

~ 

a 

S 

4 

» 

10 

8 

3 

1 

f^ 

=- 

42 

1 

1 

2 

8 

16 

28 

50 

52 

41 

33 

26 

13 

4 

- 

%'li, 

Chester  - 

- 

- 

- 

2 

1 

14 

26 

31 

30 

17 

10 

3 

1 

— 

133 

Monmouth 

- 

- 

- 

- 

4 

11 

16 

2« 

9 

9 

111 

3 

- 

- 

83 

Totals 

26 

7 

12 

39 

62 

150 

228 

295 

239 

199 

148 

69 

18 

4 

i,4as 

Most  of  the  older  pupils  are  of  the  class  above  referred  to  who 
come  to  school  for  a  short  time  when  young  men  to  improve  them- 
selves. Thus,  46  out  of  the  83  pupils  above  16  (including  all 
those  above  20)  had  come  to  the  school  since  they  were  16,  The 
number  of  boys  who  receive  a  continuous  education  continuing 
after  they  are  17  is  comparatively  small. 

At  schools  charging  one  guinea  a  quarter  or  less,  the  boys, 
excluding  the  younjg  men,  are  younger  than  in  the  more  expensive 
schools  as  will  be  seen  from  tbe  following  Table : — 


The  age  of  the 

Table  11. 

cheaper  schools        No.  of  hoys  of  the  I 
compared  •with                 age  of           i 

20 

19 

18 

17 

16 

16 

14 

13 

12 1 11 ;  10 

9 

8 

7 

Total. 

that  of  those 

in  the  more         j„  gchools  charging  one 

expensive.              guinea  »  quarter  or 

less       -         -      .    - 
In     schools     charging 

more  than  one  granea 

a  quarter 

10 

15 

1 
6 

1 
11 

6 
34 

8 
48 

31 
120 

62 
165 

89 
206 

71 
166 

66  !  45  j  18 
133    103     51 

5       - 
IS  '    4 

415 
1.070 

Mr.  Bompai's  Jteport. 


31 


It  will  be  seen  that  the  boys  of  15  and  16  form  a  much  smaller 
proportion  of  the  whole  in  the  cheaper  schools.  All  the  boys 
above  16  belong  to  the  class  of  young  men  before  spoken  of.  The 
proportion  of  the  boys  between  12  and  14  to  the  whole  is  almost 
identical. 

With  respect  to  the  time  the  boys  had  remained  at  school,  182 
had  remained  four  years  or  upwards  at  the  school  in  which  they  were 
examined,  only  38  of  whom  were  in  schools  charging  one  guinea  a 
quarter  or  less.  474  had  been  in  the  school  less  than  a  year,  of 
whom  154  were  in  schools  charging  one  guinea  a  quarter  or  less. 

Of  the  1,485  boys  examined  536  were  boarders  and  949  day 
scholars. 

Before  giving  the  number  of  marks  that  have  been  obtained,  it 
may  be  desirable  to  state  generally  the  principle  of  marking  I  have 
adopted.  I  have  given  the  marks  rather  liberally,  taking  off  but 
few  marks  for  a  mistake  if  it  appeared  probable  from  the  answer 
that  the  boy  had  really  learnt  the  subject  or  rule  a  knowledge  of 
which  the  question  was  intended  to  test.  In  the  dictation  I  have 
taken  off  two  marks  for  every  mistake  up  to  15,  and  one  mark  for 
every  additional  mistake.  In  the  first  two  questions  in  geography 
I  have  taken  off  a  mark  for  a  mis-spelling  of  the  name  of  the  town, 
but  I  have  not  taken  notice  of  the  spelling  elsewhere.  In  the  case 
of  the  fourth  and  fifth  questions  in  geography  I  have  only  given 
five  marks,  if  the  answer  to  one  only  was  right,  as  it  is  in  that  case 
usually  the  result  of  a  guess. 

The  following  tables  will  give  the  number  of  boys  learning  the 
different  subjects,  first  divided  according  to  counties,  then  according 
to  ages,  and  lastly,  according  to  the  classes  of  schools.  In  these 
tables  I  have  considered  only  these  boys  as  learning  a  subject  who 
have  obtained  some  marks  in  it.  Many  boys  in  Euclid,  for 
example,  only  attempted  to  answer  the  first  question  (the  definition 
of  an  acute-angled  triangle)  and  did  that  wholly  wrong,  obtaining 
no  marks,  and  are  therefore  not  reckoned,  and  the  Euclid  will 
therefore  appear  rather  less  generally  taught  than  is  professed  in 
the  schools. 

I  have  not  considered  as  learning  Greek  those  who  only  answered 
questions  in  Greek  History. 

Table  12. 


Time  the  boys 
had  remained 
at  school. 


Nranber  of 
boarders  and 
day  scholars. 

Principle  on 
which  the 
marks  have 
been  given. 


g 

'i 

^ 

i 

i 

&0 

1 

6 
u 

.1 

County  or  Town. 

■So 

.a 

i 

w 

si 

1 

1 

■A 

1 

i 

1 

« 

», 

II 

.a 
1 

■3 
1 

1 

1 

1 

o 

N 

1^ 

fi 

Glamorgansliire 

663 

242 

295 

84 

5 

45 

95 

10 

2 

136 

47 

62 

SI 

42 

73 

187 

Denbign  shire 
Flintshire    - 

177 

7S 

128 

36 

- 

as 

82 

1 

- 

68 

2 

« 

15 

14 

30 

Vi 

86 

.s 

S9 

2 

_ 

1 

8 

- 

19 

3 

6 

4 

6 

8 

Montgomeryshire  - 
Herefordshire 

42 

10 

7 

- 

- 

- 

- 

_ 

- 

2 

- 

2 

1 

3 

Wi 

275 

106 

122 

47 

ti 

20 

18 

_ 

- 

40 

S 

27 

10 

17 

W 

67 

Chester 

133 

66 

77 

7 

1 

10 

5 

> 

- 

12 

9 

22 

16 

22 

IS 

60 

Monmouth   - 

83 

4 

25 

12 

- 

1 

13 

2 

- 

f!0 

10 

6' 

2 

6 

3 

3 

Total  ^ 

1,469 

609 

693 

188 

n 

102 

171 

IS 

2 

297 

74 

168 

89 

144 

161 

386 

Number  of  boys 
learning  the 
principal 
subjects  in 
each  county. 


*  The  numbers  for  these  two  sutgeets  are  taiken  from  the  ansrrers  to  the  intro- 
ductory questions  of  the  afternoon  paper. 


32 


Snhools  Inquiry  Commission. 


Number  of  boys 
learning  the 
principal 
subjects,  at 
different  ages. 


Amount  of 
Latin  learnt. 


Table 

13 

Ages. 

k 

1 

1 

g 

s 

i 

i 

o 

o 
1 
1 

i 

1 
1 

1 
1 

j 

1 

i 
1 

•s 

15 
19 

f 

IS  and  above 

13S 

M9 

M 

78 

91 
«7 

52 
34 

7 
S 

24 
17 

53 

4(7 

6 

2 

67 
64 

21 

22 

33 

40 

26 
26 

21 
20 

HI 

62 

225 

10* 

117 

35 

23 

R« 

2 

- 

71 

16 

46 

18 

24 

<i6 

287 

ns 

139 

33 

1 

1R 

20 

- 

- 

62 

11 

30 

18 

18 

2.4 

12 

235 

77 

109 

20 

1 

10 

B 

- 

- 

21 

4 

13 

« 

12 

24 

11 

196 

44 

fi5 

fi 

_ 

« 

3 

- 

- 

8 

- 

4 

4 

6 

14 

TJndor  11 

231 

30 

74 

6 

- 

5 

1 

- 

- 

8 

74 

2 
168 

1 

1,459 

610 

692 

180 

12 

101 

172 

13 

3 

296 

99  !104 

i 

151 

385 

Number  of  boys 
learning  the        "~ 
principal 

subjects  in  '3 

schools  ,a 

charging  ^ 

different  terms.   ". 

o 
S5 


Table  14. 


Schools. 


Classical  grammar 

schools   - 
Schools    charging 

more  than  one 

guinea  per 

quarter  - 
Unsatisfactory 

schools  cliarging 

as  above  - 
Schools    charging 
one  guinea  or  less 
Unsatisfactory 

schools  charging 

as  above - 


C above  14 
(.under  14 

3  above  14 
1  uuder  14 

\  above  14 
1  under  14 

(above  14 
'  under  14 

f above  14 
■)  under  14 


I  have  included  in  the  Table  under  the  head  of  schools  charging 
more  than  a  guinea,  some  of  the  smaller  grammar  schools  which 
charge  only  one  guinea  or  less.  I  have  thought  it  better  to  divide 
the  private  schools  in  order  to  make  a  fairer  comparison  with  the 
classical  grammar  schools,  which  are  all  of  them  old  established 
and  well  managed,  and  should  be  compared,  therefore,  with  the 
better  class  of  semi-classical  schools. 

Very  many  of  those  who  are  included  in  the  above  table  ns 
learning  the  subjects  really  know  very  little  of  them.  Thus  in 
Latin,  taking  as  a  test,  the  correct  answering  of  the  two  following 
questions : — Translate  into  English,  Epistolam  quam  misi  vidit, 
and  translate  into  Latin,  "  He  was  a  good  boy ;"  I  find  the  follow- 
ing result : — 

Table  15. 


Classical  grammar  schools  T  above  13 

"  l."r"ier  13 

Schools  charging  more  than  one  guinea  /  above  13 

a  quarter    -  -  -  -\  under  13 

Schools  charging  one  guinea  a  quarter  f  above  13 

or  less  -  -  -  -"[under  13 


Boys 

learuing 
Latin. 

Boys 
answering 

both 
questions 
correctly. 

130 

76 

106 

12 

269 

84 

121 

9 

32 

6 

16 

3 

Mr,  Bompas's  Report. 
Table  16, 


33 


Column  1. 

Classical 
Grammar 
Schools. 


Column  2. 

Semi-Classical 
Grammar 
Schools, 


Column  3. 

Semi-Classical 
Private  Schools 
having  over  20 
Boarders,  and 
charging  over 
30  guineas. 


Column  4. 


Column  5, 


Semi-Classical  

Private  Schools  a«™;  r^i.^o-^  i 
having  over  20  x&f"";^L*l'"^f 
Pn,r^„.=  o„H    Private  Schools, 


Boarders,  and 

charging  lees 

than  30  guineas 

a  year. 


having  less  than 
20  Boarders. 


Column  6. 

Private 

Day  Schools, 

charging  4 

guineas  a  year 

or  less. 


Column  7. 

Inefficient 
Grammar 
Schools. 


Column  8. 

Inefficient 
Schools  of  class 
j        given  in 
I      Column  3. 


Column  9. 

Inefficient 

Schools  of  class 

given  in 

Column  6. 


Number  of  schools  in  the 
class      -  -  - 

No.  of  boys  in  such]  15 
schools  of  the  ages  1  14 
respectively  -J     1.3 


4 
32 
30 
34 


3 
21 

28 
30 


3 
20 
35 
27 


3 

8 

20 
33 


12 

10 

24 


4 

9 

24 

39 


3 
2 

4 
16 


2 
3 

9 

11 


4 

6 

12 

12 


Average 
Marks 

-Average 

Average 

Average 

Avci-age 

Average 

Average 

Average 

Average 

Subjects. 

Age. 

Marks 

Marks 

Marks 

Slarks 

Marks 

Marks 

Marks 

Marks 

3  a  j? 

obtained  by 
each  Boy. 

obtained  by 

obtained  by 

obtained  by 

obtained  by 

obtained  by 

obtained  by 

obtained  by 

obtained  by 

each  Boy. 

each  Boy. 

each  Boy. 

each  Boy. 

each  Boy. 

each  Boy. 

each  Boy. 

each  Boy 

[• 

15 

35 

31 

30 

28 

32 

29 

36 

33 

27 

50 

Dictation 

14 

33 

26 

29 

25 

32 

26 

32 

31 

20 

13 

32 

26 

27 

28 

28 

24 

27 

32 

23 

100 

English  gram- 

15 
14 

28 

23 

24 

16 

30 

18 

14 

23 

23 

mar 

18 

19 

24 

14 

16 

21 

5 

13 

9 

13 

19 

18 

27 

10 

17 

15 

11 

16 

9 

15 

42 

51 

36 

41 

40 

39 

56 

43 

22 

100 

Geography   -■ 

14 

40 

48 

37 

39 

3b 

34 

40 

40 

21 

. 

13 

39 

38 

39 

43 

29 

33 

33 

47 

17 

100 

English    his- 

15 

35 

34 

26 

35 

40 

16 

18 

20 

20 

tory 

14 

30 

30 

30 

20 

28 

23 

24 

15 

12 

13 

35 

27 

30 

25 

25 

11 

17 

12 

10 

15 

27 

14 

15 

13 

31 

0 

28 

0 

26 

100 

French 

14 

22 

18 

15 

5 

27 

1 

4 

8 

. 

13 

15 

13 

13 

7 

18 

1 

9 

11 

7 

15 

57 

63 

63 

64 

60 

67 

40 

65 

39 

100 

Arithmetic  -• 

14 

49 

50 

60 

49 

50 

66 

40 

42 

23 

. 

13 

41 

42 

46 

48 

50 

44 

36 

35        ' 

23 

15 

'      29 

31 

29 

30 

24 

26 

30 

28 

26 

50 

Writing 

14 

25 

29 

30 

32 

27 

25 

34 

27 

28 

600 

Total  for  the  ' 

13 
15 

25 

29 

29 

31 

26 

29 

30 

26 

26 

253 

248 

224 

227 

258 

195 

233 

211 

183 

morning 

14 

219 

220 

224 

183 

216 

201 

194 

172 

120 

paper 
Latin            -  i 

13 

15 

207 

194 

212 

191 

193 

158 

163 

180 

114 

43 

33 

13 

12 

24 

0 

0 

1 

1 

150 

14 

42 

28 

14 

10 

12 

4 

1 

3 

0 

I 

13 

32 

19 

22 

6 

10 

1 

5 

5 

0 

15 

22 

3 

0 

0 

3 

0 

0 

0 

0 

150 

Greek 

14 

15 

3 

1 

2 

2 

2 

0 

0 

0 

13 

12 

2 

2 

1 

0 

0 

0 

0 

1 

15 

11 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

50 

German 

14 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

13 

0 

1 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

50 

Modem   his- 

15 

2 

4 

1 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

tory 

14 

2 

2 

1 

0 

0 

2 

0 

1 

0 

13 

3 

2 

0 

0 

0 

0 

1 

0 

0 

15 

17 

16 

17 

0 

15 

U 

0 

0 

0 

100 

Algebra 

14 

8 

4 

9 

2 

2 

6 

0 

0 

0 

13 

4 

4 

5 

1 

5 

2 

0 

0 

0 

50 

Trigono- 

15 

0 

0 

4 

0 

2 

0 

0 

0 

0 

metry 

14 
13 

0 
0 

0 
0 

1 
0 

0 
0 

0 
0 

0 
0 

0 
0 

0 
0 

0 
0 

50 

Conic      Sec- 

15 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

tions 

14 
13 

0 
0 

0 
0 

0 
0 

0 
0 

0 
0 

0 
0 

0 
0 

0 
0 

0 
0 

15 

13 

13 

18 

6 

15 

2 

0 

0 

0 

100 

Euclid 

14 

9 

10 

8 

3 

4 

2 

0 

0 

0 

13 

3 

5 

6 

4 

3 

1 

0 

0 

0 

15 

0 

5 

1 

0 

7 

8 

0 

0 

.     0 

40 

Mensnration-  ■ 

14 

0 

5 

0 

1 

2 

5 

0 

0 

0 

13 

0 

2 

0 

1 

0 

2 

0 

0 

0 

15 

10 

8 

8 

12 

8 

0 

0 

12 

50 

Book-keeping- 

14 

8 

9 

1 

1 

3 

0 

2 

0 

13 

6 

3 

3 

1 

2 

2 

0 

2 

120 

Natural  Phi- 
losophy    - 

15 
14 
13 

5 
7 
3 

6 
2 

1 

2 
2 

1 

0 
2 
1 

0 
6 
0 

0 
0 
0 

7 
0 
2 

2 
0 
2 

90 

Natural 
Science     - 

15 
14 

5 

7 

3 
2 

3 

1 

2 
0 

\ 

0 
0 

0 

1 

0 
0 

1000 

Total     marks 

13 
15 

1 

2 

2 

1 

1 

0 

0 

0 

110 

93 

72 

32 

78 

30 

•  0 

8 

14 

in  the  after-  • 

14 

78 

61 

47 

22 

26 

31 

1 

7 

0 

1600 

noon  papers 
Total   marks 

13 
15 

57 

43 

41 

19 

21 

8 

~ 

1 

5 

363 

341 

296 

•   259 

336 

225 

233 

219 

197 

obtained  - 

14 

297 

281 

271 

205 

242 

232 

195 

179 

120 

13 

264 

237 

253 

210 

214 

166 

170 

187 

119 

1 

Mr.  Bompas's  Report.  '  35 

In  eight  schools  In  which  Latin  was  taught  no  boys  answered  Amount  of 
the  two  correctly.  It  would  seem,  therefore,  that  five-sixths  of  ^""^^"^  learnt, 
the  boys  who  learn  Latin  in  the  lower  middle-class  schools  do  not 
learn  enough  to  be  of  any  value  to  them,  except  as  a  means  of 
training  them  to  habits  of  thought  and  application.  Similarly 
the  amount  of  Euclid  learnt  is  for  the  most  part  very  small.  In 
the  second  question  in  Euclid  I  set  two  propositions.  In  one 
school  out  of  28  boys  learning  Euclid,  19  wrote  out  one  or 
other  of  the  propositions  correctly ;  and  in  seven  other  schools, 
out  of  84  boys  learning  Euclid,  30  wrote  out  one  of  the  proposi- 
tions correctly,  and  eight  others  nearly  so ;  but  in  the  remaining 
16  schools,  out  of  163  boys  learning  Euclid,  only  12  wrote  out 
either  proposition  correctly,  and  only  9  others  wrote  either  of 
them  out  at  all  nearly  so;  yet  in  these  16  schools  are  Included 
some  of  the  best  grammar  schools  and  private  schools  in  my  dis- 
trict. This  would  seem  to  show  either  that  Euclid  cannot  be 
successfully  taught  to  boys,  or  that  the  present  modes  of  teaching 
it  are  unsatisfactory,  and  the  time  allowed  for  It  too  short  to  be 
eiFectual :  I  think  the  latter  must  be  the  main  reason,  though  It 
js  no  doubt  a  difficult  subject  to  teach  young  boys. 

In  order  to  make  any  fair  comparison  of  the  schools  it  will  be 
necessary  to  confine  the  attention  to  boys  of  the  same  age,  and  the 
ages  13,  14,  and  15  will  be  best  for  the  purpose,  as  under  13  there 
is  a  great  element  of  uncertainty  introduced  by  the  Inexperience 
of  the  pupils,  and  above  1 5  there  are  so  few  boys  In  the  schools 
as  to  prevent  the  average  being  a  fair  one. 

By  a  semi-classical  school  I  mean  a  school  in  which  the  boys  Mode  of 
do  not  all  learn  Latin,  and  only  exceptionally  learn  Greek.     None  classifying  the 
of  the  private  schools  in  my  district  which  I  examined  are  really  s''''°°'^- 
classical  schools.     The  schools  in  column  five  contain  usually  three 
or  four  boarders,  and   10  to  30  day  scholars :  they  are  usually 
more  expensive  if  anything  than  the  larger  schools.     It  will  be 
observed  that  there  is  a  very  little  difierence  between  the  gram- 
mar schools  and  private  schools  as  regards  the  morning  paper ;  the 
arithmetic  Is  a  little  better  in  the  private  schools,  and  equally  so 
in  the  cheaper  as  the  dearer  schools.     The  French,  and  in  a  less 
degree,'  the   spelling,   English  grammar,    and    English    history 
become  less  In  the  cheaper  schools.     It  must  be  remembered  that 
the  grammar  schools  spend  much  of  their  time  on  classics,  and 
that  on  the  other  hand  the  boys  remain  longer  at  them  and  are 
better  trained  at  home.     In  the  afternoon  papers  the  deficiency 
of  classics  In  private  schools  and  the  deficiency  in  book-keeping 
and  mensuration  in    the  classical  grammar  schools  is   apparent. 
The  averages  for  the  subjects  In  the  afternoon  papers  give,  how- 
ever, an  imperfect  test  of  the  teaching,  as  a  low  average  arises 
sometimes  from  the  fact  that  few  boys  were  learning  the  subject 
and  sometimes  from  bad  teaching.     In  Table  17,  therefore,  I  have 
given  the  number  of  boys  learning  each  subject,  and  the  average 
marks  obtained  by  such  boys. 


a.  c.  3. 


36 


Schools  Inquiry  Commission, 


•paureijqo 

a8BJt9AV 


•{(oarqng 
en}  9ai[u«3| 

sA)a:j'o'o>i 


tHOtHOOHOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOfflOiHOOHHO® 


a>  n  ^ 


•psmejqo 
eS^JdAy 


cooseaooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 


•joafqng 


.3 

s 


HP3U300'OOOOOHOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO  fh'o  H  O  (H  O  r-t  O 


ill 

Ejrh-CQ 


•ijoaCqtig 


oneoooooooeoiooooooooooooooooooinoooeoo 


OHtflOOOOOOOOiHOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOiHOOOOSe 


-S  orb, 3 


■penre^qo 

S3BJ9Ay 


•i)oafqiig 

9mSdlTLI'B9X 

s&ajb-ojii 


O-^-^OMOOOOOM©-«'^MOOO©OO0«l  ^  M -^  t» -^  «  ©5  ff)  O '*  O  i-4,«  ffl 


•panrefjqo 

93EJ9AV 


■!)09Cqng 

OTIIJ  SU1UJ'B9I 


Oi^eOIMWT-(OOOOOrH«H>OHOOOOO«OH'^Mi-(©ifflW«OrHH'MOr-i 


(4 
Hi 


•peut'B^qo 
aSiMeAV 


in^HOousoooooujor-ieDooooootoocDOiaoiaoooooeooo 


eg  0401      ^i-i 


C'lr-frH        iH  91  r-<  04  <M  <M        91  i-H        r4 


•!}OaCqng 


•*I>OOr-tCS10«OOrHHO!M«OOC>OOeBa-*a)0*)i-|-*C<I»3i-(Oi-r(MOt-  5 


•pani'Bq.qo 


■perqng 

sXoa:  JO  'Oil 


rH  (?<  (M  rH  rH  rH  i-^ 


•patiiuijqo 

9S«J9AY 


OWtflWr-K  tH  tH  IH  IN -^  cq  C-1  CM  N  r-i  Od  W  (M  ffl(M  CM  CQ  N  KS  M  » 


•}09rqns 
9q:}  Sdiiu%9l 
sioajb-o^ 


~^^M»»"3®©r-liniO!MI>lO'3*OOOOOOW«<M»Oia«t*asOO^lOM-a-*r^ 


■^  g  BO 


■p9nre!(qo 

9SBJ9Ay 


■« -*  CQ « r-4  ©q  t-(i-C(Mwmw  CMi-li-C  eqiMSSMMmSSa 


CM  i-l  i-C  IM  IM  (f1  CM  CM  CM  CO  eC  CM 


•!)09fqtis 
9q!^  Suiiu%9t 
Sioa  JO  -Oil 


w  M  S5  S  S  S  "^  "^  °  "=  "^  "  S  *- "*  °  =■  "=■  ="= = S  S  °°  °  ■=  ="° '^  "^  *" '^ '-"=' '-"=' 


•SiCog  JO  aSy 


jHjH5Hj2^SjHiM?Hj2i2?Hj2jHM3iHMj2Sw'°"*"'*'*'^"'^*^'"'^*""'^" 


I?      3 


h^l        O        CJ 


.3 

1 

■e 

o 

w 

% 

g 

B 

§ 

GQ 

3 

g 

1 

1 

s   ^ 


P^  QQ 


n.      !^;      fc 


■loofqng  aqi  JOJ 

iiDAia  sii.rem  imoj, 


»o  lo  lo 


Mr,  Bompas's  Report. 


37 


Table  18  shows  the  actual  totals  for  the  morning  and  afternoon 
papers  of  all  the  schools  examined,  and  will  thus  give  an  idea  of 
the  extent  to  which  the  schools  vary  from  one  another. 


Table 

18. 

Results           : 
oMained  from 

oacVi  nnlinnl. 

Schools. 

i 

Werage  Marks  gained 
on  Morning  Papers. 

4.vera«e  Marks  gained  ^^^';!«^fcH?„^'"'^ 
on  iufernoon  pipers.         f^^Siinltton. 

16 

1* 

18 

16 

14 

IS 

IB 

14 

IS 

1 

237 

235 

230 

140 

90 

66 

377 

325 

296 

2 

260 

248 

201 

126 

98 

63 

386 

346 

254 

Schools. 

S 

279 

.211 

188 

14ff 

72 

43 

426 

283 

231 

'                           ^ 

4 

246 

186 

212 

67     . 

65 

66 

313 

241 

267 

5 

273 

283 

213 

123 

86   . 

-45 

306 

369 

25S 

^ 

6 

261 

24S 

193 

87 

83 

24 

843 

328 

222 

7 

267 

227 

■203 

143 

29 

16 

410 

256 

219 

Semi-Classical 
-  Grammar  Schools. 

8 
9 

192 
233 

133 
•121 

159 
132 

71 

31 

61 

263 
233 

164 
•121 

210 
132 

10 

— 

261 

197 

—  ' 

— 

25 

— 

261 

222 

ii 

— 

•132 

171 

— 

•29 

6 

— 

•161 

177 

-12 

1  — 

HI 

•379 

— 

— 

♦61 

-  — 

111 

■•440 

Proprietary  Schools 

13 
14 

200 
202 

194 
204 

198 
161 

89 

37 

24 
39 

27 
31 

23# 

239 

218  • 
243 

226 
192 

'15 

270 

237 

263 

149 

89 

91 

419 

826 

351                .       ii 

16 

274 

247 

232 

141 

62 

47 

415 

-309 

"279 

17 

285 

287 

193 

101 

71 

10 

886 

353 

203 

18 

206 

254 

216 

51 

69 

64 

267 

323 

270 

Private  Schools  charg- 
ing more  than  one 
"     Guinea  aQuarter  for  " 
Day  Scholars. 

19 
20 
21 
22 

191 

288 
217 
•266 

214 
194 
183 
170 

294 
176 
167 
182 

67 
74 
84 

18 
60 
11 

45 

85 

28 

6 

253 
363 
801 
•266 

232 
254 
194 
170 

339 
210 

196 
188 

23 

184 

173 

174 

12 

11 

12 

196 

184 

186 

24 

22.') 

145 

163 

40 

7 

3 

266 

152 

156 

26 

279 

— 

187 

67 

— 

12 

386 

— 

199 

L26 

— 

— 

186 

— 

- 

13 

— 

— 

199 

1^27 

•244 

265 

187 

— 

43 

4 

•244 

.308 

191 

28 

229 

176 

248 

13 

,8 

41 

242 

183 

289 

29 

203 

178 

177 

64 

37 

28 

257 

210 

200 

80 

266 

147 

138 

27 

— 

— 

293 

147 

188 

'  Private  Schools  charg- 
ing one   Guinea   a 
Quarter  or  less  for 
Day  Scholars. 

31 
32 
33 

34 

162 
*  93 
•122 

•209 

178 

91 

210 

163 
94 
99 

172 

- 

44 

15 

162 
•  93 

•122 

•209 

178 

91 

254 

153 

94 
99 

187 

35 

_ 

145 

139 

— 

— 

3 

— 

145 

142 

36 

85 

— 

124 

4 

— 

22 

89 

— 

146 

37 

— 

— 

223 

— 

— 

11 

— 

— 

234 

• 

1-38 

— 

— 

143 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

148 

*  In  these  schools  there  vraa  only  one  hoy  of  the  age  so  marked,  and  the  numher  cannot  there- 
fore he  safely  taken  as  a  test  of  the  school.  In  No.  9  there  are  no  afternoon  papers,  though  a 
few  of  the  Doys  professed  to  learn  Latin  i  the  examination,  however,  was  not  in  any  way 
satisfactory.  In  No.  15  there  was  a  great  deal  of  copying,  and  the  results  may  therefore  be  rather 
'  higher  than  they  should  he. 

It  may  be  interesting  also  to  see  in  what  schools  the  best  results 
are  produced  in  regard  to  the  first  boys,  and  I  therefore  give  a 

D  2 


38 


Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 


Number  of 
toys  showing 
special 
proficiency. 


Eesnlts  of  the 
examination 
-arranged 
according  to 
<;onnties. 


Inferiority  of 

agricultural 

counties. 


table  showing  the  number  of  boys  who   obtained  half  maiks  ii 
different  classes  of  schools. 


the 


Table  IS 

. 

Class  of  School. 

Percent,  of  boys 
obtaining  half 
marks  in  morn- 
ing paper. 

m 

■stJt 

Ilii 

Per  oont.  of  boys 
obtaining  at  least 
100  marks  in 
afternoon  paper. 

Per  cent,  of  boys; 
obtaining  at  leasi 
200  marks  in 
afternoon  papet. 

Per  cent,  of  boys 
obtaining  at  leas 
300  mark^  in  th 
afternoon  .paper 

1.  Classical  grammar  schools  -          - 

2.  Semi-classical  grammar  schools     - 

5.  PriTate  schools  having  not  less  than  20 

boarders,  and  charging  not  less  than 
80  guineas  a  year    -          -          ",        „" 

4.  Private  schools  having  not  less  than  20 
boarders,  and  charging  less  than  30 
guineas  a  year         ,          -          -          - 

B.  Private  schools  having  less  than  20 
boarders      -          -          -          -          - 

6.  Private  day  schools  charging  not  more 

than  4  guineas  a  year        .          -          - 

7.  Infftcient  grammar  schools 

8.  Ineffi(!ient  schools  of  same  class  as  (8) 
g.  IneCaoient  school  of  same  class  as  6 

173 
110 

160 

96 

75 

102 
18 
50 
54 

19-2 
21-8 

40 

4-8 

14-7 

2-9 
11-1 
2 
1-9 

S-6 
3-6 

4-7 

1-3 

1 

2 

SO  2 
21-8 

18 

5-8 

8 

7-8 
5-5 
4 

14-3 
2-7 

67 

1      - 
1-S 

2 

5.8 
1-8 

1-3 

Total          .... 

827 

13-S 

2-4 

15-4 

6 

1-7 

The  average  number  of  marks  obtained  by  the  boys,  classified 
as  to  counties  is  as  follows : 

'       Table  20. 


Morning 

Afternoon 

Total 

County  of 

=1 

paper. 

paper. 

it 

15 

14 

13 

15 

14 

13 

15 

14 

1 

Glamorgan     - 

16 

256 

219 

187 

95 

54 

28 

351 

273 

215 

Denbigh 

5 

235 

241 

204 

87 

42 

43 

322 

283 

247 

Flint     - 

3 

204 

136 

143 

71 

21 

20 

275 

157 

163 

Hereford 

7 

219 

171 

198 

47 

44 

28 

266 

195 

226 

Chestei-  (city) 

4 

246 

223 

205 

87 

49 

39 

333 

272 

244 

As  I  only  examined  two  schools  in  Montgomeryshire,  and  the 

returns  from  one  are  not  complete,  I  have  thought  it  fairer  net 

to  give  an   average  for  that  county ;  there  are,  in  fact,  very  few 

schools,  as  will  have  been  seen,  in  the  county.     The  results  show, 

as  might  have  been  expected,  that  an  agricultural  population  gives 

a  less  favourable  result  for  the  schools,  Glamorgan  and  Chester 

being  at  the  head  of  the  list.     The  difficulties  experienced  by 

farmers  in  educating  their  children,   and  the    indiiFerence  often 

shewn  by  tljem  on  the  subject,  resulting  perhaps  from  the  action 

ot  these  (hftioulties  on  successive  generations  have  been  already 
remarked  on. 

thefr  Enrfi^rSfbipT^"'^  'Y\  *''"  ^^^7'^^^  learn  Latin  do  best  in 
bear  thif  out  fe'  T^  ^^'^  '""^"^^^  ^^  ^^^  examination  fully 
st;e?lstlitedt\et:itT!!*fSrs:'^  ^^^^  ^^-ols,  whic( 


Mr.  Bompas's  Report. 
Table  21. 


39 


1st  solioo 

. 

2iid  school. 

Ages 

15 

M 

13 

IB 

14 

13 

Marts  obtained  on  morning  paper  by 

Boys  learning  Latin 
Boys  not  learning  Latin 

304 
211 

298 
147 

266 
187 

219 
162 

211 
179 

211 
147 

Advantages  of 
learning  Latin. 


There  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  great  difference  is  owing  to  the 
fact  that  it  is  the  boys  who  are  most  proficient  in  other  subjects 
who  are  selected  to  learn  Latin,,  whether  this  is  the  whole  reason 
it  is  difficult  to  say :  it  may  be  worthy  of  remark,  hov/ever,  that 
applying  the  same  test  to  Euclid  the  results  are  not  so  marked— 
thus  from  the  same  schools  we  get. 

Table  22, 


1st  scliool. 

2iid  school. 

Ages        -                    .... 

15 

14 

13 

15 

14 

13 

Marks  obtained  on  morning  paper  by 

Boys  learning  Euclid 
Boys  not  leanfing  Euclid 

274 
207 

259 

208 

317 
174 

237 
199 

'  251 
182 

274 
173 

It  would  require  statistics  from  many  other  similar  schools  in 
other  parts  of  the  country  before  any  certainty  could  be  arrived 
at,  as  to  the  effect  that  the  study  of  Latin  has  upon  the  power  of 
learning  otlier  languages. 

I  have  been  struck  by  the  deficiency  of  answers  to  the  third  Deficiency  in 
quiestion  in  English  Gra,mmar  and  the  first  question  in  arithmetic.  f^^^^J  ^^^ 
Thus  out  of  1,034  boys  above  12  years  of  age  only  114  obtained 
half  marks  for  the  third  question  in  grammar,  and  47  of  those 
boys  were  in  four  schools  containing  189  pupils.  And  so  out  of 
the  same  number  of  boys  442  failed  to  answer  the  first  question 
in  arithmetic. 

It  v/ould  be  easy  tO'  adduce  examples  of  answers  apparently  Specimens  of 
displaying  the  most  lamentable  ignorance,  and  in  fact  sometimes  erroneous 
doing  so.    I  think,  however,  it  is  a  most  unsafe  test  of  the  state  of  g^use  of 
a  scbool,  as  they  often  arise  from  thoughtlessness  or  nervousness,  and  tbem. 
cannot  be  avoided  even  by  careful  teaching.     I  may  adduce  two 
examples  as  illustrating  this.     In  answer  to  the  fifth  question,  in 
history,  viz.,  "  In  whose  reign  was  the  Petition  of  Rights  passed  ? 
Mention  any  three  of  its  provisions,"  one  boy  put,  "  He  lived  three 
days  with  nothing  to  eat  but  peas."     Upon  inquiry  I  found  that  he 
had  been  reading  the  day  before  the  account  of  the  Duke  of  Mon- 
mouth's sufferings  after  the  battle  of  Sedgemoor,  and  lie  had  evi- 
dently caught  at  the  words  "  provisions  "  and  "  three  "  without 
trying  to  understand  the  question.     Again,  in  one  of  the  girls' 
schools,  a  girl  of  15,  after  looking  at  the  first  question  in  geography, 
and  thinking  a  moment,  said  out  loud,  '■  The  capital  of  Scotland  is 
Ireland.     No,  the  capital  of  Ireland  is  Scotland."     Yet  after  she 


40 


Schools  Inquiry  Commission, 


Importance  of 
inquiring  into 
girls'  schools. 


TJnsatisfactory 
condition  of 
girls'  schools, 
and  its,  reason. 

Motives  of  the 
mistresses  in 
keeping  school 


Pre  quent 
change  of 
mistresses. 


had  become  -less  excited,  she  answered,  not  only  that  question 
but  the  rest  of  the  paper,  very  fairly.  Neither  of  the  schools 
were  particularly  deficient,  and  I  adduce  these  examples  as  show- 
ing the  untrustworthiness  of  single  answers,  however  absurd,  as 
a  test  either  of  the  pupils  or  the  school. 

In  the  previous  pages  I  have  confined  my  attention  almost 
entirely  to  boys'  schools,  but  besides  inquiring  into  them  I  was 
directed  by  my  instructions  to  inquire  also  into  the  schools  for 
girls.  This  inquiry  has  proved  more  important  and  interesting 
than  I  anticipated,  and  is,  in  fact,  even  more  so  in  many  re- 
spects than  that  as  to  the  education  of  boys.  Girls'  schools  are 
more  numerous  than  boys'  schools,  though  the  number  of  pupils  in 
them  appears  to  be  not  quite  so  great,  and  they  have  hitherto 
received  less  attention ;  again,  there  is  less  agreement  of  opinion 
with  respect  to  the  best  subjects  for  the  education  of  girls  than 
there  is  with  respect  to  those  most  suited  for  boys,  and  I 
have  been  led  strongly  to  the  belief  that  an  alteration  in  the 
subjects  now  usually  taught  is  desirable.  The  mistresses  have 
less  opportunities  than  masters  of  learning  the  methods  em- 
ployed at  other  schools,  and  the  general  opinions  that  have  been 
formed  in  relation  to  education,  while  they  are,  as  a  rule,  far  more 
willing  and  anxious  to  receive  suggestions  and  advice  than  the 
masters.  I  think,  too,  that  the  views  of  the  mistresses  are  for  the 
most  part  in  advance  of  those  of  parents  in  relation  to  the  edu- 
cation of  girls,  and  it  is  especially  desirable,  therefore,  that  the 
matter  should  receive  some  degree  of  general  attention,  and  public 
opinion  on  the  subject  be,  if  possible,  improved. 

Girls'  schools,  on  the  whole,  seem  to  be  in  a  less  satisfactory 
condition  than  those  for  boys;  though  I  found  many  in  which 
the  mistresses  were  doing  good  work,  and  the  moral  and  religious 
influence  appeared  to  be  all  that  could  be  desired.  The  reasons 
of  this  unsatisfactory  position  of  girls'  schools  are  various;  it 
is  still  not  unusual  for  ladies  to  open  schools  solely  because 
they  need  some  increase  to  their  income,  without  having  any 
taste  or  aptitude  for  teaching,  while  others  take  pupils  to  give 
themselves  some  occupation,  without  considering  it  the  principal 
object  of  their  lives,  or  throwing  into  it  all  their  energy  as  a  man 
does  into  his  profession.  This  happens  the  oftener  because  of  the 
subjects  which  are  usually  taught  to  girls,  and  the  mode  in  which 
they  are  taught,  neither  being  such  as  to  require  much  real  train- 
ing on  the  part  of  the  mistresses.  There  are  no  doubt  some 
counterbalancing  advantages  in  these  small  schools  kept  by  ladies 
who  seek  to  add  somewhat  to  their  income,  since  they  approach 
more  nearly  to  a  home,  and  allow  of  more  personal  and  individual 
influence  being  exerted  by  the  mistress  over  the  girls  :  the  system 
is  sure,  however,  to  produce  many  unsatisfactory  as  well  as  some 
satisfactory  schools.  Again,  the  mistresses  of  schools  change  much 
oftener  than  the  masters  in  boys'  schools.  The  latter  seldom  open 
a  school  without  intending  to  make  it  the  principal  employment  of 
their  lives,  and  their  marrying,  so  far  from  interfering  with  their 
continuing  to  teach,  is  xisually  almost  necessary  to  the  success  of 


Mr.- Bofnpas's  Report.  41 

Iheir  school.    On  the  contrary,  very  many  young  ladies  open  a 
school  on  finishing  their  own  education,  hardly  intending  to  con- 
tinue it  for  more  than  a  few  years,  and  if  they  marry  they  almost 
invariably  cease  to  teach,  and  the  school  passes  into  other  hands. 
Thus  a  large  number  of  mistresses,  just  when  they  have  acquired 
■the  experience  which  would  make  their  teaching  valuable,  cease  to 
teach,  and  leave  their  schools  to  other  hands,  who  have  to  gather 
up  fresh  experience.  Again,  mistresses  have  no  means  of  acquiring  Absence  of 
that  high  education  which  is  obtained  by  men  at  the  Universities,  ^"Jation^for 
and  which  can  hardly  be  obtained  except  in  a  place  devoted  to  the  mistresses, 
study  of  the  higher  branches  of  knowledge  and  strong  in  the  tra- 
ditions of  successive  bodies  of  teachers.     This  applies,  indeed, 
mainly  to  the  upper  class  of  schools,  the  masters  of  the  lower 
middle-class  boys'  schools  having  seldom  had  a  university  educa- 
tion; but  if  the  upper-class  schools  are  really  well  taught,  the 
result  is  felt  in  other  schools  also.     An  almost  equal  disadvantage  Absence  of    - 
under  which  mistresses  labour  is  the  absence  of  any  examination  examinations 

-  '  ,        *  tor  misrrcsBGs 

by  which  they  can  test  their  own  acquirements  or  evidence  them 
to  others.  The  need  of  such  examinations  is  very  generally  felt, 
and  most  of  the  mistresses  I  have  spoken  to  have  expressed  in  the 
strongest  terms  their  sense  of  the  want  of  them.  The  head  of  a 
school  has  now  no  means  of  ascertaining  the  capacity  of  any 
■governess  to  teach  a  particular  subject  except  her  testimonials, 
which  are  often  given  by  those  who  are  themselves  unfit  to  judge 
of  her  acquirements,  and  has  therefore  to  take  her  on  trial  before 
Bhe  can  form  an  opinion  as  to  her  suitability.  Among  the  gover- 
nesses themselves  I  think  there  is  a  similar  wish  for  some  means 
of  evidencing  the  acquirements  which  they  may  possess;  and  I 
was  told  by  one  young  lady,  who  was  just  opening  a  school,  that 
she  had  gone  to  France  to  finish  her  education,  mainly  in  order 
that  she  might  obtain  one  of  those  certificates  of  fitness  to  teach 
which  can  be  obtained  in  France,  but  not  in  England,  and  that 
she  knew  other  girls  who  were  going  over  to  France  to  be  edu- 
cated for  the  same  reason.  I  can  hardly  suppose  that  this  great 
want  will  be  sutFered  to  continue  much  longer. 

Perhaps  the  chief  obstacle  to  the  satisfactory  education  of  girls  Different 
is  the  different  object  that  appears  to  be  sought  by  it  from  that  "^''^'e'^e^uca^* 
which  is  sought  in  the  education  of  boys.     The  main  object  of  tion  of  girls 
the  education  of  a  boy  is  to  train  his  intellect,  and  to  teach  him  to  and  boys, 
think  and  to  work ;  and  even  when  much  time  is  given  to  those 
subjects  which  will  be  useful  to  him  in  his  future  pursuits — which 
is,  I  think,  increasingly  the  case—  they  are  usually  in  some  degree 
of  an  intellectual  character,  or  taught  in  such  a  way  as  to  effect  the 
above  objects.  In  the  case  of  girls,  however,  the  necessity  of  mental 
training  seems  to  be  to  a  great  extent  overlooked,  and  the  only 
desire  is  to  store  their  minds  with  such  information  and  to  teach 
them  such  accomplishments  as  may  make  them  appear  to  advantage 
in  society  :  subjects,  therefore,  which  would  exercise  the  reasoning 
powers  and  other  mental  faculties  such  as  mathematics,  classics, 
or  science,  in  any  but  its  elementary  forms,  are  seldom  taught, 
while  much  time  is  spent  on  learning  facts  of  history  and  geo- 


42 


Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 


Classification 
of  gii-ls' 
schools. 
Numerousness 
of  cheap 
Schools. 


Finishing 
schools. 


graphy,  and  such  general  information  as  may  be  acquired  from 
elementary  lectures  on  science,  or  books  like  Mangnall's  Questions, 
■while  a  still  larger  portion  of  the  short  time  that  is  allotted  to 
education  is  devoted  to  music  and  other  accomplishments.  The 
reason  of  this  difference  may  perhaps  be  traced  further  back  to  the 
different  aims  which  boys  and  girls  set  before  them  in  their  lives. 
A  boy  seeks  to  get  on  in  life  and  to  compete  with  his  fellow-men 
in  business  or  in  a  profession;  a  girl  usually  looks  forward  to  being 
married,  and  so  forming  a  home  for  herself,  and  seeks  therefore  to 
make  herself  an  attractive  and  agreeable  companion.  I  do  not  think 
this  latter  object  is  really  so  fully  obtained  by  the  present  course 
of  instruction  as  it  might  be  by  a  different  one,  but  I  believe  it  is 
not  unnaturally  supposed  to  be  so. 

Girls'  schools  may  be  classified  in  a  manner  very  similar  to  boys' 
schools,  but  the  cheap  schools  at  which  only  elementary  knowledge 
is  taught  are  much  more  numerous.  This  arises  mainly  from  the 
fact  that  children  are  sent  to  girls'  schools  much  younger  than  to 
boys'  schcoLs,  and  there  are  many  schools  in  which  the  mistresses 
only  profess  to  teach  their  pupils  till  they  are  II  or  12,  after  which 
they  are  sent  to  other  schools  to  finish  their  education.  There  is 
also  a  class  of  schools  called  finishing  schools,  to  which  there  is 
nothing  corresponding  among  boys'  schools,  which  have  no  pupils, 
or  hardly  any,  under  14  or  15,  and  whose  avowed  object  is  to  com- 
plete the  education  of  girls  who  have  been  brought  up  to  that  age 
at  home  or  at  cheaper  schools,  and  which  teach  principally  the 
accomplishments.  These  schools  are  for  the  most  part  boarding- 
schools,  and  usually  congregate  round  one  or  two  centres.  Thus 
at  Malvern  there  are  collected  a  very  large  number  of  ladies' 
schools,  while  there  are  comparatively  few  in  the  neighbouring 
towns  of  Herefordshire.  The  reason  that  such  schools  congregate 
together  seems  to  be  mainly  that  it  is  easier  to  obtain  really 
efficient  masters  where  there  are  many  schools  together,  and  partly 
also  that  such  places  acquire  a  reputation  for  the  education  given 
at  them,  and  it  is  thought  fashionable  to  have  been  educated  at  one 
of  them.  The  town  of  Chester  forms  in  some  degree  such  a  centre, 
but  there  is  no  other  within  my  district,  which  arises  probably 
from  the  wish  felt  by  most  parents  to  send  their  daughters 
to  school  out  of  Wales  to  finish  their  education,  that  they 
may  lose  their  Welsh  accent  and  habits.  The  existence  of  this 
class  of  school  for  girls,  and  not  for  boys,  may  be  accounted  for 
partly  by  a  very  general  feeling  that  home  education  is  the 
most  suitable  for  girls,  at  any  rate,  as  far  as  it  is  compatible 
with  the  acquirement  of  the  accomplishments  which  are  deemed 
necessary;  and  partly  from  the  great  expense  of  girls'  schools, 
which  makes  parents  wish  to  shorten  as  far  as  possible  the  time 
that  their  daughters  are  at  them.  They  may  perhaps  also  be 
considered  as  supplying  in  some  degree  the  place  occupied  by  the 
Universities  in  the  education  of  men.  With  respect  to  the  subjects 
taught  in  different  classes  of  schools,  music  takes  very  much  the 
place  of  Latin,  though  it  is  rather  more  universal;  and  I  have 
considered  as  a  rule  that  no  school  came  within  the  terms  of  t 


Mr.  Bompa&'s  Report.  43 

Commission  at  wliich  It  was  not  taught.    There  is,  I  think,  rather  Mixture  of 
more  objection  felt  to  different  classes  of  society  mixing  in  girls'  "'jesses  in 
schools  than  in  boys'  schools.    Only  one  or  two  of  the  schools  in  ^*^  °°  ^' 
my  district,  bowcTcr,  are  confined  to  the  daughters  of  professional 
men.    The  upper  class  of  tradesmen  are  for  the  most  part  able 
and  willing  to  pay  higher  temis,  and  few  mistresses  therefore  are 
willing  entirely  to  exclude  their   daughters   for  the  chance   of 
obtaining  more  of  those  of  professional  men. 

I  may  again  illustrate  my  remarks  by  the  case  of  Swansea.  In  Schools  in 
that  town  there  are  12  schools  at  which  the  accomplishments  are  Swansea. 
taught,  and  there  are  two  others  of  the  same  class  at  the  Mumbles. 
Four  of  these  are  intended  for  day-scholars  only,  but  they  are  not 
in  all  cases  the  less  expensive  schools.  Of  the  above,  four  charge 
25/.  a  year  or  less  for  boarders,  and  4  guineas  a  year  or  less  for  day- 
scholars,  and  one  charges  50  guineas  a  year  for  boarders,  the 
others  charging  intermediate  terms.  This  is,  however,  exclusive 
of  the  accomplishments,  which  are  in  all  cases  extra,  and  which 
make  the  actual  payment  for  a  girls'  school  very  different  from 
that  for  a  boys'  school  professing  to  charge  the  same  amount. 
The  pupils  are  in  all  cases  the  children  of  the  upper  class  of 
tradesmen,  farmers,  and  professional  men ;  but  in  the  cheaper 
schools  are  almost  entirely  confined  to  the  first ;  while  in  one  or 
two  of  the  more  expensive  schools  they  are  mainly  the  daughters  of 
merchants,  manufacturers,  and  professional  men.  Seven  of  these 
contain  between  10  and  20  pupils,  five  between  20  and  30,  and  the 
other  two  between  30  and  40.  Besides  the  above,  there  are  12 
schools  which  only  profess  to  teach  young  children,  and  which  do 
not  appear  to  me  to  come  within  the  terms  of  the  Commission, 
•  though  I  visited  some  of  them.  These  for  the  most  part,  as  well 
as  many  of  those  before  mentioned,  take  boys  under  nine  or  ten 
years  of  age,  as  well  as  girls.  They  are  mostly  small  schools,  and  Schools  in 
principally  for  day-scholars.  ^™*^'  to'^^- 

There  are  fewer  towns  without  any  girls'  school  than  without  any 
boys'  school,  and  the  schools  being  smaller,  there  is  more  likelihood 
of  a  second  school  being  opened  if  the  existing  one  is  unsatisfactory;  Education  in 
and  there  is  therefore,  I  think,  less  difference  between  the  eflficiency  country 
of  schools  in  the  small  and  large  towns.  Farmers  and  men  living  °^*™*^- 
in  country  districts  have  of  course  the  same  difficulty  in  finding 
schools  for  their  daughters  as  their  sons,  but  it  is  of  less  importance, 
because  they  have  less  difiiculty  in  providing  them  with  an  educa- 
tion at  home.  This  is,  I  think,  usually  done  at  any  rate  for  some 
years,  but  the  governesses  employed  for  that  purpose  arc,  I  fear, 
often  very  unfit  for  their  work,  being  very  imperfectly  educated 
themselves;  while  the  treatment  they  receive,  and  the  position 
they  occupy  in  the  household,  is  such  as  to  prevent  the  probability 
of  any  superior  persons  entering  on  the  position,  even  if  the  salaries 
offered  were  likely  to  tempt  them  to  do  so.  Tiie  number  of  gover- 
nesses throughout  the  country  must  be  very  large,  and  considering 
that  they  usually  only  devote  a  few  years  of  their  life  to  teaching, 
if  all  the  persons  who  are  really  qualified  to  teach  were  to  devote 
themselves  to  it,  they  would  not,  I  should  think,  be  sufficient  to 
supply  the    demand.      At  present   any  tradesman's  or  farmer's 


44 


Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 


daughter  who  has  been  to  school  for  a  few  years,  if  she  disukes 
the  idea  of  being  a  servant,  is  considered  as  a  matter  of  course 
fit  to  undertake  the  duties  of  a  governess. 
Short  time  In  girls  schools  as  in  boys'  schools  the  great  difficulties  that  the 

that  the  pupils  migtresses  meet  with  appear  to  be  the  irregularity  of  their  pupils' 
scCol!  ^*  attendance  and  the  short  time  that  they  remain  at  school.  Girls 
on  the  whole  remain  at  school  to  rather  a  later  age  than  boys  do. 
This  is,  I  believe,  partly  because  they  cannot  so  easily  enter  upon 
any  situation  when  young ;  partly  because  girls'  schools  being  on 
the  whole  more  expensive  than  those  for  boys,  the  firet  part  of 
their  education  is  conducted  at  home,  and  they  are  sent  to 
school  for  a  year  or  two  when  thought  old  enough  to  gain  the 
greatest  advantage  from  it.  It  is  not  unusual,  therefore,  for 
girls  to  come  to  school  for  the  first  time  when  they  are  from  14  to 
16.  They  then  frequently  stop  a  very  short  time,  one  or  two 
quarters  perhaps,  and  in  this  time  they  are  supposed  to  learn 
especially  accomplishments,  though  very  often  ignorant  of  the 
elements  of  education.  I  have  met  with  girls  of  16  and  more 
just  come  to  school  who  knew  absolutely  nothing,  except  how  to 
read  and  write,  and  that  imperfectly.  I  believe  that  girls  remain 
at  school,  on  an  average,  a  less  number  of  years  than  boys  do ; 
though  when  they  are  educated  wholly  at  school  and  are  of 
the  upper  middle  class,  they  remain  at  school  longer  than  boys, 
Irregularity  of  both  coming  to  school  earlier  and  remaining  later.  The  irregularity 
attendance.  of  their  attendance  seems  to  be  even  greater  than  that  of  boys;  in 
day-schools  a  very  small  reason  is  often  sufficient  to  keep  them 
from  school,  and  in  both  day  and  boarding  schools  they  are  often 
kept  away  for  a  quarter  or  even  for  a  year  or  two  without  any 
apparent  necessity,  and  on  returning  to  school  in  such  cases  they 
have  usually  forgotten  most  of  that  which  they  had  previously 
learnt.  To  prevent  the  habit  of  staying  away  for  a  quarter  some 
mistresses  insist  on  being  paid  for  the  quarter  whether  the  pupils 
are  there  or  not,  unless  a  quarter's  notice  has  been  duly  given. 
This,  however,  can  only  be  done  by  mistresses  who  can  afford  to 
risk  lo^ng  a  pupil,  as  it  often  gives  offence,  I  cannot  but  think, 
however,  that  it  is  really  a  right  plan.  The  total  number  of  girls' 
schools  in  my  district  that  come  within  the  terms  of  the  commis- 
sion is  95,  which  it  will  be  seen  is  a  larger  number  than  that  of 
the  boys'  schools.  The  following  tables  will  show  the  size  and 
nature  of  the  schools  and  correspond  to  tables  3  and  4. 

Table  23. 


Numher  of 
schools  and 
pupils. 


County  of 


Glamorgan 
Denbigh 
Hint     - 
Montgomery 
Hereford 
Chester  (city) 


Total 


No.  of 

1  No.  of 
1    day 
sdiooIs. 

No.  of 
mixed 
schools. 

board- 
ing 
schools. 

Total 
schools. 

No,  of 

day 
pupils. 

No.  Of 
board- 
ei-s. 

Total 
girls. 

1 
1.1            24              ] 

-    .89 

674 

253 

927 

15 

277 

149 

426 

G              :!    :          1 

10 

20S 

28 

236 

1               8     1          1 

10 

168 

55 

223 

^ 

13     j 

15 

193 

158 

360 

2    \         8 

6 

i'i 

101 

146 

■  1        29 

1 

.57 

9 

95 

iso-i 

744 

2307 

Mr.  JBompas's  Report. 


45 


Table  24. 


Size  of  schools. 


Connty  of 

Schools 
containing  less 
than  25  girls. 

Schools 

containing  less 

than  60  and  mdre 

than  26  girls.. 

Schools 

containing  more 

than  60  girls. 

No.  of 
schools. 

No.  of 
pupils. 

No.  of 
schools. 

No.  of 
pupils. 

No.  of 
schools. 

No.  of 
pupils. 

Glamorgan          .                                -          24 
Denbigh   -          .                                            7 
mint         ...                     -8 
Montgomery       .                                         7 
Hereford  .          -                              -           8 
CliKter  (oitj)      .                    .         .          5 

S70 
126 
177 
120 
140 
,     85 

13 
0 

2 
3 
7 

380 
186 
69 
103 
210 

3 

2 

- 

1 

177 
114 

60 

Total 

59 

1018 

SO 

938 

6 

351 

Table  25. 


Schools  having 
more  than  20 
boardeijs.'    '' 

Schools  having 
more  than  10 
and  less  than 
20  boarders. 

Schools  having 

less  than 

10  boarders. 

Total 
boarding  schools. 

County  of 

1 

■§ 

II 

i 

1 

II 

■3 

1 

II 

■1 

1 

o  3 
6^ 

d  m' 

6  99 

■1 

oj3 
6% 

•^ 

d  03 

dS 

d'.S 

SI 

% 

% 

;? 

121 

|Z| 

% 

% 

^ 

fe 

^ 

fe 

ii 

Glamorgan 

3 

114 

46 

6 

67 

87 

16 

72 

292 

26 

253 

425 

Denbigh 

2 

77 

- 

4 

66 

83 

4 

16 

77 

10 

149 

160 

Flint 

1 

20 

- 

- 

- 

- 

8 

8 

63 

4 

28 

63 

Montgomery      - 
Hereford 

1 

20 

20 

- 

- 

- 

8 

36 

132 

9 

65 

162 

1 

3(1 

6 

7 

107 

76 

5 

21 

71 

13 

158 

152 

Chester  (city)    - 

2 

68 

26 

3 

43 

13 

6 

101 

39 

Total 

10 

319 

97 

20 

273 

259 

30 

152 

636 

66 

744 

991 

Size  of 

boarding 

schools. 


There  are  only  two  endowed  schools  in  my  district,  viz.,  the  Endowed 
two  Howell  Schools,  the  one  at  Landaif,  containing  at  the  time  of  schools. 
my  visit  60  boarders  and  10  day  scholars,  and  the  one  at  Denbigh 
containing  55  boarders.  The  existence  of  these  large  schools  increase 
the  averages  given  in  the  above  table  for  Glamorganshire  and  Den- 
bighshire.   I  have  not  included  in  the  above  statistics  Shrewsbury,  Sht'ewsbtay. 
in  which  there  are  four  schools.    They  all  declined  to  be  examined, 
and  I  have  not  received  any  answers  from  them.   They  are  boarding- 
schools  of  a  similar  description  to  those  in  Chester,  but  I  should 
think  not  so  good.    As,  however,  I  was  able  to  gain  so  little  infor- 
mation about  them  and  they  presented  no  peculiarity  as  far  as  I 
could  learn,  I  have  omitted  them  altogether. 

The  preference  of  boarding  to  day-schools  is  less  common  in  the  Relative  merits 
case  of  girls  than  boys,  and  in  fact  day-schools  are  usually  pre-  of  boardbg 
ferred  for  them,  except  during  the  last  year  or  two  of  their  educa-  schooS!^ 
tion.     On  the  other  hand,  girls  are  less  able  to  valk  any  consider- 


46 


Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 


Small  size  of 
girls'  schools, 
and  its  reasons. 


Eelative 
number  of 
mistresses  and 
pnpils. 


able  distance  to  school  than  boys,  and  the  pupils  of  each  school, 
especially  in  towns,  tisually  come  from  its  immediate  neigh- 
bourhood, which  may  be  one  reason  why  girls'  schools  are  so 
numerous.  In  the  country  they  are  for  a  similar  reason  more 
often  obliged  to  be  sent  to  a  boarding-school  on  account  oi  the 
absence  of  any  day-school  in  the  neighbourhood.  I  have,  however, 
heard  of  several  instances  of  girls  walking  three  or  four  miles 
into  a  town  to  school,  and  being,  notwithstanding,  among  the 
most  regular  pupils ;  in  other  instances  I  have  heard  of  their 
being  driven  every  morning  the  whole  or  part  of  the  way  to 
school. 

"With  respect  to  the  size  of  schools,  the  diiference  between  those 
for  boys  and  girls  is,  it  will  be  seen,  very  marked.  _  The  origin 
of  this  I  have  heard  attributed  to  various  causes.  _  It  is,  no  doubt, 
partly  due  to  the  greater  number  of  ladies  wishing  to  engage  in 
teaching,  while  very  many  of  the  mistresses  shrink  from  the 
responsibility  and  actual  physical  labour  of  the  management  of  a 
large  school.  The  objection,  however,  seems  to  be  as  strong  on 
the  part  of  the  parents  as  the  mistresses ;  very  many  have  based 
their  objection  on  the  fact  that  girls  are  more  easily  biassed  than 
boys,  and  that  in  a  large  school  there  is  sure  to  be  onebad  girl 
who  it  is  said  would  lead  astray  all  the  rest.  The_  mistresses, 
however,  of  two  or  three  of  the  best  schools  in  my  district,  strongly 
deny  this,  and  say  that  there  are  as  distinct  a  tone  of  feeling  and 
esprit  de  corps  in  a  girls'  school  as  in  any  boys'  school  which  would 
put  down  any  misconduct  in  a  single  girl.  I  do  not  think,  there- 
fore, that  it  is  a  valid  ground  of  objection,  though  it  seems  to 
influence  many.  Another  reason  is,  that  a  small  school  is  more 
like  home,  and  there  is  more  of  the  direct  personal  influence  of  the 
mistress  brought  to  bear  on  the  individual  girls.  The  daily  Jife, 
too,  being  more  like  that  in  an  ordinary  family,  they  can  be  the 
better  taught  what  is  proper  behaviour  in  the  different  positions 
in  which  they  may  be  placed  in  after  life.  One  of  the  advantages 
of  a  large  boarding-school  for  boys  is  supposed  to  "be  the  forma- 
tion of  a  strong  hardy  character,  and  both  a  large  school  and  a 
boarding-school  may  be  thought  unfavourable  to  the  formation  of 
the  gentle  and  feminine  character  which  it  is  desired  tO  form  in 
girls. 

The  proportion  of  mistresses  to  pupils  is  ver}'  great.  Thus  in 
29  schools  from  which  I  have  returns,  there  were  770  pupils, 
79  mistresses,  and  five  pupil  teachers ;  omitting  the  two  Howell 
Schools,  the  proportion  of  mistresses  is  still  greater,  being  73  mis- 
tresses (including  pupil  teachers)  to  645  girls.  As  in  the  case  of 
boys'  schools  the  number  of  mistresses  is  greatest  when  the  terms 
are_  high.  In  the  three  schools  from  which  I  have  returns  in 
which  the  terms  are  about  50  guineas  per  annum  exclusive  of 
accomplishments,  there  are  53  girls  and  13  mistresses,  or  one 
mistress  to  every  four  girls.  One  main  cause  of  this  is,  I  believe, 
the  smallness  of  the  schools  which  renders  it  difficult  to  divide  the 
children  into  classes,  and  the  necessity  for  having  resident  mis- 


Mr.  Bompas's  Beport.  47 

tresses  for  the  different  accomplishments,  "When  it  is  remembered 
that  in  addition  to  these  mistresses  the  senior  pupils  arc  taught 
musicj  drawing,  and  dancing,  and  often  some  other  accomplish- 
ments by  masters,  the  contrast  with  boys'  schools  is  very  marked. 
The  size  of  the  classes  differs  less  from  those  in  boys'  schools ;  thus, 
on  an  average  of  10  schools,  the  number  of  pupils  in  the  first  class 
in  English  grammar  is  eight.  There  are,  however,  more  subjects 
which  are  taught  to  the  girls  individually  than  are  so  taught  to 
boys. 

The  expense  of  a  girl's  education  is  greater  than  that  of  a  boy's.  Expense  of 
The  usual  charges  for  education  in  the  ordinary  English  branches  education  at  ■ 
is  indeed  less,  but  there  are  so  many  extras,  and  that  for  subjects  S'^''^' ^"''oo's. 
which  it  is  considered  necessary  for  girls  to  learn,  as  more  than 
counterbalance  this. 

The  following  table  shows  the  terms  of  the  schools  in  my 
district,  but  they  almost  all  charge  also  from  4Z.  4«,  to  SI.  8s.  each 
for  music,  French,  dancing  and  other  accomplishments :  if  the  sub- 
jects are  taught  by  masters  they  become  often  still  more  expensive. 
For  an  average  bill  in  most  schools,  therefore,  10  or  1 2  guineas  must 
be  added  to  the  nominal  charge,  and  in  the  higher  scliools  a  much 
larger  amount.  Thus,  an  average  bill  for  a  school  charging  60  guineas 
for  boarders  would  be  at  least  100  guineas.  The  most  expensive 
boys' school  in  my  district  has  64i.  for  an  average,  and  73Z.  for  the 
highest  bill.  There  are  at  least  three  girls'  schools  whose  average 
bills  must  be  90Z.  or  \QOl.  and  whose  highest  bills  must  amount  to 
at  least  120Z.  In  one  school,  for  which  60  guineas  Js  charged 
for  board  and  education,  even  arithmetic  is  an  extra,  the  following 
being  the  list  of  extras  given  in  the  prospectus : 

Music  and  singing,  each        -  8  guineas  per  annum.       Extras. 

German  and  Italian,  each     - 

Drawing 

Calisthenics 

Latin 

Class  singing 

Arithmetic,     including     algebra, 

Euclid,  &c.  -  - 

Lectures  on  Natural  Philosophy 

Laundress,  seat  at  church,  use  of  library  and  piano  being  also 
extras.      , 

I  do  not  give  this  list  in  any  degree  as  a  reflection  on  the  par- 
ticular school,  with  which  I  was  much  pleased,  but  as  illustrating 
the  great  expense  of  female  education  as  at  present  conducted,  as 
compared  with  that  for  boys.  I  believe,  even  in  the  school  above 
mentioned  the  expenses  of  conducting  it  are  so  great,  that  very 
little  profit  is  made  by  the  mistress. 


8  guineas  per 

annum. 

6       „ 

6       „ 

6       „ 

4       „ 

„  • 

3       „ 

4       „ 

4       „ 

48 


Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 


Number  of 
schools 
classified  ^ 
accoTding  to 
their  terms  and 
to  the  counties. 


Table  26. 


Schools  charging  60  guineas  a  year 
or  upwards  for  boarders 

Schools  charging  more  thau  25 
guineas  a  year  and  less  than  60 
guineas  a  year  for  boarders  and 
more  than  four  guineas  a  year 
for  day  scholars    .  -  . 

Schools  charging  not  more  than 
-25  guineas  a, year  for  boarders 
or  four  guineas'  a  year  for  day 
scholars      t  -  -  - 


Gla- 
morgan- 
shire. 


24  92 


Den- 
bigh- 
shire. 


127 


6  67 


9715 


162 


Flint- 
shire. 


Mpnt- 

gomery- 

shire. 


15  il?; 


25 


i,209  8  30 


Here- 
ford- 
shire. 


.Si  « 

fQ  I  — 


'^'^ 


20, 


14810 


77 


Chester.    Totals. 


67 


34 


s 


12;  >?; 


IS     7 


31  28 


58 


110 


26 


2X4  llil  * 


Evils  and 
advantages  of 
extras. 


The  system  of  extras  is  attended  with  some  evils.  It  induces 
parents  to  put  off  the  time  for  learning  a  subject  till  long  after  it 
would  have  been  really  best  for  the  pupils  to  begin  it,  and  it  is  also 
usually  unsatisfactory  to  the  parents,  and  likely  to  prejudice  them 
against  the  proper  education  of  their  children.  On  the  other  hand, 
it  is  undoubtedly  desirable  that  parents  should  be  able  to  diminish 
the  cost  of  their  daughters'  education  by  omitting  the  more  expen- 
sive accomplishments,  and  it  may  tend  to  check  the  general  study 
of  them.  The  actual  expense  of  a  girl's  education  is  no  doubt  less 
than  appears,  because  it  is  very  usual  in  girls'  schools  for  ladies  to 
take  lower  terms  than  those  held  out  in  their  prospectus.  I  cannot 
but  think  this  is  undesirable  except  for  very  special  reasons,  and  I 
believe  it  sometimes  ends  in  the  mistress  having  habitually  to 
accept  lower  terms  than  those  justly  due  to  her. 

The  question  whether  girls  are  best  taught  by  mistresses  or 
masters  is  one  on  which  there  seems  to  be  a  pretty  general  agree- 
ment of  opinion.  It  would  seem  that  the  commencement  of  a 
subject  is  best  taught  by  mistresses,  who  know  more  of  the  disposi- 
tions of  the  girls,  and  are  able  to  act  and  speak  more  freely  to  them. 
On  the  other  hand,  the  higher  parts  are  best  taught  by  masters, 
the  girls  being  usually  more  willing  to  exert  themselve?  to  please 
them  and  having  more  respect  for  their  opinions.  This  adds, 
however,  further  to  the  expense  of  the  school,  because  as  a  mistress 
is  usually  present  during  the  giving  of  the  lesson,  for  the  sake  of 
propriety,  there  are  really  two  persons  engaged  in  teaching  the  one 
pupil.  ° 

Age  of  pupils.  Out  of  348  pupils  in  girls'  schools  whose  ages  I  have  returned- 
to  me,  116  were  under  10,  these  no  doubt  including  many 
boys;  136  between  10  and  14;  65  between  14  and  16;  and  31 
above  16. 

With  respect  to  the  subjects  taught  in  the  various  schools,  the 


What  subjects 
are  taught  by 
masters  better 
than  by 
mistresses. 


Mr.  Bompas's  Report. 


49 


following  tables  will  show  the  number  of  schools  which  teach  and 
pupils  who  learn  some  of  the  principal  subjects ; 


Table  27. 


Subjects, 


French 

Book-keeping 

Instrumental  music 

Vocal  music 

Drawing 

•Arithmetic 

Dancing 


PeroentaRe 
of  schools 
teaching. 


71 
24 
100 
41 
65 
65 
54 


Percentage 
of  pupils 

learning. 


23 
5 
55 
13 
19 
49 
24 


Number  of 
schools 
teaching  and 
pupils  learning 
the  principal 
subjects. 


These  statistics  being  formed  from  the  returns  of,  only  17  schools 
cannot  be  considered  as  very  accurate ;  it  must  be  remembered  in 
relation  to  them  that  the  schools  contain  a  large  proportion  of 
children  under  10  who  could  hardly  learn  the  subjects.  Drawing 
is  usually  taught  during  one  half  of  the  year  only.  In  the  more 
expensive  schools  French  and  music  are  learnt  as  a  matter  of 
course  by  all  the  pupils. 

Latin  is,  I  believe,  taught  in  only  three  schools,  except  to  the  Latin. 
little  boys  who  may  be  in  them,  though  some  other  mistresses 
Avould  teach  it  if  the  pupils  were  willing  to  learn,  and  some  of  them 
do  teach  Latin  roots.     The  chief  reasons  that  it  is  not  taught 
appear  to  be,  first,  a  want  of  time,  so  much  being  devoted  to  music 
and  other  accomplishments,  and  to  needlework  of  various  kinds. 
Secondly,  that  it  will  be  no  use  to  pupils  in  life — a  reason  assigned 
to  me  again  and  again  when  asking  why  the  pupils  did  not  learn 
Latin  or  Euclid  or  even  the  higher  parts  of  arithmetic.     Thirdly, 
that  very  few  of  the  mistresses  are  able  to  teach  it. 
.  French  is  taught  pretty  generally,  and  I  think  known  better  by  French, 
girls  than  boys;  this  I  imagine  is  partly  due  to  the  greater  time 
and  more  prominent  position  among  the  studies  allotted  to  it,  and 
partly  perhaps  to  a  greater   aptitude  in  girls  for  the  study  of 
languages. 

In  the  upper  schools  it  is  usual  to  have  a  French  lady  resident 
in  the  house  and  to  make  the  pupils  speak  French  the  greater 
part  of  the  day  either  every  day  or  on  certain  days  in  the  week. 
Some  mistresses,  however,  object  to  this  on  the  ground  that  the 
girls  thus  acquire  a  habit  of 'speaking  inaccurately,  the  mistress  not 
being  always  by  to  correct  them,  and  they  being,  in  fact,  unable 
to  speak  correctly  from  want  of  knowledge  of  the  language.  In 
most  schools,  however,  the  advantage  of  gaining  some  degree  ot 
fluency  in  speaking  is  considered  to  more  than  counter-balance  this 
evil,  and  various  means  are  adopted,  such  as  giving  bad  marks  to 
girls  making  mistakes  or  good  marks  to  those  correcting  them,  to 
induce  them  to  speak  correctly. 


50 


Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 


Italian  and 
Gennan. 


Arithmetic. 


Italian  is  not,  I  tliink,  taught  at  all  in  my  district,  and  German 
is  taught  in  about  10  schools,  but  only  to  two  or  three  pupils  in 
each. 

Arithmetic  is  not  nearly  so  well  or  carefully  taught  in  girls 
schools  as  in  boys'  schools.  Very  few  girls  get  beyond  practice, 
and  the  majority  know  hardly  more  than  the  first  four  rules.  ^  The 
reason  of  this  deficiency  is  not,  I  believe,  any  want  of  capacity  or 
inclination  in  the  pupils,  but,  as  in  the  case  of  Latin,  partly  a 
belief  that  the  higher  parts  of  arithmetic  will  be  of  no  practical 
use,  and  still  more  the  incapacity  of  the  mistresses.  With  regard 
to  the  former  it  is  no  doubt  true  that  the  importance  to  boys  of  a 
goodknowledgeof  arithmetic  as  enabling  them  to  obtain  situations 
more  readily  is  one  reason  of  the  attention  paid  to  it  in  commercial 
schools,  but  the  value  of  its  higher  rules  as  a  mental  training,  aiid 
as  affording  practice  in  and  command  over  the  earlier  part  of  it 
ought  not  to  be  overlooked.  With  regard  to  the  latter  reason, 
I  believe  few  governesses  have  been  well  taught  arithmetic  them- 
selves, and  those  few  have  no  means  of  proving  their  capacity  and 
are  not  therefore  selected  specially  to  teach  that  subject ;  in  some 
schools  it  is  taught  by  masters  and  charged  as  an  extra,  but  this 
I  should  think,  it  can  hardly  be  doubted,  is  undesirable,  for  the 
reasons  amongst  others  that  render  masters  undesirable  at  the 
commencement  of  the  study  of  music  or  other  accomplishments. 
Book-keeping.  Book-keeping  is  taught  in  some  of  the  lower  schools  in  my  district, 
for  the  sake  of  girls  who  will  be  required  to  help  to  keep  the 
books  in  their  fathers'  shops.  The  mistresses  as  a  rule  are  hardly 
capable  of  judging  of  the  expediency  of  teaching  aZ^eJra  or:  Euclid. 
In  one  school  in  which  algebra  was  taught  the  mistress  informed 
me  that  it  was  always  a  favourite  subject  with  the  girls. 

Natural  history  and  physics  are  taught  by  means  of  lectures  in 
a  few  of  the  upper  schools.  This,  however,  is  only  possible  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  large  towns,  or  where  there  are  several  schools 
together. 

It  is  thought  by  some  mistresses,  and  I  think  with  good  reason, 
that  these  lectures  afford  little  mental  discipline  and  give  only  an 
uncertain  and  incorrect  knowledge,  at  any  rate  unless  supple- 
mented by  an  independent  study  of  the  subject ;  they  may  be  of 
value  however  as  giving  a  useful  and  entertaining  variety  in  the 
routine  of  schoolwork  if  too  much  time  be  not  taken  up  by  them. 
In  most  other  schools  the  facts  of  science  are  taught  from  elemen- 
tary books,  but  I  fear  usually  with  a  like  result.  I  was  struck  by 
the  fact  that  in  my  examinations,  though  many  of  the  pupils 
attempted  to  answer  the  question  "  What  gases  is  the  air  com- 
posed of?"  very  few  answered  it  correctly.  Most  said  oxygen  and 
hydrogen.  A  real  and  systematic  study  of  a  science,  such  as 
chemistry  or  botany,  is  not,  I  think,  anywhere  attempted. 

History  and  geography  receive  a  good  deal  of  time  and  attention 
and  they  are  as  a  rule  better  taught  in  girls'  schools  than  in  boys' 
schools.  I  think,  however,  that  more  stress  might  be  laid  with 
advantage  on  the  constitutional  part  of  history. 


Natural 
history  and^ 
physios. 


History  and 
geography. 


Mr.  Bompas's  Report.  51 

English  grammar  seems  to  be  less  understood  and,  I  suppose,  English 
therefore  is  worse  taught  in  girls'  schools  than  in  boya'  schools,  g'^ammar. 
In  parsing  the  sentence,  "  What  reason  have  you  for  saying  that?" 
I  was  surprised  to  find  how  very  few  were  aware  that  you  is  the 
nominative  to  have.  The  number  was  small  even  among  the  boys, 
but  still  smaller  among  the  girls  that  I  examined.  I  think  this 
is  partly  the  result  of  the  subject  being  taught  rather  as  a  series 
of  facts  and  rules  than  according  to  any  natural  system,  and  partly 
of  the  girls  not  having  been  trained  to  think  by  any  otlier  subjects 
which  exercise  the  reasoning  power.  The  absence  of  the  know- 
ledge of  Latin  or  Greek  grammar  or,  in  many  case?,  of  any  other 
grammar  at  all  no  doubt  also  is  one  cause  of  it. 

Music  is  almost  universally  learnt  except  by  a  few  girls  in  the  Music. 
lower  middle  class  schools  who  remain  but  a  very  short  time. 
In  many  cases  farmers'  daughters  who  know  hardly  any  history  or 
€ven  spelling,  and  who  have  only  six  or  nine  months  in  which  to 
finish  their  education,  learn  music,  and  that  though  there  may  be 
no  instrument  at  their  homes  on  which  they  can  practice.  In  the 
higher  class  schools  a  great  deal  of  time  is  usually  devoted  to 
it,  from  one  to  two  hours  a  day  being  spent  thus,  and  sometimes 
even  more,  if  singing  be  also  learned.  The  opinion  of  a  large 
majority  of  the  mistresses  seems  to  be  that  this  ought  not  to  be  so, 
but  that  if  after  having  tried  for  six  months  the  pupil  appears  to 
have  no  taste  for  music,  she  ought  not  to  be  allowed  to  continue  its 
study,  but  should  learn  drawing  or  some  branch  of  science  instead. 
A  few  of  the  mistresses,  however,  consider  that  by  continued  perse- 
verance anyone  may  be  taught  to  play  fairly,  and  that  the  ability 
to  play  is  worth  the  sacrifice  of  time. 

Except  for  the  positive  advantage  of  knov/ing  it,  Instrumental,  Disadvantages 
music  appears  to  be  as  undesirable  a  subject  for  educational  pur-  ^^.™"f'°  «^  ^ 
poses  as  could  be  well  found.  It  affords  very  little  exercise  to  the  education. 
mind,  and  indeed  a  great  part  of  the  time  that  Is  occupied  in  it 
is  occupied  in  the  merely  physical  training  of  the  hands.  It  is, 
therefore,  of  very  little  value  for  mental  training.  Again,  a  large 
amount  of  time  must  be  spent  on  it  to  be  of  any  value.  It  is 
necessarily  taught  to  each  child  separately.  It  is  a  subject  the 
teaching  of  which  is  very  expensive,  especlfilly  if  taught  by 
masters,  because  two  teachers  are  then  required  for  each  pupil 
during  the  time  of  each  lesson,  instead  of  one  teacher  to  ten  pupils, 
which  is  a  fair  proportion  in  other  subjects  ;  the  expense  there- 
fore having  to  be  reckoned  by  pounds  instead  of  shillings.  The 
necessary  appliances  for  teaching  it,  viz.,  the  piano  and  music, 
are  also  very  expensive.  Independently  of  the  expense  the  study 
of  music  introduces  great  difficulties  into  the  arrangements  of  the 
school.  The  number  of  pianos  being  limited,  it  is  necessary  that 
the  girls  should  practise  whenever  there  is  a  piano  vacant,  and  this 
often  interferes  with  their  other  studies.  Some  schools  seem  to 
succeed  in  so  arranging  the  classes  as  to  get  over  this  difficulty 
to  a  great  extent,  but  it  Is  only  by  having  many  pianos  and  by 
the  pupils  practising  at  all  hours  out  of  school.  Another  dis- 
advantage is  that  the  pianos  being  in  different  rooms,  the  practising 

a.  c.  3.  jjj 


52 


Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 


Drawing. 


Dancing. 


Needlework. 


cannot  be  carried  on  under  the  eye  of  the  mistress,  and  as  there  is 
no  result,  as  in  exercises  in  other  studies,  by  which  it  can  be  seen 
whether  the  pupil  has  properly  attended  to  her  duties  or  not, 
there  is  no  check  on  idle  and  improper  conduct  during  that 
time.  .     - 

When  there  is  a  real  laste  for  music  it  may  be  worth  while, 
notwithstanding  all  these  difficulties,  to  make  the  required  sacri- 
fice for  the  sake  of  the  pleasure  and  advantage  to  be  gained ;  but. 
when  it  is  considered  how  little  use  is  likely  to  be  made  of  it  by 
o-irls  who  have  no  real  love  for  it,  I  cannot  but  agree  with  the 
mistresses  in  thinking  that  it  is  a  great  pity  that  its  study  should 
be  considered  necessary  in  such  cases.  In  one  school  in  which 
music  was  not  taught — the  lady  who  kept  it  belonging  to  the 
Society  of  Friends — the  subject  was  replaced  by  the  study  of 
Latin,  German,  and  Euclid,  and  I  could  not  but  think  with 
advantage. 

The  study  of  the  theory  of  music  and  the  practice  of  class- 
singing  are  not  open  to  the  above  objections,  but  no  doubt  are 
attended  with  many  advantages.  I  am  not  sufficiently  acquainted' 
with  the  subjects  myself  to  be  able  to  judge  whether  they  could! 
be  made  to  take  the  place  of  instrumental  music  as  a  branch  of. 
education,  and  have  not  been  able  to  gather  much  information  on 
this  head,  as  it  is  not  anywhere  systematically  attempted. 

Drawing,  though  taught  more  or  less  in  most  schools,  is  not 
learned  by  so  many  pupils  as  music;  many  of  the  mistresses, 
itowever,  regret  that  it  is  not  taught  more  generally.  It  is 
almost  always  taught  in  the  form  of  free-hand  drawing  from  the 
flat. 

Dancing  is  usually  learned,  but  is  taught  for  the  most  part  by  a 
master  or  mistress,  who  comes  to  give  lessons.  Not  unfrequently ; 
the  children  attend  at  classes  held  at  the  house  of  the  dancing 
master  or  mistress.  It  is  usually  taught  during  a  part  only  of 
the  year,  and  is  very  often  combined  with  calisthenics.  These 
latter  are  in  many  schools  taught  to  all  the  pupils  as  part  of  the 
ordinary  school  course.  I  find  that  in  almost  all  schools  dancing 
is  the  favourite  amusement  out  of  school  in  wet  weather. 

Some  form  of  needleicork  is  taught  in  almost  all  school?.  The 
nature  of  the  work,  however,  is  left  almost  entirely  to  the  parents; 
usually  the  time  devoted  to  it  is  about  equally  divided  between 
plain  and  fancy  work.  The  girls  generally  prefer  fancy  work,  and 
are  anxious  to  take  home  some  specimens  which  they  have  worked 
at  the  end  of  the  half-year,  and  plain  work  is  often  neglected  in 
consequence.  _  In  one  school,  as  a  means  of  teaching  the  girls  plain 
work,  the  mistress  had  started  a  class  out  of  school  hours  to 
make  clothes  for  the  poor;  and  this  plan  appeared  to  be  answering 
the  required  object.  The  work  is  almost  always  sent  by  the 
parents,  and  no  attempt  seems  to  be  made  to  teach  sewing,  as 
all  other  branches  of  education  are  taught,  by  examples  not  in 
themselves  useful,  but  chosen  especially  for  the  purpose  of 
education.  I  asked  some  mistresses  why  they  did  not  get  some 
pieces  of  hnen  on  which  to  teach  the  children  to  hem.  fee,  in  the 


Mr.  Bompas's  Report.  53 

same  way  that  they  procured  copy-books  to  teach  the  children  to 
write.  The  idea  seemed  new  to  them,  and  they  could  give  no 
explanation  of  the  different  manner  in  which  the  subjects  are 
taught.  I  subsequently  found  one  school  in  which  the  mistress 
said  that  such  was  her  practice.  There  appears  to  be  very  little 
instruction  in  the  art  of  cutting  out  and  making  up  dresses  and 
other  large  articles  of  clothing,  and  it  is  difficult  to  see  how  this 
can  be  taught  under  the  present  system.  I  ought,  perhaps, 
to  mention  that  in  the  Howell  schools  needlework  seems  to  be 
thoroughly  taught,  the  children  making  their  own  clothes. 

I  asked  several  of. the  mistresses  vvhether  it  would  be  possible  Cooking  and 
and  desirable  to  teacsh  household  duties,  and  in  particular  cook-  ^oM^du^'''' 
ing.     The  latter  is  included  in  the  scheme  settled  by  the  Court  '     ' 

of  Chancery  for  the  Howell  schools,  though  it  has  never  been 
actually  taught  in  them.  The  universal  opinion  appeared  to  be 
that  it  was  impossible,  and  that  such  subjects  must  be  taught  at 
home.  I  did  not,  however,  hear  any  difficulty  suggested  which 
appeared  to  me  insuperable.  It  might  probably  involve  some 
^Iteration  in  the  part  of  the  premises  occupied  by  the  servants, 
and  would  doubtless,  cause  some  expense  or  waste  of  materials ; 
and  care  might  be  i-equired  to  prevent  the  pupils  becoming  intimate 
with  the  servants,  or  the  latter  being  interfered  with  in  their  work; 
but  I  am  not  aware  of  any  other  difficulty,  except  the  want  of 
knowledge  on  the  part  of  the  teachers. 

Much  more  attention  is  ]>aid  to  the  behaviour  of  the  pupils  in  Deportment, 
girls'  schools  than  in  boys'  schools  ;  indeed,  in  the  former  the 
teaching  of  deportment  is  as  real  a  part  of  the  duties  of  the  school 
as  the  teaching  of  any  other  branch  of  knowledge.  It  would, 
perhaps,  be  well  if  a  little  more  attention  could  be  paid  to  it,  in 
boys'  schools.  I  think  these  remarks  will  illustrate  the  difference 
which  I  have  previously  pointed  out  between  the  subjects  that  are 
taught  to  boys  and  girls,  and  the  motives  that  have  led  to  the 
selection  of  those  subjects. 

.  I  have  no  reason  to  believe  that  there  is  any  materiiil  dif-  Relative 
ference  in  the  powers  of  boys  and  girls  to  learn  the  various  subjects  pojers  of  boys- 
of  education.  Very  few  persons  were  really  competent  to  express  ^°  ^" 
any  opinion  on  this  point,  the  experience  of  most  having  been  only 
of  one  or  the  other ;  but  thosa  who  were  seemed  to  be  all  of  the 
opinion  that  there  was  no  diftv.rence  in  their  powers,  though  w  real 
difference  existed  in  their  natures  and  characters  which  no  similarity 
of  education  could  eradicate  or  affect.  One  gentleman,  who  kept 
a  boys'  eclioal,  and  subsequently  gave  it  up  and  kept  a  girls' 
school,  consisting  mainly  of  the  sisters  of  his  former  pupils,  said 
that  he  taught  them  the  same  subjects  except  Greek,  which  he 
taught  to  a  few  boys,  but  to  none  of  the  girls,  and  that  he  found 
no  difference  in  their  facility  in  learning  the  other  sul)ject8, 
although  the  girls  were  rather  quicker  and  more  impatient,  making 
a  second  guess  when  told  that  they  were  wrong,  instead  of  waiting 
as  the  boys  did  for  further  expla\!ations.  I  met;  also  a  lady  who 
had  been  educated  at  the  mixed  school  at  Alnwick,  where  boys 
and  girls  are  taught  together,  and  examined  together  by  papers 

E  2 


54 


Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 


Earlier  age  at 
•vrhich  the 
female  mind 
developes. 


Eeasons  of  the 
present  system 
of  education 
for  girls. 


Beneficial 
effect  of 
examinations 
on  girls. 


sent  from  Cambridge,  and  slie  said  that  she  h.ad  usually  been  firec, 
excelling  all  the  boys,  and  that  it  was  generally  the  case  that  one 
or  two  girls  were  first,  though  Latin  formed  one  of  the  subjects  ot 
examination.  i     •  i 

It  must  also  be  remembered  that,  as  above  stated,  girls  remam 
at  school  to  a  later  age  than  boys,  and  that  ihey  arrive  much 
earlier  at  a  full  development ,  of  their  minds,  and  that  they  are 
able  to  study  from  15  to  17  with  a  mature  power  of  thought  and 
appreciation  of  the  value  of  knowledge,  which  boys  do  not  attain 
till  17  or  18,  an  age  after  which  :few  boys  who  are  not  going  up  to 
the  Universities  remain  at  school.  _  _     ;.^ 

The  explanation  of  the  present  system  of  education,  which 'is 
almost  confined  to  the  teaching  of  such  subjects  as  a  girl  ca^  show 
in  society,  and  excludes  most  subjects  which  would  train  and 
strengthen. the  mind,  appears  to  be  two-fold.  First,  as  I  hjive 
remarked  above,  the  object  alike  of  the  parents  and  of  the  children 
is  that  the  latter. should  be  agre,eab]fe  and  attractive  companions 
rather  than  useful  .and  intelligent  women,  and  they  do  not  suflS.- 
ciently  realize  that  the  latter  is  a  necessary  step  to  the  fprm^r^ 
Secondly,  gii'Is  are  far  more  susceptible  than  boys  of  praise  and 
blame,  and  they  seek,  therefore,  to  excel, in  such  subjects  as  can 
be  appreciated  by  their  parents  and  friends  on  their  return  from 
school.  They  have  hardly  any  motive  to  counterbalan<]iej  this-: 
the  desire  to  fit  himself  for  some  situation  or  office,  or  to  be,  sufr- 
cessful  in, one  of  the  many  examinations  which  now  exfst-is  a 
more  powerful,  motive  with  most  bpys  than  the  mere  love  flf 
display;  but  there  are  at  present, ,110  corresponding  moitiyes^  for 
girls.     ;,.r    .  ,    r;, „     ,.!■  't,.       .,,.  ;  -■..;.,;_      .- 

The  fact  that  mistresses,  as  a, rule  wish  for  some  increase, in 
the  more  solid  parts  of  ieducation  rendgr.ed  it  necessary  to  inq[uire 
what  means  could  (be  adopted  to  counterbalance  tlie  above  motives, 
and  I  have  endeavoured,  therefoi-e,  to  ascertain,  whe;ther  a  system  pf 
examinations  couM  be  extended  to  girls'  schools  as  a  means  of  regu- 
lating the  course  of  studies  which.the  existing  examinatioi^  cer- 
tainly very  largely  do  in  boys'  Schoolsf  I  have  been  led  strongly  to  the 
conclusion  that  they  could  be  so.  Examinations  appear  to  me  to 
be  more  valuable  as  a  means  of  influencing  girls  than  boys,  because, 
as  I  have  said,  the <  former  are,. far  more  affected,  by  praise  and 
blame  than  the  latter.  In  the  examinations  I  have  held  the  girls 
have  evinced  far  greater  interest  than  the  boys.  This  may  have 
been  partly  on  account  of  the  novelty  of  them,  but  I  think  not 
entirely  so.  , , ,  ,  .    , ,  ,  , 

Such  examinations  would  afford  to  the  girk  a  motive  ior 
pursuing  the  severer  course  of  studies  quite  equal  to  the  desire 
of  displaying  their  acquirements' before  their  friends,  success  in 
the  examination  itself  being  a  proof  of  such  acquirements.  It  is 
true  that  such  examinations  would  not  directly  influenee  the 
parents,  but  one  of  the  great  evils  complained  of  by  the  mistresses 
IS  that  the  parents  always  aUow  themselves  to  be  led  by  the 
children,  and  they  would  certainly  yield  almost  always  to  the  com- 


tainly  yi 

bined  wishes  of  the  children  and  their  teachers. 


Mr.  Bompas's  Report_  55 

The  opinions  of  the  mistresses  on  the  subject  of  examinations,  Views  of  the 

as  expressed  by  the  answers  to  the  questions  furnished  by  the  mistresses  -witU 

Comraission,  are  on  the  whole  favourable.     Of  the  20  who  express  ""^^P*?*  *° 

..,,  1-,,^  f  1         '■  examinations, 

an  opinion  on  the  subject,  15  say  yes,  tour  say  no,  and  one  says 

yes,  if  the  report  was  made  only  to  the  head  of  the  school.  Some 
misapprehension,  however,  occurred  at  first  as  to  the  meaning  of  a 
public  examination.  The  only  examinations  of  girls'  schools  at  pre- 
sent existing  to  which  that  epithet  can  be  at  all  applied  are  those 
of  certain  endowed  schools  to  which  the  public  are  admitted ;  such, 
for  example,  as  those  held  in  the  Howell  schools  under  the  existing 
scheme,  and  which  I  cannot  but  think  are  exceedingly  objectionable. 
Many  of  the  mistresses  thought  that  such  examinations  (viva  voce 
examinations  in  the  presence  of  the  public)  were  meant  in  question 
77,  and  this  may  be  the  explanation  of  the  four  negative  answers. 

Undoubtedly,  however,  there  was  among  some  of  the  mistresses 
a  shrinking  from  an  examination,  and  several  objected  to  an 
examination  of  their  schools,  and  others  permitted  it  only  on 
condition  of  its  being  held  in  their  own  schoolroom.  I  think, 
however,  this  was  the  result  of  a  want  of  experience,  since  all 
the  ladies  who  have  allowed  me  to  examine  their  schools,  often 
with  some  reluctance,  have  expressed  to  me  after  the  examination 
was  over  a  wish  that  such  an  examination  could  be  repeated 
annually.  I  examined  In  all,  by  written  papers,  37  schools,  con- 
taining 632  children,  and  three  others  viva  voce.  Of  the  remalnderj 
some  I  might  have  examined,  but  did  not  do  so  from  want  of  time, 
and  others  I  was  refused  permission  by  their  mistresses  to  examine. 

In  some  cases  the  refusal,  no  doubt,  arose  from  a  consciousness 
of  the  unsatisfactory  state  of  the  schools,  but  I  do  not  think  that 
this  was  always  the  case.  I  believe  that  the  schools  that  I  did 
examine  were  fair  specimens  of  the  whole,  including  the  best 
schools  In  my  district  and  also  some  of  the  worst.  In  Hereford- 
shire there  were  only  three  schools  that  I  did  not  examine  out  of 
the  whole  number,  and  I  have  little  doubt  that  I  should  have  been 
able  to  examine  those  but  for  special  circumstances. 

Seventeen  of  the  schools  I  examined  not  in  their  own  rooms,  Combined 
but  at  central  places,  the  loan  of  which  I  obtained  for  the  occa-  examination  oi 
sion,  and  I  believe  that  those  examinations  were  most  liked  by 
the  schools,  as  they  were  also  most  satisfactory  to  myself.  The 
towns  at  which  I  held  these  joint  examinations  were  Swansea, 
Newtown,  Hereford,  and  Leominster.  At  the  examination  at 
Swansea,  which  was  the  first  occasion  on  which  I  held  a  joint 
public  examination  of  girls' .  schools,  there  were  nine  schools 
present,  mustering  In  all  99  pupils,  of  whom  four  or  five  were  boys 
under  the  age  of  10.  The  pupils  themselves  seemed  for  the 
most  part  to  enjoy  the  examination,  though  a  few  were  too  nervous 
to  do  so.  I  believe  the  wish  of  the  pupils,  equally  with  the 
mistresses,  was  that  It  might  be  repeated. 

In  a  few  cases  I  examined  the  schools  also  viva  voce,  but  the  girls  Viva  voce 
were  then  In  most  cases  too  nervous  for  me  to  gain  any  accurate  examinations, 
idea  of  what  they  really  knew.     This  was  not  the  case  at  the 


56 


Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 


Objection  to 
any  publicity 
for  girls. 


Number  of 

pupils 

examined. 


Howell  Schools  where  they  are  accustomed  to  such  examinations, 
and  would  no  doubt  cease  in  other  schools  after  a  time ;  I  think, 
however,  that  a  written  examination  is  much  more  satisfactory  and 
would  be  generally  preferred  by  the  mistresses  and  pupils.  I  have 
stated  elsewhere  the  strong  need  that  1  have  heard  everywhere 
expressed  for  examinations  to  test  the  capacity  of  governesses.  I 
think  for  the  above  reasons  they  would  be  also  of  advantage  in  the 
case  of  girls  not  intending  to  engage  subsequently  in  teaching, 
and  that  if  such  a  system  of  examinations  were  adopted  ladies^ 
schools  would  soon  very  largely  avail  themselves  of  it.  One 
other  point  remains  to  be  noticed,  which  I  have  heard  often  spokea 
of  in  my  district.  There  is  a  very  general  objection  to  anything 
in  the  nature  of  public  display  in  connexion  with  the  education  of 
girls.  The  mistresses  are  very  desirous  of  an  examination  con- 
ducted by  public  authority,  and  the  results  of  which  should  be 
inade  known  to  the  mistresses  and  pupils,  but  they  would  in  many 
cases  object  to  any  publication  of  the  names  of  the  girls.  An 
examination,  the  results  of  which  should  be  announced  to  the  head 
of  each  school,  and  a  record  of  which  should  be  preserved  that 
there  might  be  no  possibility  of  its  being  misused  or  garbled^ 
would,  I  tliink,  be  satisfactory  to  all  those  to  whom  I  have  spoken 
on  the  subject. 

My  examination  of  girls'  schools  was  conducted  in  a  precisely 
similar  manner  to  that  of  the  boys'  schools.  A  smaller  proportion 
of  the  pupils  in  the  schools,  however,  attended,  especially,  when 
the  examination  was  conducted  in  some  central  place.  The  number 
of  pupils  I  have  returned  as  belonging  to  the  schools  examined  is 
974,  while  the  pupils  actually  present  at  the  examinations  were  618. 
This  arose  partly  from  the  fact  that  girls'  schools  usually  contain 
pupils  of  a  younger  age  than  boys'  schools  do. 

The  morning  paper  I  made  as  similar  as  possible  to  that  for  boys 
in  order  to  admit  of  a  comparison  between  the  two,  and  for  the 
same  reason  I  shall  give  the  results  in  as  similar  a  form  as  possible. 
I  examined  in  all  618  pupils  from  37  different  schools,  whose  ages 
were  as  follows : — 


Age  of  pupils 
examined. 


Table  28. 


Ages     - 

19 

18 

17 

16 

15 

10 

13 

12 

.  11 

10 

9 

8 

7 

6 

Total. 

Glamoi-gansliiro 

_ 

_ 

13 

11 

28 

S9 

ii 

34 

22 

30 

20 

12 

B 

2 

259 

Denbighshire     - 

- 

2 

6 

8 

10 

17 

16 

7 

4 

7 

4 

_ 

■_ 

_ 

80 

FUntshiro 

- 

- 

1 

6 

C 

10 

7 

0 

13 

8 

4 

_ 

■  ^■' 

61 

Montgomeryshire 

- 

- 

- 

- 

2 

3 

2 

6 

4 

2 

1 

a 

'     21 

Herefordshire    - 

1 

1 

4 

11 

23 

2U. 

21 

24 

17 

IS 

7 

2 

'   WS 

Chester   - 

" 

1 

6 

8 

12 

11 

4 

6 

3 

- 

1 

- 

-■ 

.     47 

Total 

1 

i 

28 

34 

81 

101 

96 

83 

56 

65 

41     21 

5 

2 

618 

It  will  be  seen  that  there  are  no  pupils  above  the  age  of  20  as 
there  are  in  the  boys'  schools,  and  that  rather  a  larger  proport'io  n 


Mr.  Bompas's  Report. 


57 


of  the  children  are  above  15  or  under  eight ;  of  the  younger  pupils  Time  the 
13  were  boys  ;    130  of  the  pupils  had  been  at  the  school  more  pup>'?l»a>'e 
than  four  years,  48  of  whom,  however,  were  in  the  two  Howell's  school, 
schools;'  179,  had  been  less  than  one  year;  317  of  the  pupils  were  Number  of 
boarders  and  289  day  scholars;  the  other- 12  did  not  state  which  hoarders  and 
.they  were.  ^^^  scholars. 

The  piapers  set  and  the  number  of  marks  given  for  each  ques-  Marks  allotted 
tion  will  be  found  in  Appendix  B,  pp.  81  to  85.  '^°^*^=^ 

The  marks  allotted  to  the  different  subjects,  therefore,  were  : — 

Dictation-  -  -  50 

English  gramrnar  -  -  ,100 

jGceography-  '  -  -  100 

English  history ,  -  -  100 

French     -  -  -  100 

Arithmetic  -  -  ,100 

Writing    -  -  -  50 


Total  morning  paper   -     600 


Latin    ~ 

-     150 

Italian  - 

r           35 

German 

-       50 

Modern  history 
Algebra 

-  65 

-  100 

Euclid-        ;  (- 

-     100 

Book-keeping   - 
Natural  philosophy 
Natiiral  science    , 

-  50 
120 

-  105 

Total  afternoon  papers     875 


The  marks  for  the  morning  paper,  therefore,  were  the  same  as  for 
the  boys ;  those  for  the  afternoon  papers  seven-eighths  of  the 
number  of  marks  given  for  the  boys'  afternoon  papers. 

I  shall  divide  the  private  schools  into  those  charging  not  less 
than  40  guinieas  a  y^ar  for  boarders,  those  charging  more  than  25 
guineas  a  year  and  not  more  than  40  guineas  a  year,  and  those 
charging  not  more  than  25  guineas  a  year  for  boarders,  or  four 
guineas  a  year  for  day  scholars,  and  I  shall  Call  them  for  shortness 
liigher,  middle,  and  lower  schools  respectively.  The  foUowiug 
tables  give  the  number  of  pupils  learning  the  principal  subjects, 
and  may  be  compared  with  Tables  12  and  13  for  boys: — 


Table  29. 


■i 

1^ 

-6 

i 

3 
J" 

1 

i 

o 

If 

i 
1 
1 , 

■  B 

GlamoTgajishu'e 

.  ,259. 

92 

2 

73 

5 

70 

187 

10 

.  19 

56.. 

,..57 

Denbighshire    - 

80 

44 

- 

12 

10 

56 

- 

2 

S 

29 

FUntshire 

61 

11 

- 

- 

- 

21 

- 

- 

- 

- 

Mon%omeryshu-c 

21 

_. 

- 

~ 

^ 

- 

■  B 

- 

- 

- 

- 

Herefordshire 

150 

62 

7 

33 

6 

27 

103 

4 

6 

21 

25 

Chester  - 

28 

28 

10 

17 

6 

11 
113 

23 

- 

2 

2 

14 

Total    - 

699 

2,37 

19 

135 

16 

400. 

14 

29 

82 

126 

Number  of 
girls  learning 
each  subject  in 
each  countv. 


*  The  numbers  for  this  subjeot.are  taken  from  the  answers  to  the  introductory  questions  in 
the  afternoon  paper.  Neither  algebra  nor  Italian  are  learnt  at  all,  and  Euclid  only  by  two 
pupils. 


58 


Schools  Inquiry  Comrtiission, 


Number  of 
girls  learning 
each  subject  at 
different  ages. 


Time  spent  on 
music,  drawing, 
and  needle- 
work. 


Average  marks 
obtained  in 
the  examina- 
tion by  girls  of 
the  ages  of 
13,  14,  and  15. 


Table  30. 

^ 

s 

^ 

^ 

s 

3 

is 

^ 

3 

g 

rt 

■a 
1i 

■3 

to 

.s 

3| 

.g 

1' 

%' 
^ 

1 

o 

1* 

1 

10  and  above 

64 

45 

31 

3 

26 

49 

_ 

'1  3' 

8 

20 

28 

10 

74 

45 

30 

■8 

27 

58 

1 

1 

5 

25 

2» 

14 

97 

47 

85 

4 

28 

70 

1 

5 

« 

14 

19 

18 

94 

43 

19 

1 

19 

70 

- 

8 

4 

^5 

19 

12 

81 

27 

10 

- 

10 

50 

— 

■■     ."i 

8 

'7 

16 

H 

5C 

16 

4 

- 

S 

40 

- 

- 

2 

- 

7 

Under  11 

133 

16 

5 

- 

5 

62 

- 

1 

1 

2 

10 

Total    - 

S99 

239 

1S4 

16 

117 

897 

2 

14 

-29 

S3 

124 

The  answers  in  natural  philosophy  and  natural  science  were 
almost  entirely  either  guesses  or  such  as  might  be  gained  from  any 
book  of  general  information ;  it  will  be  seen,  therefore,  that  the 
only  subjects  taught  to  any  considerable  extent  beyond  those  given 
in  the  morning  paper  are  history,  music,  and  drawing.  The  follow- 
ing table  will  give  some  idea  of  the  time  spent  on  music,  drawing, 
and  needlework : — • 

Table  31.  =r  .: 


No.  of  girls  learninaf         -  -  - 

Ifc.  of  girls,  spending  more  than  six  hours 

and  less,  than  10  hours  a  week  on  the 

subject  -    ,       -■ 

No.  of  girls  spending  more  than  10  hours  a 

week  on  the  subject  .  .  - 


Music. 


357 

213 
15 


Drawing. 


125 

7 


Plain 
work. 


257 

65 
21 


Fancy 
work. 


307 

68 
20 


The  following  tables  give  the  average  marks  obtained  by  the 
pupils,  and  correspond  to  tables  16-20  for  boys: — 


Table 

32. 

Endowed 

schools. 

Higher 
private 

Middle 
private 

Lower 

private 

SGhooIs^ 

^schools. 
,       9 

schools. 

Number  of  schools  in  the  class 

2 

5 

21 

No.  of  girls  in  such  schools  of  the 

'     \l 

21 

18 

19 

22 

ages  re 

spectively 

- 

\  ;l^ 

22 
18 

12 

7 

15 
25 

43 
39 

FuU  No. 

njarTv.s 

given  for 

subject. 

Subject. 

Ago. 

Average 
marks 
obtained 
by  eacJi 

Average 

marks 

obtaiurcl 

by  each 

Average 
marks 
obtained 
by  each 

Average 

marks 

obtained 

by  each 

..•gir!., ., 

girl 

-girl- 

50 

Dictation      - 

. 

15 
14 

38 
37 

.SI 
34 

26 
27 

29 
31 

.. 

13 

33 

26 

29 

29 

100 

English  grammar 

{ 

15 
14 
13 

28 
20 
15 

35 
32 

8 

18 
19 
17 

17 

18. 
17- 

Mr.  Bompas's  Report. 


59 


Pull  No. 

Average 

Average 

Avei'age 

Average 

of  nfua^s 

Subjects. 

Age. 

marks 

rawks 

marks 

marks 

given 

obtained 

obtained 

obtained 

obtained 

for:^ 

: 

by  each 

byeaeh 

by  each 

by  each 

subject. 

girl. 

-  girl. 

gill. 

girl. 

« 

c 

15 

54 

50"^  ' 

33 

38 

100 

Geography  -            -   ■ 

14 

46 

50 

39 

32 

13 

44 

33 

38 

34 

■ 

15 

44 

38 

28 

23 

100 

English  History        -   • 

14 

37 

36 

31 

19 

13 

42 

15 

27 

18 

15 

37 

36 

19 

9 

100 

IVench          -            -  • 

14^ 

20 

39 

17 

5 

13 

13 

2 

18 

7 

'^' 

15 

35 

32 

15 

.    19 

100 

Arithmetic  - 

14 

22 

29 

26 

19 

13 

22 

7 

16 

21 

15 

31 

31 

29 

31 

50 

"VVriting        -            -   • 

14 

Si 

30 

31 

31 

Total  for  the  morn- 

13 
15 

30 

58 

29 

29 

600 

267 

252 

168 

166 

14 

213 

249 

191 

155 

ing  paper  - 

13 

200 

120 

174 

154 

Latin           -           -   ■ 

15 

17 

15 

4 

1 

150    ; 

14 

8 

_  18 

5 

5 

""  '        "'              : 

13 

7 

16 

4 

2 

15 

5 

8 

0 

0 

■— — 50 

German        -            -  \ 

14 

0 

11 

6 

0 

- 

13 

0 

0 

0 

0 

15 

15 

14 

9 

2 

65 

Modern  history         -  ■ 

14 

8 

16 

9 

3 

13 

8 

5 

9 

0 

15 

34 

35 

25 

18 

_  100 

Music           ••      -      -  ■ 

-      14 

-      25 

38 

22 

24. 

,  ,  i    -  ,-; 

?iif!ni  f>;^/; 

'.•rn  13 

,29, 

,52 

23 

,21 

Euclid      -;o'f  'loj  s 

<>     .    15 

0    ' 

3 

0 

0 

100 

•"  '    14 

0 

"/2 

0 

0 

13 

0 

0 

0 

» 

15 

1 

0 

0 

0 

-50 

Book-keeping  -        -  ■ 

14 

0 

3 

0 

1 

13 

0 

0 

1 

0 

r  >•»/'■>  ■ 

■'"'  ■            ;;-    r 

15 

1 

2 

1 

1 

120 

Natural  philosophy'  -  • 

14 

0 

2 

0 

a 

_  - 

-  -'          '     ' 

13' 

0 

0 

f 

0 

15 

7 

14 

4 

2 

;  •  105 

■Natural  science        -  ■ 

14 

2 

5 

'    ■"5 

0 

Total    for  afternoon 

13 

,  '•  2 

7 

-7- 

0 

'''  875 

15 

._      .11.- 
13 

78 

4.5- , 

46 

91 
,._     96  . 

80 

42 

42 

48 

23 
32 

^■'-i'.     ! 

.'^'T  -1 '■'  r^  u ii^^- 

22 

15 

345 

343 

210 

189 

1475 

Total  marks  obtained   ■ 

14 

258 

345 

233 

187 

13 

24« 

200 

222 

176 

60 


Average  marks 
obtained  in  the 
subjects  of  the 
afternoon 
paper  by  girls 
learning  those 
subjects. 


ScJiools  Inquin/  Commission. 
Table  33. 


i?ls.' 

Endowed 
seliools. 

Higher  private 
schools. 

Middle  private 
schools. 

Lower  private 
schools. 

-  --    -■  - 

No.  of 
girls 
learn- 
ing the 
subject. 

Average 
marks 

ob- 
tained. 

No.  of 
girls 
learn- 
ing the 
subject. 

Average 
marks 

ob- 
tained. 

No.  of 

girls 
learn- 
ing tlie 
subject. 

Average 
marks 

ob- 
tained.. 

No.  of 
girls 
learn- 
ing the 
subject. 

Average 
marks 

ob- 
tained. 

Latin               -  \ 
German-          -  -! 
Modem  history  \ 
Music     -          -  1 
Euclid    -             1 

Book-Jceeping  ,  -  \ 

Natural    philo-  J 
sophy  -          -  ]^ 

Natural  science  \ 

15 

14 

18 

15 

14 

IS 

15 

14 

13 

15 

14 

13 

16 

14 

13 

15 

14 

13 

15 

14 

IS 

15     . 

14 

13 

18 
10 
8 
3 

11 
8 
6 
19 
19 
20 

1 
1 

I 
5 

22 
17 
16 
33 

28 
23 
24 
S3 
29 
27 

20 

20 

I 

.  .   17 

18 
7 

6 
6 
1 
S 
3 

5 
4 
1 
6 
7 
3 
1 
1 

1 

■1 
2 

.^> 
2 
1 

- 

22 

24 

47 

23 

31 

26 
83 
15 
52 
43 
19 
SO 
20 
- 

20 

20 
10 

25 
21 
22  - 

5 
6 

5 

5 

6 

8 
14 
12  - 
16 

0 
1 
1 
0 
3 
6 
6 
7  - 

13 
12 
15 

29 
22 
22 
30 

sg - 

2* 

20 

20 

27 
12 
12 
18 

3 
13 

-.4 

'  6 
9 
0 
13 
29 
24 

8 

1 
1 

3 

1 

9 
15 
14 

10 

14 

22 
37 
32 

20 

20 
20 

12 
15 

Average  marks 
obtained  in 
different 
schools. 


Table  34. 


Average  marks, 
gained  oii  morning 

Average  marks 
gained  on  the 

Total  average  marks 

Schools. 

paper. 

afternoon  paper. 

15 

14 

13 

15 

.14         J3 

15 

14 

13 

Endowed  schools      ■  ■ 

-  1 
.  2 

269 
266 

201 
223 

218 
160 

101 

44 

52 
39 

61 
22 

370 
310 

253 
262 

269 
182 

3 

181 

- 

121* 

64 

- 

.£2 

^5 

.    -    . 

183 

4 

191 

246* 

177 

114 

95 

89 

305 

340 

266 

Higher  schools         -  < 

5 

801 

239 

94 

77 

395 

336 

6 

217 

186 

118 

_ 

217 

186 

118 

L  V 

843 

388* 

- 

CO 

214 

_ 

43S 

602 

'  8 

199' 

165 

192 

45 

54 

52 

244 

219 

244 

9 

20i 

95* 

177 

95 

55 

62 

296 

160 

239 

10 

106* 

157* 

165 

15 

63 

29 

121 

220 

184 

11 

179* 

- 

171 

65 

73 

'244 

244 

Middle  schools         -  -j 

1^ 

215 

221 

235 

29 

30 

SO 

244 

251 

265 

18 

123 

39* 

143 

80 

23 

163 

39 

165 

14 

175 

143 

173 

54 

83 

35 

229 

176 

208 

16 

165 

81S« 

150 

73 

-  30 

71 

'228 

S43  : 

£21 

Lib 

120 

811 

228* 

22 

102 

40 

143 

413 

268 

IV 

163 

208 

- 

48 

69 

£01 

277 

IS 

836* 

236' 

- 

65 

0 

_ 

400 

236 

_ 

19 

198 

88 

148 

28 

12 

226 

-    88 

160 

20 

268* 

.  143 

161 

- 

31 

IS 

368 

177 

174 

- 

129 

103 

-\ 

26 

-20 

1S4 

122 

22 
23 

181* 

287* 
233* 

263 
167* 

40 

80 

62 
5 

221 

287 
812 

315 
163  - 

26 
26 
27 

138 

151 

;   187 

SS 

36 

59 

176 

187 

246 

Lower  schools 

123 

90* 
222* 

96 

66» 

142* 

3 

7 

45 

7 

126 
139 

90 

103 

66 

143 

29 
30 
31 
33 
33 
34 
L35 

123 
191 

176* 
154 

l.'Se 
lOS 
151 
117 

243* 
101 
228 
85* 

137 

203* 

lOS* 

23 

20 
70 

13 

17 

22 

2 

45 

27 

83 

0 

10 

45 

123 

214 

196 

234 

148 
125 
178 
119 

267 

138 

286 

85 

147 
248 
168 

were  not  set  to  school  6. 


sse  so  marked.    The  afternoon  papers 


Mr.  Dompas^s  Report. 


Gl 


Table  35. 


Endo-vred  schools  - 
Higher  private  schools 
Middle  private  schools 
Lower  private  schools 

,  Total 


No.  of 

girls  iu 

the 

school 
over  12. 


96 

58 

89 

172 


415 


Per- 
centage 
of  girl^ 
obtaining 
200  marlis 
and  less 
thau-300 

in  the 
morning 

papers. 


32-3 

44'S 

18 

18 


25-1 


Per- 
centage 
of  ^irls 
obtaining 
at  least 
300  marks 

in  the 
morning 
papers. 


26 

15-5 
4-5 
3-.5 


Percentage 

of  girls 
obtaining 
more  thaii 
100  marks 
and  less 
than  200 
marks  in 
the  after- 
noon 
paper. 


19-8 
25-9 

5-6 

6 


10-6 


9-6 


Per- 
centage 
of  girls 

obtaining 
at  least 

200  marks 
in  the 

afternoon 
paper. 


Number  of 
girls  distin- 
guishing them- 
selves in  the 
examination. 


1-7 


The  following  are  the  results  classified  according  to  counties  :- 

Table  36. 


.,. 

■  4. 

Morning 

Afternoon 

Total. 

11 

15 

M 

13 

.15 

14 

13 

15 

14 

13 

Crlamorganshire 
Denbighshire  - 
!Plintshire  ■     - 

16 

226 

196 

188 

■76 

50 

47 

232 

216 

235 

8 

254 

204 

160 

89 

40 

17 

293 

244 

177 

5 

160 

147 

169 

16 

5 

23 

176 

152 

192 

Herefordishu-e 

8 

1(16 

158 

149 

89 

S8 

27 

225 

196 

176 

Chester         - 

3 

238 

231 

147 

101 

79 

89 

842 

810 

238 

Montgomeryshire 

2 

122 

156 

104 

7 

22 

0 

129 

178 

IM 

Results  of  the 
examination 
classified 
according  to 
counties. 


The  deficiency  in  parsing  and  numeration  is,  as  may  be  supposed, 
even  more  marked  in  girls  than  in  boys ;  only  33  obtained  half- 
inarks'for  the  third  question  in  English  grammar,  and  only  148 
answered  the  first  question  in  arithmetic. 

There  is  another  class  of  schools  besides  those  already  mentioned,  Preparatory 
namely,  preparatory  schools  for  children  under  the  age  of  nine  or  schools. 
ten;  these  sometimes  receive  boys  only,  and  sometimes  boys  and 
girls;  they  are  not  numerous;  I  only  know  of  five  in  my  district, 
but  there  may  have  been  some  others,  as  I  did  not  make  any 
minute  inqiiiries  respecting  them.  I  think  such  opinions  as  I 
could  gather  were  favourable  to  these  schools  as  a  means  of  educa- 
tion for  yQung  boys.  It  is  very  difficult,  however,  to  test  them 
■except  by  the  opinions  of  the  masters  of  the  schools  to  which  the 
laoys  subsequently  go,  the  pupils  being  too  young  for  a  satisfactory 
examination.  In  the  case  of  ^irls  such  schools  have  the  disadvan- 
tage'that  they  involve  a  change  of  school  as  the  pupils  grow  up; 
in  the  case  of' boys  this  disadvantage  is  equally  felt  if  they  are 
sent,  as  they  now  usually  are,  to  girls'  schools.  Most  of  the  girls' 
schools  in  my  district  have  some  boys  in  them. 

The  prevailing  opinion  seemed  to  be  that  boys  came,  on  the 
whole,  better  prepared  from  preparatory  schools  than  from  home; 
but  that  it  depended  upon  the  particular  case  and  the  nature  of 
the  home. 


62 


Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 


Boarding 
schools. 


Insufficiency  of 

school 

buildings. 


Separate  heds 
for  the  pupils, 
■where 
provided. 


Means  of 
Ueejping  order 
in  the 
hed-rooms. 


"With  respect  to  the  arrangements  and  influence  oi  boarding 
schools,  apart  from  the  question  of  the  teaching  which  is  given 
in  them,  my  information  is,  I  fear,  necessarily  imperfect.  In 
such  schools  the  moral  is  far  more  important  than  the  intellec- 
tual training,  and  of  such  training  I  have,  as  I  have  before  stated, 
been  only  able  to  form  a  very  general  opinion.  The  school  build- 
ings are,  as  may  be  supposed,  of  very  various  kinds,  but  usually,  I 
think,  sufficient  for  the  actual  necessities  of  teaching.  In  some 
places,  however,  there  is  a  great  difficulty  in  obtaining  suitable 
premises.  Thus  in  that  part  of  Cardiif  which  is  near  the  docks, 
there  was,  when  I  went  there,  no  school  having  a  better  school- 
room than  the  drawing-room  of  an  ordinary  house,  and  the  boys 
were  in  many  cases  much  crowded,  and  the  ventilation  unsatisfac- 
tory. Since  then  one  school  has  obtained  better  premises,  which 
were  in  preparation  when  I  was  there ;  but  there  will  probably  be 
always  a  difficulty  in  getting  really  good  premises  where  land  is  so 
valuable.  In  some  other  places  I  have  met  with  the  same  diffi- 
ciilty,  though  in  a  less  degree.  Very  few  private  middle-class 
schools,  however,  have  in  their  premises  all  the  conveniences  that 
are  desirable  for  a  school,  since  the  masters  are  seldom  able  to 
build  for  themselves,  and  are  therefore  dependant  upon  the  houses 
which  happen  to  exist  in  the  neighbourhood  in  which  they  wish  to 
open  their  schools.  There  is  less  difficulty  in  the  case  of  girls' 
schools,  on  account  of  their  being  usually  smaller.  The  school 
fittings  are  seldom  in  first-rate  order,  though  in  most  cases  sufficient 
for  practical  purposes.  It  was  suggested  to  me,  however,  by  one 
master,  and  I  think  with  reason,  that  it  is  only  when  the  fittings 
are  themselves  really  good  and  in  thorough  repair,  that  the  boyg 
can  be  expected  to  abstain  from  marking  or  injuring  them,  and 
can  be  thus  taught  habits  of  care  and  order.  The  moral  influ- 
ence of  a  well-ordered  and  well-kept  schoolroom  is,  I  think,  an 
important  consideration,  which  is  too  often  neglected.  Very  few 
schools  have  separate  class-rooms  or  other  such  accommodation. 
The  bed-rooms  are  usually  sufficient,  though  in  some  cases  more 
crowded  than  in  others.  The  elder  boys  are  generally  provided 
with  separate  beds,  though  in  a  few  cheap  schools  this  is  not  the 
case.  In  endowed  schools,  with  one  exception,  all  the  boys  have 
separate  beds.  In  the  private  schools  from  which  I  have  returns 
4  do  and  10  do  not  have  separate  beds  for  all  the  boys.  In 
girls'  schools  it  is  much  less  usual  for  the  pupils  to  have  separate 
beds ;  out  of  20  schools  which  have  returned  answers  to  the  ques- 
tions on  that  subject  only  six  have  answered  in  the  affirmative.  I 
am  told  that  the  girls,  and  very  often  the  parents  also,  object  to 
separate  beds  ;  and  one  mistress  told  me  that  she  had  at  first  fitted 
up  her  rooms  with  single  beds,  but  was  obliged  to  alter  them,  because 
the  pupils  slcepmg  alone  was  in  so  many  instances  obiected  to  by 
their  friends.  ■" 

Very  various  opinions  have  been  expressed  to  me  as  to  the  best 
means  of  keeping  order  among  boys  in  their  bed-rooms,  and  from 
what  I  have  seen  and  heard  I  believe  it  depends  on  the  habits 
and  character  of  the  masler  what  regulations  are  best      Most 


Mr,  Bompas's  Msport.  63 

toasters  prefer  rooms  of  moderate  size,  containing  from  four  to 
eight  beds  each,  and  tlie  eldest  boy  in  the  room  is  then  generally 
expected  to  be  in  some  degree  responsible  for  the  behaviour  of  the 
others.  ,  In  some  schools  it  is  usual  to  question  the  boys  as  to 
their, gbseryance  of  certain  rules.  There  would  appear,  however, 
to  be  a  danger  Ijest  this,  unless  carefully  watched,  should  lead  to 
habits  of  systematic  falsehood.  One  or  two  masters  have  spoken  Large 
-strongly,  in  favour  of  large  dormitories  divided  into  separate  dormitories. 
cubicles.  This  is(  probably  the  most  perfect  system,  if  the  master 
has  such  control,  over  the  boys  as  to  be, ,  able  to  insure  their  not 
leaving  their  cubicles  after  they  have  once  retired  to  bed.  Unless 
this  can  bo  done  there  are  more  likely  to  be  objectionable  habits 
formed  under  that  system  than  when  several  boys  being  in  the  same 
room  form  some,  sort  of  check  on  each  other's  conduct. .  Large 
dormitories,  however,^  would  seldom  be  possible  except  in  endowed 
school^,  from  , the  wa^it  of  puitable  buildings.  In  some  schools 
absolute  ^ileixee  is  enjoined  after  -the  boys  retire  to  rest ;  but  this 
is,  I  think,  ]jot,the  case  in  tjie  best  schools. ' 

Most  schools,  have  some  sort  of  playground,  though  in  some.  Playgrounds, 
cases  a  piece  of  open  public  ground  near  the  school  is  made  to 
answer  the  purpose.  In ,  towns,  however,  the  playgrounds  are 
sometimes  very  small.  The  want  is  the  more  felt  as  the  boys 
cannoti  as  in  the,  country  dista;icts,  make  the  neighbouring  fields 
supply  the  place,  of  a  playground.  In  girls'  schools,  there  is 
usually  a  garden  in  which  the  pupils  walk  and  play;,  but  not 
lisually  ci^,  playgro^n,d  in ■  the  strict  sense  of  the  word;  They  do 
not  seem  for  the  most  part  to  have  many  outdoor  games ;  but 
iui^Qors  dancing  forms  an  almost  universally  favourite  amusement. 
f  One  .very  important  part  of  the  school  arrangements  seems  to  me  School  library. 
tQite  the  library.  JtlQg.t endowed  schools  possess  something  of  the 
kind,  but  many  priy£it,e  sphoqlg  do  not  possess  any.  There  is  a 
^iffere^ce  of  opinion  among  the  masters. as  to  whether  it  is  desirable 
fpr  bCffis  ;tp!  read  much  during. the  time  they  are, at  school.  Some 
mas.iers  think  thaf;the  time  which  is  not  devoted  to  study  ought 
tp  fee  spent  iii  bodily  exercise,  .Qp  prne  otTier  complete  .change  of 
occupation.  On  the  Sunday,  however,  at  any  rate,  it  seems  very 
desirable  that  the  boys  should  haye  books  to  read;  and  in  schpols 
where  they  .have.np  libi-ary  the  boys  eitb-^r  bringibookp  with  them 
from  bfime,  or  are  lent  them  by  the  masters  ;  but  a  school  library 
accomplishes  thp  object  mpre  satisfactorily.  ,  Jn  the  Howell  school 
ajfpienbigh  the  mistress,  tpld  me  that  gjie  found  great  difSculty 
|ii  'affprdipg,.the,  children  occupation  on  Suaday,  owing  to  their 
h^aying  no  library.  ..It  may  be  questioned,  I  think,  >vhether  some 
.prp,yisjon  ought  not  to  be  made  in  school  education  fppjthe  form- 
'fltljpn  of  a  habit  pf  reading,  since  the  value  of  such  a  habit  in  after 
life  is  go  great,  and  whether  some  sacrifice,  of  the  stricter  school 
Studies  might  not  be  well  made,  if  necessary,  for  such  an  important 
objiecti.  ,^,  ,,   -,  .        ,  ,  ,,    ,        _  .,  ,;-,.,..  .  , 

'  it  is  not  unusual  for  boys  to  lodge  in  a  to.>vn  where  there  i?  a  Practice  of 
good,  school  and  attend  it  as  day, scholars  in  order  tp  save  the  toyslodgmg 
expense  of  boarding.     This  is  especially  the  case  at  some  endowed   ^    ^™^*  ^*^' 


6-i  Schools  Inquiry  Cutmnisiann. 

schools  such  as  Llaiirwst  and  Monmouth,  but  it  is  true_  of  some 
private  schools  also.     Tliis  would  appear  to  be  as  objectioDable  a 
system  as  possible,  and  oiight  not,  I  think,  to  be  allowed  in  the 
case  of  any  endowed  scliool ;  the  boys  are  under  no  control  when 
out  of  school,  and    having   usually  only  one   little    room,  they 
wander  about  the  streets  as  much  as  possible,  while  in  many  cases 
the   lodgings  themselves,   being  only  chosen   for   cheapness,  are 
barely  respectable.     All   the    masters   agree  in   condemning  the 
practice  most  strongly,  and  at  Ruthin  the  head-master  refused  to 
take  boys  unless  living  either  with  their  relatives  or  with  one  of 
the  masters,   and  I  think   most  reasonably,  though  probably  he 
had  no  legal  right  to  refuse  to  receive  any  boys  who  were  living 
in    the   town.     Special   regulations    with   respect  to  this  ought, 
I  think,  to  be  introduced  Into  the  schemes  granted  to  grammar 
schools  by  the  Court  of  Chancery,  but  if  so,  it  will  be  necessary 
to  provide  some  cheap  means  of  boarding  in  connexion  with  the 
schools. 
Punishments.         Xhe  punishments  in  use  in  boys'  schools  are    mainly  three — 
caning,  impositions,  and  the  loss  of  marks.     Corporal  punishment 
has  almost  entirely  ceased  as  a  usual  punishment,  and  though  few 
masters  say  that  they  never  use  the  cane,  most  reserve  it  for 
extreme  cases,  not  using  it  above  once  or  twice  in  a  year.     In  one 
or  two  schools,  however,  it  is  still  used  as  an  ordinary  punishment, 
and  certainly  in  the  only  case  which  I  had  special  opportunities  of 
observing,  without  lessening  the  respect  or  affection  of  the  boys 
for  their  master.     Corporal  punishment  was  not  used  in  any  of 
the  girls'  schools  v/hich  came  within  the  terms  of  the  Commission ; 
its  place  seems  to  be  taken  by  a  punishment  not  used  in  boys 
schools,  viz.  sending  the   pupils  to  bed.    This  I  am  told,  under 
proper   management,    can    be  made   a  very    severe    punishment, 
though  usually  it  is  little  more  than  a  disgrace  and  disappointment. 
One  or   two  mistresses   seemed  to  think  it  unwholesome,  but  I 
cannot    see  that  it  need  be  so,  certainly  not  so  much  so  as  extra 
work. 

Impositions  which  are,  perhaps,  the  most  universal  form  of 
punishment,  are  open  to  several  objections.  If  the  school  work  is 
sufRciently  hard,  any  considerable  addition  of  impositions  becomes 
unwholesome,  involving  the  loss  of  necessary  exercise  and  recreation. 
An  idle  boy,  too,  is  apt  to  receive  several  impositions  successlvely[till 
it  becomes  impossible  for  him  to  do  them.  After  a  boy  has  been 
punished  he  needs  especially  all  his  energies  and  powers  of  work 
to  enable  him  to  make  a  fresh  start  and  recover  his  position,  but 
if  the  punishment  has  been  an  imposition  he  comes  to  his  ordinary 
work  tired,  and  is  likely  to  fail  again  in  it.  Lastly,  the  impositions 
too  often  cause  the  subjects  he  is  learning  to  be  associated  in  a 
boy's  mind  with  all  that  is  disagreeable  and  evil  so  as  to  make  him 
dislike  learning  instead  of  the  contrarv.  I  have  met  with  one  or 
two_  girls' schools  where  the  contrary 'practice  was  tried  and  the 
punishment  consisted  in  enforced  idleness,  the  pupils  beino-  taught 
to  regard  work  as  a  privilege.  There  can  be  no  doubt  that 
enforced   idleness  can  be  made  as  severe  a  punishment  as  anyy 


Jlr.  Bumpas's  Report.  65 

being  in  fact  the  severest  used  in  prisons,  and  1  think  it  is  well 
worth  consideration  and  trial.  It  is,  however,  difficult  to  use  it 
as  a  punishment  for  slight  offences,  as  to  many  boys  idleness 
for  a'shoi-t  time  would  bo  a  pleasure,  and  a  long  suspension  of 
employment  could  only  be  used  occasionally.  It  is  difficult,  too, 
to  find, the  means  of  separate  confinement  which  are  practically 
required  if  several  pupils  require  to  be  punished  at  once.  In 
schools  where  marks  are  given  daily  and  prizes  in  accordance  witli 
them,  the  loss  of  marks  is  the  usual  punishment  for  defective 
preparation ;  it  is  apt,  however,  to  have  little  effect  upon  the 
idler  boys,  who  having  no  chance  of  a  prize  care  little  for  the 
marks.  In  girls'  schools  a  system  of  marks,  if  well  arranged,  is,  I 
think,  usually  very,  effective,  girls  being  more  susceptible  to  praise 
and  Wame  and  the  disgrace  implied  in  losing  marks  affording 
usually  the  necessary  restraint.  Many  mistresses  told  me  that 
their  pupils  never  required  punishment,  and  that  to  express  dis- 
pleasure at  their  conduct  was  all  that  was  ever  required.  I  must 
confess  to  extreme  incredulity  as  to  such  stateiuents,  and  I  believe 
that,  punishments  are  much  the  same  in  girls'  schools  as  boys' 
schools,  except  that  as  I  have  said  above,  sending  the  pupils  to 
bed  is  substituted  for  corporal  punishment,  and  that  punishments 
which  are  expressive  of  disgrace  as  well  as  the  corresponding 
rewards  are  more  effective,  partly  from  the  fact  that  the  schools 
are  smaller,  and  partly  fi'om  the  difference  of  character  in  boys 
and  girls  above  mentioned. 

The  systems  of  rewards  differ,  of  course,  widely.  In  the  lower  Eewai-ds. 
middle  class  schools  the  system  of  prize-giving  has  in  many  cases 
been  given  up  oh  account  of  the' jealousy  it  occasions  among  the 
children  and  the  dissatisfaction  on  the  part  of  the  parents  of  the 
children  who  do  not  obtain  them.  In  a  few  cases  the  difficulty  is 
got  over  by  giving  some  rewai'd  annually  to  every  child.  When 
prizes  are  given  the  usual  practice  is  to  give  marks  for  each  lesson 
daily,  and  then  to  give  prizes  to  those  who  obtain  most  marks  in 
tlie  half  year.  Jn  many  schools  there  is  also  an  annual  examina- 
tion, the  marks  obtziined  at  which  are  added  on  to  the  marks 
obtained  for  the  daily  work  during  the  year.  Very  few  schools,  I 
think,  give  prizes  for  success  in  tlie  examination  alone.  In  one  or 
two  large  schools  tliere  are  a  double  set  of  prizes,  one  awarded 
according  to  the  daily  marks,  and  one  according  to  the  result  of  the 
examination.  The  system  of  mnrking  is  occasionally  very  elaborate; 
thus  in  one  school  the  boys  received  a  mark  for  every  sum  they 
did,  and  were  allowed  to  do  as  many  as  they  liked  out  of  school 
hours ;  the  result  was,  that  the  first  boys  did  an  immense  number 
of  sums  as  extra  work,  and  the  arithmetic  was  very  good,  though 
rather  to  the  neglect  of  other  subjects.  The  system  of  allowing 
boys  to  obtain  marks  by  extra  work  I  met  with  also,  elsewhere, 
and  it  tends  to  teach  boys  to  work  for  their  own  pleasure  and  not 
only  because  they  are  obliged ;  there  is  a  danger  perhaps,  how- 
ever, of  its  leading  to  overwork.  In  some  schools  the  masters 
adopt  the  plan  either  instead  of  or  as  well  as  prizes,  of  sending 
home   monthly   reports   to   the    parents,   containing   the   marks 


66 


Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 


obtained  by  tbe  boys  and  their  position  in  the  school,  and  the 
plan  seemed  to  work  well.  It  is  not,  however,  I  think,  adopted  in 
many  schools. 

Holidays.  The  aftiount  of  holidays  given  is  greater  in  endowed  schools 

than  in  private  schools.  The  average  number  of  weeks  during 
which  the  pupils  are  in  school,  being  according  to  the  answers 
I  have  received,  40  for  endowed  schools  and  42  for  private 
schools.  It  is  less  for  cheap  schools,  than  for  those  of  a  higher 
class,  the  number  of  weeks  in  school  being  on  an  average  43  in 
the  lower  class  schools  and  in  some  instances  reaching  46  or  47. 
As  a  rule  the  masters  like  long  holidays  and  the  parents  short 
ones.  The  parents  of  the  lower  middle  class  especially  object  to 
long  holidays,  partly,  I  think,  from  a  wish  to  obtain  as  much 
teaching  as  possible  for  their  money,  and  partly  because  they  have 
less  accommodation  for  their  children  and  less  means  of  providing 
amusement  for  them  when  at  home.  The  reason  that  endowed 
schools  give  longer  holidays  may  be  partly  that  they  are  less 
dependant  on  the  wishes  of  the  parents,  but  is  mainly,  I  think, 
the  remnant  of  old  customs,  and  points  to  the  fact  that  holidays 
are  diminishing  and  not  increasing.  In  Kuthin  School  it  has 
been  always  the  habit  to  give  three  half-holidays  in  the  week, 
but  the  present  master  intends  to  reduce  them  to  two.  Most 
teachers  say  that  much  time  is  spent  in  recovering  the  ground  lost 
during  the  vacation  and  getting  the  pupils  into  steady  habits 
of  work.  In  day-schools  it  is  difficult  to  say  why  such  inter- 
ruptions to  habits  of  work  should  be  allowed,  but  in  the  case  of 
boarding  schools,  parents  would  hardly  consent  to  be  separated 
entirely  from  their  children,  and,  probably,  would  not  agree  to 
any  great  curtailment  of  the  holidays,  at  any  rate  in  summer. 
Considerable  difficulty  is  felt  with  respect  to  the  best  time  of 
giving  holidays.  Parents  usually  like  to  take  their  children  with 
them  to  the  sea-side  when  they  go  there,  which  is  often  later  than 
the  time  when  holidays  are  now  usually  given,  and  they  often 
keep  their  children  from  school  during  the  Michaelmas  quarter  for 
that  reason ;  so  also  the  farmers  often  want  their  children  at  home 
during  harvest  time  to  help  them.  One  or  two  schools,  but  only 
one  or  two,  adopt,  consequently,  a  later  time  for  the  holidays,  viz., 
August.  Most  masters  are  of  opinion  that  this  time  is  even  more 
inconvenient,  as  those  farmers  who  do  not  need  their  children  to 
help  them  are  so  busy  at  that  time  that  they  cannot  take  them  to 
the  sea-side  or  attend  to  them  if  at  home.  The  general  opinion  of 
the  masters  appeared  to  be  that  the  earlier  time  was  usually  pre- 
ferred by  the  parents. 

Schools  of  Art.  Before  proceeding  to  the  last  subject  for  consideration,  viz.,  the 
endowments  existing  in  my  district,  I  may  say  a  word  or  two  as 
to  the  Schools  of  Art  in  it.  These  are  not  used  by  other  schools 
as  a  means  of  teaching  the  boys  drawing,  but  are  valued  as  a  means 
of  bringing  into  the  neighbourhood  a  good  teacher  who  can  go  to 
the  different  schools  to  teach  them.  It  seems  to  be  considered 
that  the  boys  are  not  likely  to  work  so  well  when  away  from  the 
school  and  not  under  the  eye  of  their  master.     I  should  think 


Mr.  Bompas's  Report.  67 

it  probable  that  the  great  spread  in  drawing  as  a  subject  of  education 
is  in  some  degree  the  result  of  the  existence  of  Schools  of  Art. 
The  examinations  and  prizes  awarded  by  the  Society  of  Arts  have 
done  much  towards  the  same  end.  It  is,  I  think,  a  question  worthy 
of  consideration  whether  a  similar  means  might  not  be  used  for  ex- 
tending the  teaching  of  science  in  schools.     It  is,  as  I  have  said,  at  Means  of 

present  difficult  to  teach  chemistry  and  other  sciences  practically  in  ^^I'^'^^g 
11  ic.i  -^i  .  ii",.''i,      science. 

schools  on  account  ot  the  expense,  and  yet  it  would  seem  desn-able, 

especially  in  certain  districts,  such  as  Swansea,  that  such  teaching 
should  exist.  If  a  central  laboratory  were  established  under  an 
efficient  teacher,  I  think,  from  what  the  masters  stated  to  me,  they 
would  avail  themselves  of  it  and  send  some  of  their  boys  to  learn 
science  practically  while  the  existence  of  such  a  teacher  in  the  town 
Avould,  I  have  no  doubt,  lead  to  an  effort  to  have  the  subject  taught 
in  some  of  the  larger  schools.  At  Swansea  there  is  an  institution  to 
whicli  a  laboratory  was  formerly  attached  which  is  now  used  for 
the  purposes  of  the  School  of  Ai-t ;  but  I  have  little  doubt  that 
either  there  or  elsewhere  accommodation  could  be  obtained  for  a 
laboratory  if  any  system  of  teaching  science  similar  to  that  now 
carried  out  with  respect  to  art  were  adopted  by  the  government. 

The  question  of  endowments  may  be  considei'ed  under  two  Endowments 
heads — those  that  were  left  for  purposes  of  education,  and  those 
that  have  been  left  for  other  charitable  objects.  There  are  in  my 
district  17  existing  grammar  schools,  viz.,  those  at  Cowbridge  and 
Swansea,  in  Glamorganshire;  Denbigh,  Llanrwst,  Ruabon,  Ruthin, 
and  "Wrexham,  in  Denbighshire;  Hawarden,  Holywell,  and  St. 
Asaph,  in  Flint;  Deythur,  in  Montgomeryshire;  Bromyard, 
Hereford,  Kington,  and  Lucton,  in  Herefordshire,  and  those  at 
Chester  and  Monmouth.  There  are  also  two  endowed  girls'  schools, 
viz.,  the  Howell  schools  at  Llandaff  and  Denbigh.  Besides  these 
there  are  no  fewer  than  nine  towns  and  villages  in  Herefordshire 
where  there  are  endowments  which  were  originally  intended  to 
support  grammar  schools,  but  which,  being  inadequate  for  that 
purpose,  are  now  paid  to  the  National  schools  in  those  places.  It 
will  have  been  seen  from  the  preceding  report  that  tiie  actual  state 
of  these  grammar  schools  is  very  various,  and  I  leave  for  my  special 
report  on  each  school  the  notice  of  their  special  peculiarities,  and 
confine  myself  to  pointing  out  some  general  principles  which  may  be 
deduced  from  them.  First,  then,  it  may  be  well  to  recall  the  special  Present 
educational  wants  that  need  to  be  supplied.  They  are,  I  think,  educational 
mainly  three — a,  school  in  each  town  for  those  parents  who  cannot 
affijrd  to  send  their  children  to  a  boarding  school ;  means  of  educa- 
tion for  the  children  of  farmers  and  others  in  the  country  who  have 
no  day  school  near  them ;  and  who  cannot  themselves  Avell  aiford  the 
expense  of  a  boarding  school ;  and  a  means  of  education  for  orphans 
or  others  who  from  exceptional  circumstances  are  imable  to  pay 
the  ordinary  expense  of  an  education  such  as  their  position  in 
society  entitles  them  to.  To  effisct  the  first  purpose  was  the  main 
intention  with  which  many  of  the  endowments  were  left,  and  it 
would  seem  as  if  some  small  endowments  were  necessary  to  accom- 
plish it.     Small  country  towns  do  not  usually  offer  a  sufficiently 

a.  c.  3.  V 


68 


Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 


Endowed 
schools  CO 
injury  to 
private  schools, 


Best  form  of 
endowment. 


Large 
endowments. 


attractive  sphere  to  induce  a  good  master  to  settle  down  in  them 
unless  there  is  some  small  endowment  to  counterbalance  the 
superior  advantages  of  other  places.  There  are  several  towns  in 
my  district  in  which  there  are  no  grammar  schools,  in  which  there 
are  no  private  schools  either ;  Llangollen  and  Leominster  may  be 
mentioned  as  instances.  I  think  that  the  existence  of  a  grammar 
school  in  a  town,  unless  it  be  a  very  small  town,  is  favourable 
rather  than  otherwise  to  the  existence  of  private  schools,  because 
it  awakens  an  interest  in  education  which  induces  parents  to  wish 
to  send  their  children  to  some  school  who  would  otherwise  leave 
them  uneducated,  or  at  most  send  them  to  the  national  school 
Thus,  of  the  five  principal  towns  in  Herefordshire,  viz.,  Hereford, 
Kington,  Ledbury,  Leominster,  and  Eoss,  the  two  first  alone 
have  more  than  one  school,  they  being  the  two  that  have  grammar 
schools,  and  Leominster  also,  when  its  grammar  school  was  in 
existence,  had  a  good  private  school  also.  Now  its  grammar  school 
has  ceased  to  exist,  and  the  private  school  too.  At  Llangollen 
there  is  now  a  ladies'  school,  and  the  mistress  told  me  that  when 
she  first  came  hardly  any  of  the  farmers  or  tradespeople  seemed 
to  take  any  interest  in  the  education  of  their  children,  and  she  had 
few  pupils.  The  existence  of  her  school  seems  gradually  to  have 
awakened  an  interest  in  education,  and  now  she  has  many  more 
pupils,^  while  others  of  the  children  are  sent  away  to  school.  I  do 
not  think,  therefore,  that  a  badly  managed  grammar  school  does 
actual  harm,  by  keeping  out  private  schools  without  supplying 
their  place ;  while  the  advantage  of  a  really  well-managed  school 
with  a  good  master  can  hardly  be  over  estimated.  The  best  form 
of  endowment  for  the  above  purpose  is  probably  good  buildings. 
Eeally  good  premises,  with  a  small  endowment  for  which  a  few 
boys  may  be  taught  free,  is  quite  sufficient  to  render  a  town  a 
desirable  place  for  a  master  to  settle  in,  and  to  insure  the  existence 
of  a  school  in  the  town.  A  fixed  stijiend  without  buildings  is  very 
apt  to  lead  the  master  to  become  careless  of  his  school,  thinking 
the  stipend  without  work  more  valuable  than  an  increased  income 
obtained  from  a  more  flourishing  school,  which  would  entail 
constant  labour.  Kington  grammar  school  is  an  instance  of  an 
endowment  working  in  that  way. 

There  are  many  schools,  however,  having  large  endowments, 
such  as  Monmouth,  Hereford,  Swansea,  &c.,  and  a  question 
arises  as  to  the  effect  which  they  produce.  At  present  the  en- 
dowments are  used  to  cheapen  the  education  of  boys  of  the 
upper  jniddle  class  either  by  enabling  the  school  to  give  a  better 
education  at  a  given  rate  or  afibrding  the  boys  scholarships  by 
^u^'^L  *^-®^  P'^^  ^^^  '^  longer  education.  It  may  be  questioned 
whether  in  either  case  much  advantage  is  gained.  Persons  of  the 
upper  middle-class  can  as  a  rule  well  afibrd  to  pay  for  any  education 
that  their  boys  need,  and  it  can  hardly  have  been  the  intention  of 
iounders  of  grammar  schools  to  relieve  them  of  expense.  The  ad- 
vantages possessed  by  grammar  schools  do,  I  think,  tell  injuriously 
against  private  schools,  few  existing  in  my  district  of  the  same 
class  as  these  upper  grammar  schools,  while  they  are  not  required 


Mr.  Bompas','!  Report.  6g 

to  skow  to  persons  of  that  position  in  society  tlie  neceeeity  of  pro- 
viding an  education  for  their  eons.  It  can  hardly  be  doubted  that 
their  place  would  be  supplied  by  private  or  proprietary  sohoole  if 
they  did  not  exist.  Little  guidance  as  to  the  employment  of  the 
endowments  can  be  obtained  from  the  intentions  of  the  founders 
on  account  of  the  change  of  circumstances.  In  the  days  when  the 
schools  were  founded  it  was  difficult,  if  not  impossible,  to  obtain 
an  education  in  anyway  unless  there  was  a  school  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood. Now,  to  the  upper  middle-class  the  distance  of  the 
school  has  become  almost  a  matter  of  indifference,  and  most  boys 
are  sent  to  boarding  schools  at  a  distance  from  their  homes.  It 
would  seem,  therefore,  as  if  these  endowments  might  be  used  with 
advantage  to  supply  the  second  educational  want  above  mentioned ; 
yet  no  systematic  attempt  has  been  made,  as  far  as  1  am  aware,  in 
my  district  to  employ  the  endowments  for  the  aid  of  the  small 
farmers  and  others  of  the  lower  middle-class  living  in  the  Country 
with  no  schools  in  their  immediate  neighbourhood. 

A  strong  opinion  was  expressed  to  me  by  the  late  Dean  of  Here-  Education  of 
ford  that  the  sons  of  farmers  should  be  educated  at  the  National  atTationT'* 
schools  in  their  neighbourhood,  paying  at  a  higher  rate  than  the  schools. 
other  children  so  that  their  education  should  not  be  a  charitable  one. 
He  thought  that  the  schools  themselves  would  be  thus  improved 
and  the  other  children  benefited,  and  that  the  farmers'  sons  would 
receive  a  more  satisfactory  education  than  in  any  other  way.    I  do 
not  think  that  this  opinion  is  a  very  general  one,  and  there  seem  to 
be  several  practical  difficulties  which  it  might  be  difficult  to  over- 
come.    There  is  a  growing  wish  among  the  clergy  to  have  a 
school  in  every  parish,  and  this  renders  the  sdioola  too  small  to  be 
adequate  for  the  sort  of  education  that  would  be  required  under 
the  above  system.     The  farmers  do  pot  like  their  sons  receiving 
their  education  together  with  the  sons  of  their  labourers,  and 
though  this  objection  might  be  overcome  if  the  schools  were  very 
good  ones,  it  would  require  far  more  attention  and  pains  than  is 
usually  bestowed  on   such  schools  to  render  them   sufficiently 
attractive  to  overcome  it.     There  is  al^o  a  feeling  that  it  is  more 
respectable  for  their  sons  to  be  educated  at  least  in   part   at   a 
private  school,  which  induces  farmers  for  the  most  part  to  prefer 
sending  them  to  one.  I  do  not  think,  therefore,  that  national  schools 
are  likely,  in  fact,  to  supply  the  want  I  have  above  referred  to. 

If  large  cheap  boarding  schools  were  opened  with  these  endow-  Employment  of 
ments  it  might  indeed  interfere  somewhat  with  the  existing  private  cents' to^' 
boarding  schools  for  the  same  class,  but  I  cannot  but  think  %  great  establish 
benefit  would  be  confered  upon  the  boys  themselves.     It  would  cheap  boarding 
probably  be  necessary  to  place  the  admission  of  boys  under  certain      °°  ^' 
restrictions,  giving  perhaps  to  a  committee  the  power  of  admitting 
them  to  the  school  at  the  reduced  rate,  and  requiring  them  to 
prove  that  they  belonged  to  the  class  for  which  the  school  was 
intended.     About  221.  a  year  appears  to  be  the  lowest  sum  at 
which  boarders  can  be  made  to  pay,  and  even  then  it  is  hardly 
possible  to  provide  such  teachers  as  are  desirable  for  their  educa- 
tion.    A  school  which  should  receive  100  farmers'  boys  at  12/.  a 

F  2 


70 


Schooh  Inquiry  Commission. 


Difficulty 
arising  from 
the  maBtere 
and  trustees. 


The  Howell 
schools. 


year  would  confer,  I  believe,  a  great  benefit  on  the  class  If  the 
admission  of  boys  were  properly  conducted.  The  third  class  whom 
I  have  referred  to  above  as  needing  help  are  already  partially 
provided  for  at  some  grammar  schools,  a  certain  number  of  boys 
having  a  right  to  a  free  education,  and  fit  candidates  being  selected 
by  the  trustees  of  the  school. 

Some  difficulty  would  probably  arise  in  applying  the  endow- 
ments of  grammar  schools  to  the  education  of  the  sons  of  the  lower 
middle  class  from  the  not  unnatural  wish  of  the  masters  and  trus- 
tees to  render  their  schools  as  well  known  and  high-class  schools 
as  possible,  and  the  opposition  which  they  would  therefore  offer 
to  any  such  scheme.  The  difficulty  might  perhaps  be  met  by 
having  an  upper  and  lower  school  under  the  same  management. 
Many  masters  have  complained  to  me  of  the  difficulty  that  they  find 
arising  from  the  presence  in  their  school  of  a  few  boys  who  from 
natural  3ullness,  idleness,  or  imperfect  early  education  are  unable  to 
keep  pace  with  the  rest,  and  who  would  be  far  better  taught  in  a 
lower  class  of  school ;  on  the  other  hand,  in  every  commercial 
school  there  are  some  boys  whose  special  aptitude  entitles  them  to 
a  high-class  education.  A  combination  of  two  schools  under  one 
head  would,  in  the  opinion  of  some  masters  that  I  have  spoken  to, 
greatly  lessen  the  difficulty,  but  as  there  is  no  example  in  my 
district  of  such  a  double  school  on  any  considerable  scale  I  cannot 
support  this  opinion  by  facts.  If  such  double  schools  do  not 
answer,  I  think,  for  the  reasons  above-mentioned,  that  the  endow- 
ments should  be  used  for  lower,  not  upper,  middle-class  schools. 

The  only  schools  in  which  endowments  are  applied  in  a  manner 
at  all  resembling  that  which  I  suggest  are  the  Howell  schools  for 
girls.  These  afford,  in  the  first  place,  a  perfectly  free  education  to 
55  orphans,  who  are  selected  .by  the  committees  of  local  governors 
who  manage  the  schools,  consisting  of  the  principal  gentlemen  of 
the  neighbourhood.  To  these  orphans  board  and  clothing  is  given 
free  as  well  as  education,  and  they  remain  at  the  schools  till  they 
are  17  or  18,  at  the  discretion  of  the  local  governors.  Besides 
these  there  are  60  other  pupils  to  whom  a  free  education  is  given, 
but  who  pay  for  their  board  and  clothing ;  they  are  also  selected 
by  the  local  governors  but  are  not  necessarily  orphans.  They  are 
selected  as  far  as  possible  from  applicants  whose  parents  are 
gentlemen  or  professional  men,  but  who  are  not  able  without  help 
to  give  their  daughters  a  really  good  education.  There  are  also 
a  certain  number  of  day  pupils  admitted  to  the  school  who  pay 
for  their  education,  though  at  a  rate  hardly  equivalent  to  its 
actual  value.  Even  these  schools,  however,  though  affording 
^fP^°  tl^tise  only  by  whom  it  is  needed  do  not  meet  the  wants 
of  the  lower  middle  class,  though  they  do  in  some  measure  those 
of  professional  men  residing  in  country  districts.  They  afford  an 
mstance,  however,  of  a  boarding  school  being  offered  at  less  than 
a  remunerative  price  to  those  who  would  not  otherwise  obtain  a 
good  education  for  their  children.  It  may  be  questioned  whether 
It  ]s  wise  to  confine  schools  entirely  to  those  receiving  aid  from 
the    endowments,   and   whether   boarders    paying   remuneratin«' 


Mr.  Bompas^s  Report.  7 1 

terms,  as  well  as  day  scholars,  might  not  be  advantageously  added 
to  the  Howell  schools  as  they  often  are  to  grammar  schools,  so  as 
to  Introduce  into  the  schools  more  of  the  ordinary  motives  which 
influence  mistresses  and  pupils,  and  to  lessen  the  constant  feeling 
among  the  latter  that  they  are  receiving  a  charitable  education. 

The  difiSculty  in  confining  endowments  to  those  who  renlly 
need  them  arises  partly  from  the  danger  of  an  improper  selection 
of  objects  of  the  charity  and  the  suspicion  that  is  always  likely 
to  attach  to  those  who  are  electors,  that  they  are  unduly  biassed, 
and  secondly  from  the  unwillingness  that  would  exist  in  the  case 
of  many  parents  to  receive  such  charitable  aid.  These  difficulties, 
however,  do  not  seem  to  have  materially  interfered  with  the 
working  of  the  Howell  schools,  and  might,  I  think,  be  overcome, 
especially  if  a  competitive  examination  formed  one  of  the  means  of 
selecting  those  who  should  be  admitted  on  the  foundation. 

One  of  the  most  common  uses  to  which  endowments  are  now  Scholarships 
put  is  the  granting  scholarships  tenable  at  the  universities. 
In  all  the  schools  -whose  revenues  are  increasing  this  is  one  of 
the  objects  to  which  the  trustees  seek  to  apply  them.  Such  an 
application  of  the  revenues  of  a  school  seems,  however,  to  be 
inconsistent  with  the  opinions  expressed  by  the  University  Com- 
missioners when  reforming  the  colleges  at  Oxford  and  Cambridge. 
They  as  far  as  possible  threw  open  scholarships  which  had  been 
j)reviously  attached  to  particular  schools,  considering  such  restric- 
tions unadvisable  and  a  remarkable  instance  occurred  in  the  case 
of  Cowbridge  grammar  school,  the  scholarships  attached  to  which 
were  all  thrown  open  leaving  this,  which  is  one  of  the  most  impor- 
tant grammar  schools  in  my  district  practically  unendowed.  That 
the  Commissioners  were  right  in  supposing  that  the  scholarships 
were  more  valuable  to  the  cause  of  general  education  if  open  to 
all  comers  than  when  attached  to  a  particular  school,  there  can, 
I  should  think,  be  little  question.  In  several  schools  the  scholar- 
ships are  sufficiently  numerous  to  render  any  boy  who  wishes 
to  go  to  the  University  practically  assured  of  one  even  without  dis- 
tinguishing himself,  and  thus  the  incentive  to  work  is  greatly 
lessened  :  by  affording  an  attraction  to  the  school  indepen- 
dent of  the  education  offered  they  also  lessen  the  incentive 
to  the  masters  to  render  that  education  as  good  as  possible.  It 
seems  inconsistent  with  the  above  to  establish  fresh  scholar- 
ships to  be  held  at  the  universities  attached  to  particular 
schools.  On  the  other  hand  it  is  said,  with  much  force  by 
those  interested  in  particular  schools,  that  it  is  impossible  for 
them  to  compete  with  other  schools  which  have  scholarships  if  they 
have  none,  and  that,  as  long  as  other  schools  have  them  they  must 
likewise.  It  would  be  well  if  some  general  principles  could  be 
laid  down  for  the  regulation  of  this  subject.  It  is  sufficient  for 
me  here  to  point  out  the  broad  fact,  that  while  Cowbridge  and 
some  other  schools  have  been  deprived  of  their  ancient  scholarships, 
Swansea,  Monmouth,  and  others  are  seeking  to  establish  new  ones. 

It  has  been  proposed  in  some  instances  to  give  scholarships  to  be 
held  by  boys  while  at  the  school,  and  to  offer  such  scholarships  for  • 


7'2 


Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 


Unsatisfactory 
nature  of  the 
schemes  for 
endowed 
schools. 

Swansea 
grammar 
school. 


The  Howell 
schools.. 


competition  to  boys  educated  in  the  surrounding  National  schools, 
so  that  any  boy  of  the  working  classes  of  special  ability  might  be 
able  to  obtain  a  higher  education.  This  has  not,  I  think,  been  tried 
to  any  great  extent ;  it  was  tried  for  a  time  at  Ruabon  grammar 
school,  but  without  much  success,  the  National  schoolmasters  being 
unwilling  to  part  with  their  best  boys,  as  they  needed  their  help  as 
pupil  teachers,  &c.,  and  the  boys  themselves  being  unable  to  re- 
main at  school  for  any  additional  time  without  earning  anything. 
It  has  been  said,  and  I  think  truly,  that  if  such  scholarships  were 
given  they  should  be  of  such  an  amount  as  would  be  equal  to  the 
probable  earnings  of  the  boys  if  at  work,  and  not  merely  amount 
to  a  free  education.  The  opponents  of  such  a  system  say  that  by 
giving  to  children  a  better  education  than  that' which  their  parents 
are  able  to  afford,  you  render  them  unfit  for  the  position  which 
their  parents  occupy,  while  you  do  not  provide  them  with  the 
means  of  obtaining  employment  in  the  higher  sphere  of  life  for 
which  their  education  would  fit  them.  In  the  Howell  school  at 
Llandaff,  some  girls  of  the  lower  middle  class  were  at  first  ad- 
mitted ;  but  this  has  been  discontinued.  Where,  as  at  that  school, 
the  education  includes  all  the  accomplishments,  and  the  mode 
of  living  includes  all  the  comforts  of  a  high-class  school,  such 
girls  are  often  rendered  dissatisfied  with  their  homes  and  unfit  for 
the  mode  of  life  to  which  their  family  circumstances  necessarily 
call  them,  I  think  this  danger,  though  doubtless  often  exagge- 
rated, should  be  taken  account  of  in  determining  the  mode  in 
which  endowments  should  be  employed,  and  that  if  an  education 
is  given  to  the  children  much  above  that  usually  obtained  by  the 
class  of  society  to  which  their  parents  belong,  some  means  should 
be  at  the  same  time  provided  for  placing  them  in  positions  in  which 
that  education  wUl  be  practically  available  to  them. 

In  accordance  with  my  instructions  I  have  examined  the  various 
schemes  under  which  the  schools  are  now  conducted,  and  have 
been  led  to  the  conclusion  that  they  are  often  very  unsatisfactory, 
and  that  some  improvement  is  required  in  the  way  in  which 
they  are  prepared.  Thus  in  the  scheme  for  Swansea  grammar 
school,  which  was  granted  in  1850,  it  is  provided  that  up  to  the 
number  of  20  all  sons  of  poor  freemen  or  burgesses  of  Swansea, 
who  may  be  admitted  to  the  school,  shall  receive  their  education 
free  of  any  charge  whatever.  Yet  no  means  are  provided  for 
selecting  the  20  who  are  to  receive  a  free  education,  if  more  than 
20  (as  is  the  case)  are  in  the  school.  So  also  the  maximum  pay* 
ment  is  fixed  by  the  scheme  at  2*.  6d.  a  week,  which  proved  whoUy 
insufficient,  and  eight  guineas  a  year  has  been  habitually  charged 
in  defiance  of  the  scheme.  Again,  it  is  provided  that  in  case  the 
minerals  under  the  trust  property  are  worked,  the  whole  profits 
shall  be  mvested  and  only-  the  income  used,  though  as  it  is  pro- 
bable that  the  minerals  which  are  now  being  worked  will  not  be 
exhausted  for  50  or  100  years,  the  school  will  thus  have  a  very  smaU 
income  for  the  first  half  of  that  period,  and  a  very  large  one  for 
the  remainder.  Again  in  the  scheme  for  the  Howell  schools, 
sanctioned  by  the  Court  of  Chancery  in  1853,  provision  is  made 


Mr.,Bompas's  Report.  73 

for  an  education  of  the  highest  class,  including  all  the  accomplish- 
ments, being  given  to  the  pupils,  while  the  buildings  and  fittings 
are  of  the  most  perfect  kind,  yet  the  scheme  provided  that  day 
scholars  should  be  admitted  who  should  not  pay  more  than  6d.  a 
week,  and  a  doubt  was  thus  raised  whether  the  school  was  not 
intended  for  children  of  the  lowest  class,  till  on  a  recent  application 
to  the  Court  of  Chancery  the  maximum  has  been  raised  to  21  a 
quarter.  Again,  in  the  scheme  for  the  grammar  school  at 
Llanrwst  it  is  provided  that  the  master  shall  not  take  more  than  Llanrwst 
12  boarders,  and  that  day  scholars  shall  pay  only  two  guineas  a  grammar 
year.  The  village  of  Llanrwst  is  not  large  enough  to  support  a 
large  day  school ;  and,  as  the  master  stated  to  me  with  great  forcej 
if  he  charged  high  terms  for  his  boarders,  and  had  sons  of  gentle- 
men, they  objected  to  associate  with  boys  of  the  class  that  came 
as  day  boys,  the  terms  being  so  low,  while  if  he  charged  lower 
terms,  and  received  the  sons  of  farmers,  which  would  probably  be 
of  most  use  in  that  neighbourhood,  it  was  impossible  to  make  the 
school  answer  with  so  small  a  number  of  boarders.  The  restriction 
in  number  also  encourages  the  practice  of  boys  coming  to  lodge  in 
the  village  to  attend  the  school,  on  which  I  have  animadverted 
above.  It  would  appear  that  the  schemes  need  the  supervision  of 
persons  practically  acquainted  with  the  educational  questions  Of 
the  day.  It  would  be  a  great  boon  also  if  slight  modifications  of 
the  scheme  which  are  rendered  desirable  by  the  varying  character 
of  the  master  or  circumstances  of  the  school,' could  be  made  as 
easily  and  at  as  little  expense  as  possible. 

One  point  on  which"  there  is  some  difference  in  different  schools,  Mode  of 
and  on  which  I  have  heard  strong  opinions  expressed,  is  as  to  the  ^fg^"^^ 
mode  of  appointment  of  the  second  or  other  masters  in  the  schools. 
The  appointment  of  the  second  master  is  very  frequently  vested 
in  the  same  body  as  elect  the  head  master,  though  in  some  instances 
the  head  master  has  a  right  to  appoint  all  the  rest.  I  think  the 
opinion  is  almost  universal  that  the  latter  is  preferable.  The 
existence  of  two  distinct  authorities  in  a  school  is  likely  to  injure 
its  discipline,  and  to  lead  to  discord  and  discomfort.  It  is  not 
only  necessary  that  the  masters  should  be  good  and  able  men,  but 
that  their  dispositions  should  be  suited  to  one  another  if  the  school 
is  to  work  well.,  and  this  it  is  impossible  to  obtain  with  any  cer- 
tainty if  their  appointments  are  independent  of  one  another. 
Serious  difficulties  have  occurred  at  the  Howell  school,  Denbigh, 
mainly  from  this  cause,  and  very  many  instances  have  been  pointed 
out  to  me  where  difficulties  have  arisen  in  a  similar  manner,  or  have 
only  been  avoided  by  the  greatest  forbearance  and  care  on  all  sides. 
The  only  advantage  that  I  know  of  obtained  by  the  separate  ap- 
pointment of  the  masters  is  that  they  fonn  to  some  extent  a  check 
upon  one  another  if  the  head  master  is  incompetent ;  but  such 
incompetence  may  be  better  provided  for  by 'external  checks  than 
by  the  introduction  of  contradictory  elements  into  the  internal 
management  of  the  school. 

One  fact  that  must  strike  anyone  on  looking  into  the  history  of  Mode  of 
endowments,  is  that  any  which  have  been  left  in  the  form  of  a  ^^^5*'°^ 


74  Schools  Inqmrij  Conimission. 

fixed  annual  sum  of  money  become  in  the  course  of  years  utterly 
inadequate  for  the  purpose  for  which  they  are  intended,  while  those 
which  were  left  in  the  form  of  land  continue  equally  sufficient,  or 
even  increase  in  amount.  This  is  of  course  the  necessary  conse- 
quence of  the  fact,  that  the  value  of  money  is  for  ever  diminishing 
in  relation  to  other  objects,  A  good  illustration  is  found  in  the 
early  granmaar  schools  of  Herefordshire  above  referred  to,  or  in 
the  Cowbridge  grammar  school,  the  founder  of  which  intended  to 
endow  it  richly,  and  leaving  land  for  that  purpose  to  Jesus  College, 
Oxford,  directed  that  20?.  a  year  should  be  paid  to  the  head-master, 
and  that  the  surplus  should  be  employed  in  increasing  the  college 
fellowships  so  as  to  make  them  about  the  same  amount:  the 
mastership  still  continues  worth  20/.  a  year,  while  the  fellowships 
are  worth  several  hundreds.  Notwithstanding  this  fact,  it  has 
become  usual  to  invest  trust  property  in  the  funds,  rendering  it 
certain  that  the  income  will  by  degrees  become  wholly  insufficient 
for  the  objects  for  which  it  is  now  employed.  The  advantage  of 
handing  down  endowments  to  posterity  may  be  an  oj)en  question, 
but  it  ought  to  be  distinctly  understood  that,  by  investing  them  in 
a  form  in  which  their  value  steadily  diminishes,  their  disappearance 
is  as  certainly  secured  as  if  part  of  the  principal  was  spent  annually 
as  income.  The  form  of  investment  which  has  proved  most  bene- 
ficial in  times  past,  in  my  district,  has  been  an  investment  in  land 
near  the  school,  because  then,  if  from  the  discovery  of  mines  or 
other  causes  the  population  has  largely  increased,  the  value  of 
the  land  has  increased  with  it,  and  a  means  thus  been  afforded  of 
supplying  the  increased  demand  for  education. 
Applicability  I  ought  perhaps  to  notice  a  suggestion  that  has  been  made  with 
of  endowments  respect  to  the  endowuients  belonging  to  the  Howell  Schools  and 
tcTiools.  some  others ;  viz.,  that  they  ought  to  be  employed  in  the  support 

of  National  schools,  or  schools  of  that  class,  to  as  to  relieve  the 
consolidated  fund.  From  an  exactly  similar  feeling  trustees  were  in 
the  habit,  some  years  back,  of  applying  the  money  left  in  various 
parishes  for  the  relief  of  the  poor,  to  the  reduction  of  the  pooi-s 
rate.  This  is  now,  however,  held  to  have  been  a  misappropria- 
tion of  the  fundd,  and  the  trustees  have  been  greatly  blamed  for 
having  applied  them  to  that  purpose,  which,  as  lias  been  truly  said, 
makes  them  beneficial  to  the  class  who  possess  property^  and  not 
to  the  poor.  The  very  same  arguments  show  the  impropriety  of 
applying  any  funds  left  to  improve  the  education  of  the  poor,  to 
the  relief  of  the  consolidated  fund.  Sucli  an  application  of  the 
endowments  does  not  benefit  education,  but  only  relieves  the  tax- 
payers. Whatever  else  may  be  a  legitimate  use  of  them,  that 
cannot  be  if  the  principle  of  endowments  at  all  be  admitted. 
Help  which  I  have  been  frequently  asked,  during  the  course  of  my  inquiries, 

might  he  for  my  advice  and  assistance  in  improving  the  condition  of  the 

TnnuaT  '^ '"  endowed  schools.  It  is  often  the  case  that  beneficial  reforms 
examiner  in  ■•ire  neglected,  from  its  being  nobody's  business  to  commence 
effecting  tliem.      Thus  at  St.  Asaph  new  school  buildings  are  very  oreatly 

improvoment..  needed,  but  there  seems  to  be  a  difficulty  in  getting  an.y one  to 
move  in   tlie  matter.     Should  any  system  of  annual  cxamYnation 


Mr.  Bompas's  Report.  75 

or  inspection  of  grammar  schools  be  adopted,  I  think  one  great 
benefit  that  would  accrue  would  be  that  there  would  then  be 
always  some  one  who  could  suggest  and  set  on  foot  the  various 
necessary  improvements  without  exciting  the  jealousy  which  is 
apt  to  exist  between  parties  residing  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
school,  if  one  of  them  commences  any  such  reforms. 

With  respect  to  endowments  not  specifically  devoted  to  educa-  Endowments 
tional  purposes  I  have  little  to  say,  as  I  think  there  are  none  in  ""*  *"'' 
my  district  which  would  be  applicable  to  the  education  of  any  but  education" 
the  working  classes.      There  are  very  considerable  sums  spent  j^qj^j 
annually  in  doles  to  the  poor  with  apparently  very  little  benefit 
to  them ;  the  jealousies  and  heartburnings,  and  dissatisfaction  that 
they  cause  probably  counterbalancing  the  good  that  they  do.   Many 
clergymen,  I  believe,  wish  that  there  were  none  such  in  their 
parishes.     It  would  be  impossible,  however,  to  divert  the  money 
to  other  purposes  without  causing  greater  dissatisfaction.    In  many 
cases  the  recipients  were  originally  bound  to  attend  church ;  but 
this  is  in  many  places  now  being  altered,  being  found  only  to  en- 
courage hypocrisy  and  formalism.     At  Holywell,  however,  a  large 
sum  of  money  has  recently  been  given  to  the  parish,  the  interest  to 
be  bestowed  on   poor  persons  who  regularly  attend  church  and 
receive  the  Holy  Communion.     The  evils  such  a  condition  is  likely 
to  produce  will,  I  should  think,  hardly  be  compensated  by  the 
good,  if  any,  which  the  money  may  do. 

The  only  large  charities  which  I  need  specially  notice  are  the  Baker  Charity. 
Baker  Charity,  at  Ross,  and  the  Jervis  Charity.  The  former  now 
amounts  to  800?,,  a  year  and  is  of  quite  recent  origin,  having  been 
left  by  will  in  1836.  It  is  spent  in  small  .""ms,  which 
serve  to  keep  the  recipients  just  above  parish  reiief.  There 
is  a  difierence  of  opinion  as  to  whether  it  really  does  any  good, 
but  it  certainly  does  not  seem  to  he  doing  harm.  Thei'e  are 
other  good  schools  for  the  poorer  classes  already  in  the  town, 
and  it  would  be  entii-ely  setting  aside  the  objects  of  the  testator 
to  apply  it  to  the  foundation  of  a  grammar  school,  which  might 
otherwise  be  desirable.  The  Jervis  Charity  is  one  of  large  amount,  jervis  Charity. 
and  to  which  attention  has  often  been  directed.  It  was  left  in 
1790,  for  the  benefit  of  the  poor  inhabitants  of  the  three  parishes  of 
Stanton-upon-Wye,  Bredwardine,  and  Letton  in  Herefordshire. 
The  only  restriction  as  to  its  application  contained  in  the  will  was 
that  none  of  it  should  be  spent  on  building.  A  scheme  having  been 
settled  by  the  Court  of  Chancery  for  its  distribution  in  food, 
clothing,  medicine,  &c.,  it  was  soon  found  that  it  attracted 
into  the  parishes  all  the  vagabonds  of  the  county,  and  pro- 
duced the  greatest  idleness  and  demoralizaton,  the  only  persons 
benefited  being  the  landlords,  the  rents  in  the  three  parishes 
being  higher,  and  the  wages  considerably  lower,  than  in  the 
rest  of  the  county.  A  new  scheme  was  adopted,  by  which  a 
large  sum  was  expended  in  building  schools,  including  one  for 
boarders,  and  no  one  is  permitted  to  share  in  the  benefits  of  the 
charity  unless  he  has  resided  five  years  in  one  of  the  parishes,  and 
is  of  unblemished  character.     The  charity  now  amounts  to  about 


76  Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 

2,400?.  a  year,  of  which  600Z.  is  given  away  in  food,  clothing,  &c., 
to  the  poor,  and  the  rest  is  expended  on  salaries  to  the  oflacers,  on 
the  schools,  and  on  medicine  and  food  for  the  sick.  All  the  children 
at  the  schools  are  clothed  from  7  to  14  years  of  age.  They  are 
about  130  in  number.  The  new  scheme  works  much  better  than 
the  former  one,  though  many  still  think  that  the_  charity  does 
injury,  and  few,  I  believe,  would  consider  that  it  does  much 
good.  The  boarding-school,  which  would  accommodate  60  chil- 
dren, has  never  been  opened,  the  funds  being  after  all  insufficient 
for  that  purpose,  and  when  I  visited  it  the  large  building  was 
standing  empty  and  unused,  except  in  those  parts  where  the  day- 
school  is  held.  It  would  be  difficult  to  conceive  a  more  striking 
instance  of  the  failure  of  the  express  wishes  of  a  testator,  the 
waste  of  money  in  building  he  so  specially  endeavoured  to  pro- 
vide against  being  the  very  thing  that  has  happened.  There  can, 
I  think,  be  little  doubt  that  the  suggestions  of  the  late  Dean 
of  Hereford  should  have  been  adopted,  and  the  charity  thrown 
open  to  the  whole  of  Herefordshire,  which  would  have  been  a  leas 
departure  from  the  wishes  of  the  testator  than  employing  it  for 
the  one  purpose  which  he  had  forbidden.  If  spread  over  a  large 
area  it  might  be  the  means  of  effecting  much  good.  In  no  case, 
however,  probably  would  it  have  been  employed  for  purposes 
coming  within  the  terms  of  the  present  Commission. 
Conchisions  to  I  venture,  then,  in  conclusion,  to  summarise  the  principal  sug- 
fr^  ^^^&^  gestions  that  seem  to  arise  from  the  facts  and  opinions  in  the 
report.  foregoing  report. 

1st,  Endowments  should  be  made  available  for  the  lower  instead 
of  the  uppe"  middle  classes,  especially  by  providing  a  good  day- 
school  in  every  town,  and  cheap  boarding-schools  for  the  sons  of 
small  farmers,  &c. 

2nd.  Opportunities  should  be  offered  to  all  masters  and  mis- 
tresses of  having  their  whole  schools  examined  and  reported  upon 
annually  by  competent  examiners. 

3rd.  The  subjects  and  methods  of  education  in  girls'  schools 
should  be  modified. 

4th.  Means  should  be  provided  for  training  masters  in  the  art 
of  teaching. 

5th.  Examinations  should  be  established  or  other  opportunities 
afforded  to  mistresses  of  proving  their  proficiency  in  different 
branches  of  knowledge. 

6th.  All  possible  meatis  should  be  adopted  to  stir  up  the  parents 
to  take  more  interest  in  the  education  of  their  children,  and  to 
induce  them  to  send  their  children  to  school  with  more  regularity. 
I  remain,  my  Lords  and  Gentlemen, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

HeistrY  M.  Bompas. 


Mr.  Bompas^s  ReporL  77 


APPENDIX. 


APPENDIX  (A.) 


Morning  Paper.        Elementary  Questions.  For  Boys.      The  papers  set. 

Introductory. 

1 .  What  is  your  name  ? 

2.  What  is  your  age  ? 

3.  What  school  do  you  attend  ? 

4.  Are  you  a  boarder  or  a  day  scholar  ? 

5.  How  long  have  you  been  at  the  school  ? 

English  Grammar. 

1 .  Write  down  the  passage  read  by  the  examiner  ? 

ITie  following  was  the  passage  read : — I  thought  that  their  house 
was  in  London,  but  I  find  that  it  is  not  there,  but  still  farther  off. 
They  hunted  the  red  deer  in  the  forest,  and  coursed  the  hares  over  the 
plain.  The  besieging  army  made  fresh  parallels  and  recommenced  the 
attack.  He  could  not  separate  the  chaotic  mass  of  miscellaneous  articles. 
He  was  amiable,  and  his  habits  and  manners  were  agreeable,  but  he  was 
haughty  and  conceited ;  and  while  he  inveighed  against  the  foibles  of 
others  without  reference  to  the  occurrences  which  led  to  their  actions,  and 
refused  to  listen  when  they  solicited  his  forbearance,  his  conscience  per- 
mitted him,  notwithstanding,  to  indulge  in  all  the  artifices  of  diplomacy. 

2.  Write  down  the  perfect  and  past  participle  of  each   of  the  following 

verbs,  (1.)  to  hate,  (2.)  to  lie  down,  (3.)  to  slay. 

3.  Parse  the  following   sentence.    What  reason  have  you   for    saying 

that"! 

Geography. 

1.  What  are    the  names    of  the   capitals    of  (1.)     Ireland    and     (2.) 

Russia  ?  10 

2.  Mention  the  names  of  any  two  towns  in  Kent.  10 

3.  What  is  an  isthmus  P  6 

English  History. 

1.  When  did  William  the  Conqueror  come  to  England?  and  who  were 

the  next  two  kings  of  England  ?  8 

2.  In  whose  reign  did  the  House  of  Commons  first  meet  ?  8 

3.  When  and  between  what  nations  was  the  battle  of  Crecy  fought  P        8 

French. 

1.  Write  down  the  present  tense  of  avoir.  10 

2.  Translate  into  Enghsh,  Sonpire  a  deijbx  fMes.  10 

3.  Translate  into  French,  The  mother  of  the  child  is  beautiful.  10 

Arithmetic. 

1.  Write  down  in   figures  the  number    Ten  million  fifty-one  thousand 

and  twenty.                                                                     -  8 

2.  Subtract  2734  from  4381.  4 

3.  Divide  95142  by  471.  8 

4.  What  will  17,412  yards  of  cloth  cost  at  lis.  2d.  per  yard  ?  10 


73  Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 

FuRTHEB  (Questions. 
Enfflish  Grammar. 

L  Are  the  verbs  in  the  following  sentences  active,  passive,  or  neuter  ? 
() .)  He  lived  a  life  of  self-sacnfice.  (2.)  The  battle  was  won  by  his 
courage.     (3.)  The  clock  was  striking  twelve.  15 

5.  Write  out  the  following  sentence  with  all  the  mistakes  in  grammar 

corrected.     If  James  hat  or  coat   was  stole,  who  could  I  persuade  to 
give  him  new  ones.  15 

6.  Analyse  the  following  sentence  : — 

The  daisy  by  the  shadow  that  it  casts. 

Protects  the  lingering  dewdrop  from  the  sun.  30 

English  History. 

4.  Who  were  the  first  four  sovereigns  after  the  Commonwealth  ?  And 

what  was  then-  relationship  to  each  other  ?  16 

5.  In  whose  reign  was  the  Bill  of  Rights  passed  ?  Mention  any  three 

of  its  provisions.  16 

6.  When  was  the  battle  of  Blenheim  fought  ? — ^And  what  nations  took 

part  in  it?  12 

7.  When  did  (1.)   Caxton  and  (2.)  Richard   Hooker  live?  And  for  what 

were  they  remarkable  ?  16 

8.  Which  of  the  following  adjectives  do  you  consider  applicable  to  (1 .) 

King  John  (2.)   King   Charles  II.  ? — Luxurious,  cruel,  vacillating, 
mean  spirited,  usurping,  cowardly,  tyrannical  ?  16 

Geography. 

•i.  Is  Newcastle  east  or  west  of  London  ?  10 

6.  Is  Bristol  north  or  south  of  Dover  ?  10 

6.  From  what  countries  do  we  get  (1.)  dried  currants,  (2.)  ivory?  25 

7.  What  is  the  form  of  government  in  Russia  ?  10 
R.  Is  the  length  of  a  degree  of  longitude  the  same  ever}^vhp,re  ? — if  not,_ 

where  is  it  longest  ?  20 

Arithmetic. 

5.  What  is  the  value  of  |  of  i  —'„  ?  10 

6.  Which  is  greatest,  f  or  Af  ?  10 

7.  Reduce  ^  to  a  decimal.  \{) 

8.  Divide  '124  by  62.  10 
!'.  If  a  sack  of  potatoes  will  last  a  family  of  3  persons  10  days,  how  long 

wiU  it  last  a  family  of  15  persons  ?  15 

10.  What  is  the  interest  on  30^.  for  2  years  at  5  per  cent  ?  Would  the  dis- 
count on  the  same  sum  due  2  years  hence  at  the  same  rate  per  cent, 
be  greater  or  less  ?  1^ 

Fn-iwh. 

i.  What  is  the  gender  of  (1.)  mer,  (2.)  nation,  (3.)  c6Ye?  1.3 

5.  What   is   the  difference   in   meaning   between   La  dame  que  fai  vue 

peindre,  and  La  dame  que  ftii  vu  peindre  ?  15 

6.  Translate  into  English,  Je  viei>s  de  dire  h  votre  ph-e  que  s'il  vient  h 

pleuvoir  il  ne  viendra  pas.  20 

7.  Translate  into  French,  In  reply  to  your  favour  of  the  16th  we  beo  to 

thelZia''  "'""  *''*  """'**  •^'"' ''"  '""'^""  ^"^  ""'"^^ ^^"^'''  *°  '^««^* 
For  Writing     "  -60 


Mr.  Bompas'n  Report.  79 

Afternoon  Papers.  Paper  (2.)  For  Boys. 

Introductory . 

1.  What  is  your  name  ? 

2.  What  school  do  you  attend  ? 

3.  How  many  hours  a  week  (if  any)  do  you  spend  in  learning  music? 

4.  How  many  hours  a  week  (if  any)  do  you  spend  in  learning  drawing  ? 

Latin  Language  and  History. 

1.  What  is  the  genitive  singular  of  (I.)  musa  and  (2.)  supellex?  5 

2.  What  is  the  genitive  plural  of  (1.)  homo,  and  (2.)  nox  ?  6 

3.  Write  down  the  third  person  plural,  perfect  tense,  active  and  passive 

voices,  of  the  following  verbs : — (1.)  amo,  {2.)facib.  10 

4.  What  is  the  meaning  of  consulo,  (1.)  when  it  governs  the  dative,  (2.) 

when  it  governs  the  accusative  ?  10 

5.  What  is  examen  derived  from  ?  10 

6.  Translate  into  English,  (I.)  £pis<oiam  jaawi  misividit?  10 
(2.)  Fiat  {pace  deum  dixerim)  jactura  religionis ;  oblivio  deorum  capiat 

pectora  vestra ;  num  senatum  quoque  de  hello  consuli  non  placet  ?  non 
ad  populum  ferri,  velint  juheantne  cum  Gallis  helium  geri  ?  25 

7.  Translate  into  Latin,  (I.)  He  was  a  good  hoy.  10 
(2.)  He  hegged  them  to  send  ambassadors  to  Syracuse  to  ascertain  the 

truth :  and  declared  that  he  was  not  aware  of  any  injury  being  done 
him  by  Jitus  ?  25 

8.  Scan  the  Une,  Bentibus  horrendis  custos  erat  arietis  aurei.  10 

9.  Who  composed  the  &st  triumvirate  ?  16 
10.  What  did  the  Licinian  Rogations  enact  ?  and  when  were  they  passed  ?  16 

Greek  Language  and  History. 

1.  What  is  the  accusative  singular  of  ficuriheis  ?  and  the  dative  singular 

oivavs?  15 

2.  What  is  the  nominative  plural  of  ofiJs  ?  and  the  dative  of  Tv<pBels  ?  15 

3.  Distinguish  between  v,  fi,  i),  ^,  ^.  15 

4.  What  is  the  meaning  of  irajiii  o-oC,  irapii  o-ol,  irapA  a-4i  15 
What  is  the  second  aorist  active  first  person  singular  of  relBu  ?  and  the 

first  aorist  middle  second  person  singular  of  (ttiWu.  16 

fr.  Translate  (1.)     ^  cflo-os  ayflpdnrous  ?X"-  16 

(2.)  an^oripuv  Sfiov  aKoStrai,  IvBviwvuivovs  8ti  oSt'  &v  ^Kfiva  Sivaivro 
iroieiv  iJ.)i  irepav  avfmpaTTSvrasv,  offr'  &v  oir  iirexeipV'^av  i\9e!v  liii 
vwh  Twv  a{tTay  oUfiefoi  aa8^ffea6ai.  30 

7.  Who  commanded  the  Grreeks  at  the  battle  of  Thermopyle?  15 

8.  To  what  states  did  the  Generals   Brasidas,  Cleon,  and  Epaminondas 

respectively  belong  ?  15 

Germjin. 

1.  Decline  SoAb.  10 

2.  Give  the  parts  of  the  verb  sprechen  ?  10 

3.  Translate  into  English,  Diefleissige  Tochter  sassgam  allein  und  spann 

v/ahrend  Karl  ein  deutsches  Lied  sang.  15 

4.  Translate  into  German,  I  received  a  letter  from  Germany  yesterday.       15 

Modern  History. 

1.  What  king  of  France  ordered  the  massacre  of  St.  Bartholomew?  i'3 

2.  What  was  the  extent  of  the  empire  of  Charles  V.,  Emperor  of  Ger- 

many. 1 6 

3.  What  two  empresses  were  opposed  to  Frederick  the  Great,?  20 


25 


80  Schools  Inquiry  Commission. 

Afternoon  Papers.  Papbr  (1.)  F"*  ^'>^^- 

Introductory . 

1.  What  is  your  name  'i 

2.  What  school  do  you  attend  ? 

Algebra, 

1.  Reduce  to  its  simplest  form  (o+3)  (a  —  3)  ~  {2a?  —  2  («+5),} 

2.  Solve  the  following  equations  : 

'-'■•>      3      "•     4  "■     '^    -"  1x2  +  2/2  =  3  .T +  1. 

Expand  by  the  binomial  theorem  to  three  terms  (1—2  x)f .  30 

Trigonometry. 

1 .  What  is  meant  by  the  cosine  of  an  angle  f  15 

2.  What  is  the  value  of  the  cosine  of  an  angle  of  60°  ?  15 

3.  If  two  sides  of  a  triangle  a,  b,  are  given,  and  the  angle  A  opposite  to 

one  of  them,  write  down  (without  proving  them)  the  formulw  you 
would  use  to  find  the  other  angles.  20 

Conic  Sections, 

1.  Write  down  the  general  equation  to  a  straight  line.  16 

2.  What  are  the  loci  of  the  following  equations  ? — 

{}.)  a»  ■>ry^=\.  (2.)  a!^  +  j/2  =  0.  (3.)  a^  —  y"  =  1. 

(4.)  r"  _  ^2  _  0.  35 

Hviclid. 

1.  What  is  an  acute-angled  triangle  ?  10 

2.  Write  out  the  following  propositions  of  Euclid  : — (1.)  If  two  angles 

of  a  triangle  are  equal  to  one  another,  the  sides  also  which  subtend 
or  are  opposite  to  the  equal  angles,  shall  be  equal  to  one  another, 
B.  I.  Prop.  6.  (2.)  If  one  circle  touch  another  internally  in  any 
point,  the  straight  line  which  joins  their  centres  being  produced 
shall  pass  through  that  point  of  contact,  B.  III.  Prop.  11.  40 

3.  In  B.  I.  Prop.  12.   "  To  draw  a  straight  line  perpendicular  to  a  given 

straight  line  of  unlimited  length  from  a  given  point  without  it,    the 
following  construction  is  given  by  Euclid  : — 
Let  A  be  the  given  point,  and  BC  the  given  a 

straight  line ;  take  any  point  D  ore  the 
opposite  side  of  BC  from  A,  and  with 
centre  A  at  the  distance  A  D  describe  the 
circle  E  D  F,  cutting  B  C  in  the  points 
E  and  F.  Bisect  E  F  on  G  and  join 
A  G,  A  G  shall  be  the  line  required. 
Are  the  words  in  italics  necessary,  and  if  so  why  ?  20 

4.  Is  the  following  a  correct  solution  of  the  problem.     From  a  given 

point  to  draw  a  straight  line  touching  a  given  circle ;  if  not,  why  is 
it  defective: — 
Let  A  be  the  given  point,  B  D  F,  the  given 
circle.  Find  C,  the  centre  of  the  circle, 
and  draw  the  line  C  E  meeting  the  circle 
in  D.  From  A  draw  A  D  at  right  angles 
to  CE,  A  D  shall  be  the  line  required. 
Because  A  D  is  drawn  from  the  extremity 
of  the  radius  C  D  at  right  angles  to  it, 
therefore  A  D  touches    the  circle,  and  __ 

it  is  drawn  from  the  point  A.— Q.  E.  F.  "^  go 

Mensuration. 

A 

1.  Draw  a  line  from  A  perpendicular  to  B  C  oq 

B  c 

2.  What  is  the  circumference  of  a  circle  whose  diameter  is  2  feet  P  20 


Mr.  Bompas's  Report. 


81 


Book- 

keeping. 

John  Jones. 

12. 

Cr. 

Fol. 

£ 

s. 

1 .  If  the  following  be  a  copy  of  a 

81 

By  Goods  - 

11 

13 

page  in  your  ledger,  what  is 

the  meaning  of  the  figures  81 

and    17    in   the     left-hand 

column  ? 

17 

By  Cash    - 

6 

3 

0 
2.  In  the  following  bill  of  exchange.which  is  the  name  of  the  drawer  and 
which  of  the  acceptor  ?  S  • 

K      London,  April  10,  1865. 
Three  moi^is  after  date  pay  to 
James  Snwh  ninety-four  pounds. 

ri 

£94.  Henry  Thomas. 


To  F.  Morris,  Esq. 


Natural  Pfdlosophy. 


30 


20 


1.  If  two  equal  forces  act  on  a  point  not  in  the  same  straight  line,  can 

their  resultant  ever  be  less  than  either  of  them  ? 

2.  What  distance  will  a  body  falling  from  rest  pass  through  in  the  third 

second,  the  force  of  gravity  being  taken  as  equal  to  32  feetP 

3.  ^^'^lat  is  the  ratio  of  the  power  to  the  weight  when  in  equihbrium  on  a 

straight  lever,  the  power  and  weight  both  acting  at  right  angles  to 
the  lever  ? 

4.  If  a  body  floating  in  water  is  exactly  half  immersed  in  it,  what  is  its 

specific  gravity,  the  specific  gravity  of  water  being  taken  as  unity  ? 

5.  If  the  refractive  index  of  water  is  f,  how  far  below  the  surface  will  a 

fish  appear  to  be,  its  real  depth  being  8  feet  ? 

6.  Should  a  short-sighted  person  use  a  convex  or  concave  lens  ? 

Natural  Science. 

1.  What  gases  is  the  air  composed  \)f,  and  what  is  their  proportion  ? 

2.  Write  down  the  chemical  symbols  for  saltpetre  and  sulphuric  acids,  and 

show  by  symbols  the  decomposition  which  ensues  if  equal  weights 
of  the  two  substances  be  mixed  ? 

3.  To  which  of  the  three  classes — exogens,  endogens,  acrogena  (or  cryp- 

togamic  plants)  do  ferns  belong  P. 


20 


20 


20 

20 

20 
20 


20 


20 
30 


APPENDIX  (B). 


Morning  Paper. 


Elementary  Uubstions. 

Introductory. 

1.  What  is  your  name? 

2.  What  is  your  age  ? 

3.  What  school  do  you  attend? 

4.  Are  you  a  boarder  or  a  day  scholar  ? 

5.  How  long  have  you  been  at  the  school  ? 

English  Grammar. 

1.  Write  down  the  passage  read  by  the  examiner?     (The  passage  read  was 

the  same  as  that  given  to  the  boys.)  50 

2.  Write  down  the  perfect  and  past  participle  of  each  of  the  following 

verbs,  (1.)  to  live,  (2.)  to  fly,  (3.)  to  eat.  12 

3.  Parse  the  following  sentence.  What  reason  have  you  for  saying  that  ?       28 


For  Girls.  Papers  set  and 
marks  given. 


82  Schools  Tnquirii  Commission. 

Geography . 

1.  What  are  the  namesof  the  capitals  of  (1.)  Scotland,  (2.)  Austria?  10 

2.  Mention  the  names  of  any  two  towns  in  Yorkshire.  i'^' 

3.  What  is  a  peninsula? 

English  History. 

1.  When  did  William  the  Conqueror  come  to  England?  and  who  were  the 

next  two  kings  of  England?  ^  ^,  a 

2.  In  whose  reign  did  the  House  of  Commons  first  meet  /  „       ,    ,  o 

3.  When  and  between  what  nations  was  the  battle  of  Hastings  fought  ?         8 

French. 

1.  Write  down  the  present  tense 'of  e^re.  1" 

2.  Translate  into  EngUsh,  Sa  mire  a  trois  fils.  K' 

3.  Translate  into  French,  The  daughter  of  the  man  is  good.  10 

Arithmetie. 

1.  Write  down  in  figures  the  number.  One  million  fifteen  thousand  and  ten.  8 

2.  Subtract  3845  from  5492.  ^ 

3.  Divide  141,905  by  281.  « 

4.  What  will  9,213  yards  of  cloth  cost  at  12s.  4d.  jier  yard  ?  10 


Further  Questions. 
English  Grammar. 

4.  Are  the  verbs  in  the  following  sentences  active,  passive,  or  neuter?    (1.) 

He  died  a  peaceful  death.    (2.)   He  was  sent  by  the  general.   (3.)  The 
hen  sat  three  weeks.  1 5 

5.  Write  out  the  following  sentence  with  all  the  mistakes  in  Grammar 

corrected.  If  Janes  hag  or  parasol  was  stole,  who  could  I  persuade 
to  give  her  new  ones.  ■      '5 

6.  Analyse  the  following  sentence. 

The  daisy  by  the  shadow  that  it  casts, 

Protects  the  lingering  dewdrop  from  the  sun.  30 

English  History. 

4.  Who  were  the  four  sovereigns  that  immediately  preceded  the  Common- 

wealth ?  and  what  was  their  relationship  to  each  other  ?  16 

5.  In  whose  reign  was  the  Petition  of  Right  presented?  Mention  any  three 

of  its  provisions.  IC 

6.  When  was  the  battle  of  the  Boyne  fought  ?  and  what  nations  took  part  . 

in  it.  12 

7.  When  did  Wickliffe  and  Jeremy  Taylor  live?   and  for  what  were  they 

remarkable?  Ifi 

8.  Which  of  the  following  adjectives  do  you  consider  applicable  to  Henry 

VIII.  and  James  I.,  cruel,  mean  spirited,  deceitful,  cowardly,  tyran- 
nical, conceited,  usurping  ?  16 
Geography. 
4.  Is  York  east  or  west  of  London  ?  10 
i).  Is  Exeter  north  or  south  of  Dover  ?  10 

6.  From  what  countries  do  we  get  (1.)  coffee,  (2.)  mahogany  ?  26 

7.  What  is  the  form  of  government  in  Austria?  10 

8.  Is  the  length  of  a  degree  of  longitude  the  same  everywhere?   if  not, 

where  is  it  longest  ?  20 
Arithmetic, 

h.  What  is  the  value  of  -|  of  |  -4-  V"  ?  10 

6.  Which  is  greatest,!  or -J-f?  10 

7.  Reduce  -^  to  a  decimal.  10 

8.  Diinde  •248by6'2.  10 
!'.  If  a  piece  of  work  will  employ  4  workmen  12  days  how  long  will  it 

employ  16  workmen?  15 

10.  What  is  the  interest  of  Wl.  for  3  yeai-s  at  5  per  cent.  ?  Would  the  dis- 
count on  the  same  sum  due  3  years  hence  at  the  same  rate  per  cent, 
be  greater  or  less  ?  15 


Mr.  Bompas's  Report, 


83 


French. 

4.  What  is  the  gender  of  (1.)  part  (a  part),  (2.)  description  (a  description), 

(3.)  incendie  (a  fire)  ? 

5.  What  is  the  difference  in  meaning  between  La  dame  quefai  vuepeindre  1 

and  La  dame  quej'ai  vu  peindre  ? 

6.  Translate  into  English,  Je  viens  de  dire  h  voire  plre  que  s'il  vient  a 

pleuvoir  il  ne  viendra  pas. 

7.  Translate  into  French,  In  reply  to  your  favour  of  the  IGth  we  bey  to 

return  you  our  best  thanks  for  the  order  you  were  pleased  to  transmit 
therewith. 
For  \vriting. 


15 
15 


20 


20 
50 


Afternoon  Papers. 


Paper  (1).  For  Girls. 

Introductory, 

1.  What  is  your  name  ? 

2.  What  school  do  you  attend  ? 

Music. 

1.  How  many  notes  are  there  in  the  octave  ?  6 

2.  How  many  flats  or  sharps  are  there  in  the  key  of  E  ?  10 

3.  How  many  flats  are  there  in  the  key  of  Bjj  ?  10 

4.  How  many  demisemiquavers  are  equal  to  a  minim  ?  10 

5.  What  is  the  meaning  ofthe  terms  Da  Capo,  Crescendo,  a.r^&Rallentando'?  15 

6.  What  is  the  difference  between  the  major  and  the  minor  scales  ?  20 

7.  How  do  you  find  the  relative  minor  of  any  major  key?                       .  ^^ 

8.  Is  there  any  difference  in  the  signature  of  a  major  key  and  its  relative 

minor  ?  15 

Algebra. 

1.  Reduce  to  its  simplest  form  (a-4)  (a+4) — {2a''— 4  (a+4)} 

2.  Divide  0^—9  by  a  +3. 

3.  Solve  the  following  equations : — 

n  ^  Imf     '^  +  1  Q      io\    f   a^  —  y^=a;  +  l 

(1-)    -^—-T~     =3-     (2-)    U^+/=3^  +  l      45 


25 

30 


Euclid, 

1 .  What  is  an  acute  angled  triangle  ? 

2.  Write  out  the  following  propositions  of  Euclid  : — 

(1.)  From  the  greater  of  two  given  straight  lines  to  cut  off  a  part 
ec|ual  to  the  less,  B.  I.,  Prop.  3.  (2.)  To  find  the  centre  of  a  given 
circle,  B.  III.,  Prop.  1. 

3.  In  B.  I.,  Prop.  9.  To  bisect  a  given  rectilineal  angle 
the  following  construction  is  given  by  Euclid  : 

Let  B AC  be  the  given  rectilineal  angle ;  in  BA,  take  any 
point  b,  and  from  AC  the  greater  cut  off  a  part  AE  equal 
to  AU,  join  ED,  and  upon  ED,  on  the  side  remote  from  A, 
describe  an  equilateral  triangle  DFE  and  join  AF,  AF 
will  bisect  the  angle  BAC.  Are  the  words  in  italics  neces- 
sary, and  if  so,  why  ? 

4.  Is  the  following  a  correct  solution  of  the 
problem,  from  a  given  point  to  draw  a  straight 
line  equal  to  a  given  straight  line : 

Let  A  be  the  given  point  and  BC  the  given 
straight  line ;  join  AB,  and  on  AB  describe  the 
equilateral  triangle  ADB.  Produce  DA  to  E ; 
and  with  centre  D  at  the  distance  DC,  describe 
the  circle  CFH,  cutting  DE  in  F ;  AF  is  the 
line  required.  Because  D  is  the  centre  of  the 
circle  CFH,  DC  is  equal  to  DF ;  but  BD,  AD 
parts  of  them  are  equal,  therefore  the  remainder 
AF  is  equal  to  the  remainder  BC.  Q.E.D. 

a.  c.  3,  Q_2 


10 


40 


20 


84  Sclifiols  Inquiry  Commission. 


John  Jones        p.  121. 
Book-keeping.  Cr. 


fol. 


81 
17 


By  Goods 
By  Cash 


£ 


11    13     2 
5     3     0-20 
drawer  and 


1.  If  the  followinpt  be  a  copy  of  a 
page  in  your  ledger,  what  is  the  mean- 
ing of  the  figures  81  and  1 7  in  the  left- 
hand  column. 

2.  In  the  following  bill  of  exchange  which  is  the  name  of  the 
which  of  the  acceptor  ? 

m  London,  April  10,  1865. 

Three  monthg  after  date  pay  to 
James  Smithoiinety-four  pounds. 

s 

^94  ptj  Henry  Thomas. 

To  F.  Morris,  Esq. 

Natural  Philosophy. 

1.  If  two  forces  act  on  a  point  but  not  in  the  same  straight  hne,  will 
their  resultant  be  increased  or  diminished  by  making  the  angle  between 
the  two  forces  greater  1  ' 

2.  Through  what  distance  will  a  body  fall  from  rest  in  three  seconds, 
the  force  of  gravity  being  taken  as  equal  to  32  feet  ?  20 

3.  What  is  the  greatest  weight  which  you  can  support  with  a  single 
moveable  pulley  if  you  exert  a  force  equal  to  5  lbs  ?  20 

4.  If  a  body  is  floating  in  water  and  only  J  of  its  bulk  is  above  the  sur- 
face of  the  water,  what  is  its  specific  gravity,  the  specific  gravity  of  water 
being  taken  as  unity?  20 

5.  If  the  refractive  index  of  water  is  f ,  how  far  below  the  surface  wiU  a 
fish  appear  to  be,  its  real  depth  being  8  feet  ?  20 

6.  Should  a  long-sighted  person  use  a  convex  or  a  concave  lens  ?  20 

Natural  Science. 

1.  What  gases  is  the  air  composed  of,  and  in  what  proportions?  20 

2.  Write  down  the  chemical  symbols  for  potassium  and  sulphuric  acid.    40 

3.  What  is  meant  by  the  calix  of  a  flower?  30 

4.  To  which  of  the  three  classes  exogens,  endogens,  and  acrogens  (or 
cryptogamous  plants)  do  ferns  belong  ?  15 


Afternoon  Paper.  Paper  (2).  For  Girls. 

Introductory. 
■    1 .  What  is  your  name  ? 

2.  What  school  do  you  attend  ? 

3.  How  many  hours  a  week  (if  any)  do  you  spend  in  learning  music,  in- 
cluding practising^? 

4.  How  many  hours  a  week  (if  any)  do  you  spend  on  drawing  ? 

5.  How  many  hours  a  week  (if  any)  do  you  spend  on  plain  needlework  ? 

6.  How  many  hours  a  week  (if  any)  do  you  spend  on  fancy  work  ? 

Latin  Language  and  History. 

1.  What  is  the  nominative  plural  of  regnum  ?  5 

2.  What  is  the  genitive  of  (1.)  homo,  (2.)  unus'i  10 

3.  What  is  the  first  person  singular  future  active  of  amo  ?  10 

4.  What  are  the  perfect  and  supine  of  {\.)fr%co,  (2.)  pello  ?  10 

5.  What  is  the  meaning  of  consulo  (1.)  when  it  governs  the  dative  (2.), 
when  it  governs  the  accusative?  15 

6.  Translate  into  English,  (1.)  Omnis  Gallia  divisa  est  in  tres  partes?       10 

(2.)  Quaramus  quonam  modo  mtam  agere  possimus,  si  nihil  interesse 
nostra  pntemus,  valeamus  agrine  sirmis,  vaoemus  an  cruciemur  dolore, 
frigus,  famem  propulsare  possimus  necne  possimus,  26 


3Ir.  Bompas's  Report  85 

7.  Translate  into  Latin,  (1.)  She  loved  her  sister.  10 

(2.)  The  Lacedtemonians,  to  gain  peace,  of  which  they  stood  much  in 
need,  determined  to  prevent  their  allies  from  devastating  the  country.  25 

8.  Who  were  the  members  of  the  second  triumvirate  ?  15 

9.  By  what  Roman  general  was  Carthage  destroyed? 

Italian. 

1.  Translate  into  English,  II  fiore  che  mi  ha  dato  quella  donna  e  bello 
assai ?  16 

2.  Translate  into  Italian,  It  appears  to  me  that  your  hand  is  rather  larger 
than  mine  ?  20 

German. 

1.  Decline  Sohn.  10 

2.  Give  the  parts  of  the  verb  «precAe»  10 

3.  Translate  into  English,  Diefleissige  Tochter  sass  ganz  allein  und  spann 
wahrend  Karl  ein  deutsches  Lied  sang  ?  15 

4.  Translate  into  German,  I  received  a  letter  from  Germany  yesterday  ?      15 

Mod&rn  History. 

1.  By  what  king  was  the  Edict  of  Nantes  revoked  ?  15 

2.  What  was  the  extent  of  the  empire  of  Charles  V.,  Emperor  of  Ger- 
many ?  20 

3.  What  two  empresses  were  contemporaries  of  Frederick  the  Great  ?        20 

4.  How  long  was  Napoleon  Buonaparte  emperor  after  his  return  from 
Elba?  15 


g-h2 


86  Schpols  Liquiry  Commission. 


INDEX. 


Page 

Baker's  Charity     -  ...---75 

Boys — 

Boys  of  the  middle  class,  number  of      -  -  -  -  -      6 

Boys  learning  different  subjects  at  each  age,  number  of  -  -  -    32 

„  „  „  „        in  each  county,  number  of         -  -    31 

„  „  „  „        in  different  classes  of  school,  number  of    32 

„   lodginpf  by  themselves  in  towns,  practice  of  -  -  -    63 

„   showing  special  proficiency,  number  of      -  -  -  -    38 

Character  of  the  Welsh  people      -            -            -            -            -            -  6 

Characteristics  of  the  to-svns  of  Chester,  Monmouth,  and  Shrewsbury        -  4 

„               „        county  Denbigh      .            -            .                         -  4 

„        Flint 3 

„               „            „        Glamorgan  -            -            -            -            -  2 

„               „            „        Hereford     -            -            -            -            -  4 

„            „        Montgomery           -            -            -            -  4 

District  assigned  -----  -.1 

Education — 

Apparent  state  of  education  in  the  district         -            -  -  -  10 

Different  objects  sought  in  the  education  of  boys  and  girls  -            -  41 

State  of  education  in  country  districts                 -             -  -  9 

Endowments  -  -  -  -  .  -     67 

Best  form  of  endowment  -  -  -  -  -     68 

Effects  of  large  endowments       -  -  .  .  -     68 

Endos^Tnents  not  for  purposes  of  education        -  -  -  -     75 

Inapplicability  of  endowments  to  National  schools  -  -     74 

Investment  of  ----..-73 

English  grammar  and  numeration — 
Deficiency  in-  ---..-39 

Euclid — Amount  learnt      -  -  -  -  -  .  -35 

Examinations — 

Examination  of  schools  desirable  -  -  -  .  -     25 

Existing  examinations  -  -  .  -  -26 

Feasibility  of  examining  the  whole  of  schools  -  -  -    28 

Good  that  might  be  effected  by  an  annual  examiner  -  .  -    74 

Method  of  examination  adopted  -  -  .  .  .27 

Modes  of  appointing  examiners  suggested         -  .  .  -    27 

Reasons  for  the  apparent  smallness  of  the  results  -  -  -    29 

Keliability  of  the  results  obtained         .  «  .  .  -    29 


3{r,  Bompas's  Report,  87 

Page 

Examinations  for  boys — 

Ages  of  tlie  boys  examined        -           -           -  -           •            -    34 

Boarders  and  day  scholars  examined,  number  of  -            -            -     31 

Boys  examSned,  number  of         -            -            -  -                              28 

Marks  allotted  to  each  subject,  number  of          -  -                         -    30 

Papers  set  to  the  boys'  schools                -  -                         -     77 

Results  of  the  examination  for  each  county  -                         -    38 

„                „                „       school        -  -                         -    37 

„            „                „           in  each  subject        -  -            -            -    33 

Examinations  for  girls — 

Ages  of  girls  examined            ...  -66 

Beneficial  effect  of  examination  for  girls         -  .54 

Girls  examined,  number  of     -  -            -            .    66 

Marks  allotted  to  each  subject,  number  of      -  .            -                 57 

Objection  to  publicity  in  the  case  of  girls       .  -            .            .66 

Opinions  of  the  mistresses  on  examinations  -  -            -            -     65 

Papers  set  to  girls'  schools                               -  -                              81 

Eesults  of  the  examination  for  each  county    .  61 

„            „                „                „       school  -            .     60 

„             „                 J,           in  each  subject     -  .68 

United  examination  of  girls'  schools  .                         .66 

Examinations  to  test  governesses,  want  of          -  -            .41 

Girls- 
Advantages  of  masters  for  teaching  girls         -  '-                         -    48 
Girls  learning  different  subjects  at  each  age,  number  of  -     68 
„             „             „             „      in  each  county,  number  of  .     67 
„  showing  special  proficiency,  number  of    .  -             -     61 
Importance  of  an  inquiry  into  the  education  of  girls  .  .40 
Reasons  of  the  present  system  of  female  education  .     64 
State  of  education  of  girls  in  country  districts  .            .            .43 
HoKdays             .....  .66 

Jervis's  Charity  -            .  •           .            .                   _  -     76 

Kindness  received           ...  .                         _      o 

Latin — 

Advantage  of,  in  education     .            -  -            -            -    39 

Amount  leanit             ....  .32 
Masters — 

Mode  of  appointing  masters   -            -            -  .            .            -     73 

Salaries  of       -            -            -            .  -    24 

Superiority  of  trained  masters            -  -            -            -    24 

Method  of  awarding  marks        -            -  -            -            -    31 
Mistakes — Instances  of               """---     39 

Mode  of  collecting  the  required  information       -  -            ■■       1 

Music  and  drawing,  time  allotted  to  the  study  of  .            .            -    68 

Playgrounds       -            -            -            -            .  .            .            .63 

Punishments      --.-..  -64 

Relative  powers  of  boys  and  girls          ...  -    63 

Regards    '         <•'         »           -           .           .  .           .           .65 


88  Schools  Inquiry   Commission. 

Page 

Scholarships       -            -            -            -            -  "  "  'a 

Schemes  for  endowed  schools     -            -            -  ■  "  -     /^ 
Schools — 

Boarding  schools — 

Arrangements  of  boarding  schools              -  -  -  -    62 

Cheap  boarding  schools       -             -             -  -  -  -     69 

Dormitories,  apd  the  modes  of  maintaining  order  -  -  -     63 

School  buildings  -  -  ...     62 

Howell  schools                      -             -             -  -  -  -     70 

Influence  of  endowed  on  private  schools         ...  68 

Mixed  schools             -            -            -            -  -  -  -13 

National  schools          -            -            -            -  -  -  -69 

Preparatory  schools     -            -            -            -  -  ,      -  61 

Proprietary  schools     -            -            -            -  -  -  -12 

Schools  of  art             -            -            -            -  -  -  -    66 

School  libraries            -            -            -            -  -  -  -63 

Schools  for  Boys — 

Age  of  scholars           -            -            -            -  -  -  -17 

Difficulties  experienced  by  masters  of  boys'  schools  -  -  10 

Extras             -            -            -            -            -  -  -  -16 

Nature  of  boys'  schools  in  large  towns            -  -  -  -      8 

„                      „                 small  towns  -  -  -      9 

Per-centage  of  boys  learning  and  schools  teaching  each  subject  -     17 

Relative  merits  of  day  and  boarding  schools  -  -  -  -     12 

Size  of  boys'  schools               -            -            -  -  -  -     14 

Size  of  classes,  and  number  of  masters           -  -  -  -     14 

Social  position  of  the  pupils  -  -  ...    23 

Statistics  of  boys'  schools  in  district               .  .  .  .15 

Subjects  taught  in  boys'  schools — 

Book-keeping  and  mensuration       -            -  -  -  -     21 

Drawing      ---  ----23 

English  grammar    -            -            -            -  -  .  .22 

English  literature    -             -             -             -..  .  .  .23 

Euclid  and  algebra              -            -            .  .  .  -    21 

French        -            -            .            .            .  .  .  .20 

German       .            -            -            -            .  .  .  -21 

Greek         .            -            -            .            .  .  .  -19 

History  and  geography        -            -            .  .  .  .22 

Latin                                      -             .             .  .  „  -19 

Music          -            .            -            .            .  .  .  -23 

Rehgious  knowledge            -            -            -  .  .  .18 

Science        -            -            -            -            .  .  .  .22 

Terms  charged  by  boarding  schools     -            .  .  .  -     16 

"day  „ 15 

Town  of  Swansea  taken  as  an  instance           -  .  .  -9 

Years  boys  had  been  at  school,  number  of       .  .  .  .31 
Schools  for  Girls — 

Classification  of  girls'  schools             .            .  . "  .  .42 

Difficulties  experienced  by  mistresses  of"  girls'  schools  .  .    44 

Endowed  girls'  schools            -            ...  _  -  _  i  c 

Expense  of  education  at  girls'  schools            -  .  .  .41 

Extras            ....  '     >i 

-    47 


Mr.  Bompas's  Beport.  89 

Page 

Schools  for  Girls — cont. 

Finishing  schools        -           -           -           -  -  -  -42 

Girls'  schools  in  small  towns   -            -            -  •  -  -    43 

„°        „          Swansea        -           -           -  -  -  -    43 

Mixture  of  social  classes  in  girls'  schools        -  -  -  -    43 

Per-centage  of  girls  learning,  and  schools  teaching  each  subject  -    49 

Proportion  of  mistresses  to  pupils      .            -  .  -  46 

Relative  merits  of  day  and  boarding  schools  -  -  -    45 

Science — Means  of  teaching    -            -            -  -  -  -     71 

Shrewsbury — Schools  at          -            -            -  -  -  -    45 

Schools  classified  according  to  their  terms       .  .  -  - 

Short  time  for  which  ladies  usually  keep  school  -  -  -     40 

Size  of  girls'  schools               -            -            -  -  -  -     46 

Statistics  of  girls'  schools  in  district  -            -  -  -  -    44 

Subjects  taught  in  girls'  schools — 

Arithmetic  -            -            -            -            -  -  -  -50 

Book-keeping          -            -            -            -  -  -  -50 

Cooking  and  household  duties        -            -  -  -  -     63 

Dancing      -            -            -            -            -  -  -  -62 

Drawing      -            -            -            -            -  -  -  -62 

English  grammar    -            -            -            -  -  -  -51 

French         -            -            -            -            -  -  -  -    49 

History  and  geography       -            -            -  -  -  -    50 

Italian         ...-  ..-60 

Latin           ..----  -    49 

Music          -            -            -            -            -  -  -  -51 

„       its  disadvantage  as  a  branch  of  education    -  -  -    61 

Natural  history  and  physics            -            -  -  -  -60 

University  education,  want  for  mistresses  -  -  -    41 

Value  of  property  in  district      -            -            -  -  -  -      6 

Welsh  language — 

Prevalence  of-             -             -             -             -  -  -  -7 

Its  effect  on  education             -            -            -  -  -  -       7 


SCHOOLS  INQUIEY  OOMMISSIOJ!^. 


REPORT 

BT 

MR.  T.  H.  GREEN. 


Mr,  Green's  Report.  —  Contents. 


CONTENTS. 


REPORT  ON  KING  EDWARD'S  SCHOOL, 
BIRMINGHAM. 

Page 
Results  of  the  present  constitution  of  the  Board  of  Governors  in  connexion 
with  the   system   of  personal  nomination,  gratuitous   education,   and 
restriction  on  the  eligibility ,  of  scholars  .  -  .  91—116 

Constitution  of  governing  body — its  exclusive  effect       -            -            -  91 

Relation  of  governors  to  the  municipality                        -            -            -  92 
Its  results — (o)  immobility,  due  (1)  to  absence  of  moving  spirits,  (2)  to 

fear  of  resistance  from  the  town  council                      -  92 
{h)  Danger    of  religious    exclusiveness — at   present   a   mere 

danger       -                         -----  93 

Restrictions  on  eligibility,  and  their  result                       -            -            -  94 

Views  in  the  town  on  the  subject                          -            -            -            -  95 

Practical  objection  to  identification  of  the  board  of  governors  with  the 

town  council                 -             -                          -                          -             -  95 
Nomination  of  scholars,  and  examination  of  those  nominated    -             -  96,  S7 

Local  restriction  on  nominations              -----  97 

Effect  of  nomination  system  on  preliminary  education-  -     -       -            -  99 
Consequent  ignorance  in  lower  part  of  school  and  thinness  of  upper 

part     -             -                          ...                          -             -  100 

Remedy,  to  establish  competitive  examination  for  entrance                     -  ]  01 
This  partly  exists  already,  but  not  complete  unless  payment  of  fees  is 

made  the  rule,  with  exemptions  for  merit                      -                          -  102 

Popular  feeling  about  fees           -            -                        -                         -  103 

Proposal  to  make  charitable  exceptions                 -             -             .             .  104 

No  need  of  this,  if  "  elementary"  schools  made  the  most  of                    -  106 

Good  material  now  obtained  from  the  Parade  school      -            -            -  106 

Relation  of  schools  on  King  Edward's  foundation  to  National  schools  -  107 

What  is  wanted  to  raise  the  character  of  the  former                    -            -  108 
No  class  would  be  excluded  from  the  grammar  school  on  the  proposed 

system              ...                         ....  109 

Relation  of  the  grammar  school  to  the  private  schools    -                         -  110 

How  it  might  virtually  affiliate  them      -            -            -            -            -  111 

Is  there  any  need  for  preparatory  schools  distinct  from  the  "  elementary  ?"  112 

Three  standards  of  admission,  according  to  age,  desirable                       -  113 

Local  restrictions  on  exhibitions              -            -            -            -            -  1 1 4 

No  hardship  in  fees,  properly  regulated  -            -            -            -            -  115 

What  should  be  their  amount  ?  -            -            -            -            -            -  116 

Future  disposal  of  income  -  -  -  -  -  -117 

Review  of  the  drawhaehs  to  the  efficiency  of  ihe  School  in  promoting 
(l)  practical  education,  (2)  liberal  education,  whether  general,  or  adapted 
to  the  Universities        -  -  -  .  .  118-140 

Division  of  departments  -  -  -  -  -  -  -118 

Kind  of  boys  in-  each    "-         '  -         '  -         '  -         '  -           .           .  119 


Mr.  Greeris  Report. —  Contents. 

Page 

Provision  for  practical  education  in  English  school         .  .  -  120 

Noise  and  bad  arrangement  in  it  -  -  -  121 

Preliminary  ignorance     -  -  -  -  -  -  -122 

Boys  wanting  English  education  often  in  classical  school  -  123 

Get  hardly  any  English  or  general  education  in  the  latter  -  ]  24 

The  classical  standard  cannot  otherwise  he  maintained  -  -  125 

Condition  of  the  under-masters  -  -  -  -  -  126 

Desrability  of  giving  more  general  education     ...  -  127 

Such  education  does  not  "pay "  -  -  -  -  128 

What  is  done  for  it  in  the  upper  classes  of  English  department  -_  -  129 

Few  reach  these  -  -  -  -  .  -  130 

Possibility  of  combining  the  two  departments  for  certain  lessons  131 

Evening  classes  -  -  131 

Cerlain  lines  of  life  for  which  no  preparation  is  given  in  the  grammar 

schgol  ...  ..  132 

Neglect,  of  mathematics  -  ...  133 

Is  a  third  department  wanted  ?    -  ....  134 

View  of  university  among  commercial  men  -  -  135 

What  might  be  done  by  the  school  to.  increase  the  number  who  go  to  a 

university         ...  .  .  .  136 

Transfer  from  the  English  school  to  the  classical  should  be  facilitated 
—how?  ...  ...  136,137 

Establishment  of  scholarships  .  -  138 

Changes  in  regard  to  exhibitions  .  -  -  139 

*i*iii^gosed  re-modeUing  of  the  department — system         -  -  140 

"  MoraPtane,"  and  means  of  improving  it  ...  141 

Situation  of  tne^fflTOOl^^^udvantages  and  disadvantages  -  142, 143 

Relation  of  the  school  to  "local  examinations  "  -  -  144 


GENERAL  REPORT. 


Division  of  grammar  schools  into  those  used  as  such,  and  those  used  as 

elementary  schools       .....  _       j^^g 

In  the  former  division,  education  given  may  be  considered  under  the 
heads  (1)  liberal,  (2)  commercial  .  .  .  .  .14-6 

General  review  of  the  present  character  of  the  liberal  education,  and  of 
the  reasons  why  it  is  not  better  .  147-185 

Sketch  of  the  standard  attained  in  Latin,  mathematics,  French    and 

English '       147,  148 

Remedy  for  the  present  state  of  things  not  to  be  found  in  a  radical 

change  of  the  subjects  and  method  of  instruction        .  ,      143 

Abandonment  of  Latin  for  young  boys  in  the  grammai-  schools  quite  a 
different  thmg  from  a  modification  of  the  classical  system  in  the  great 
schools  and  universities  -  .  .  .  _  -i^n 

Review  of  the  educational  value  of  the  "  modern  "  studies  -  149   150 

May  it  not  be  desirable  to  adopt  them  as  a  sop  to  commercial  pai-ents  ?  I61'  152 
To  the  average  parents  Latin  not  necessarily  an  offence;  to  the  best  an    ' 
object  of  desire  -  .  .  ,  .'  _  jgg  153 


Mr.  Green's  Report. —  Contents. 

Page 
To  give  it  up,  would  be  to  sacrifice  the  best  boys  to  the  worst,  without 
any  corresponding  gain  to  tlie  latter,  and  finally  divorce  the  grammar' 
schools  from  the  universities    --....       154 

Real  reasons  of  the  defects  of  grammar  schools,  and  first,  why  more  hoys 

don't  go  to  them  ......  154-168 

(a)  The  position  of  the  master  of  the  grammar  school  has  generally 
been  such  as  to  give  him  no  adequate  motive  for  making  the 
school  popvilar — contrast  with  the  private  schoolmaster       154,  155 

He  does  not  spread  his  net  wide  enough,  and  often  will  not  con- 
descend to  manage  the  very  manageable  commercial  parent  -       157 

He  often  does  not  care  for  his  work,  or  has  other  work    -  -       157 

(6)  The  buildings  and  situation  of  grammar  schools  often  bad ; 

illustrations  -  -  -  -  -  157,  158 

(c)  Preference  of  boarding  school  to  day  school,  and  reasons  for  it       159 

(d)  General  abstention  of  the  professional  class  from  use  of  the 
grammar  school         -  -  -  -  -  -       ]  60 

Reasons  for  it  (1)  social  ...  161,162 

„  (2)  educational  ...      I63 

Commercial  parents  often  object  to  the  grammar  school,  as  not  giving 
the  shortest  cut  to  necessary  knowledge  ....       Ig4 

Comparison  of  grammar  schools  with  private  schools  in  this  respect  and 
in  that  of  numbers       -  -  -  -  -  164,165 

Many  boys  locally  out  of  reach  of  a  grammar  sehool ;  where  and  why 
this  is  the  case  ......  IQQ^  167 

Special  consideration  of  the  case  of  sons  of  farmers  in  remote  districts  167,  168 

Why  the  grammar  schools  don't  malce  more  of  the  boys  who  do  go  to 
them     ------.-  169-185 

(a)  Uneducated  parentage  -  -  -  -  -       169 

(6)  Presence  in  the  schools  of  boys  who  ought  not  to  be  there  at 
aU,  "who  learn  nothing  and  prevent  others  from  learning : 
this  due  (1)  to  gratuitous  system,  (2)  to  want  of  entrance 
examination  ....  170,  17I 

(c)  Want  of  effective  reward  to  better  boys  :  the  old  universities 

out  of  reach  -  -  -  -       172 

Special  obstacles  in  way  of  a  Dissenter                             -  -  -       173 

Attractions  of  London  University  and  civil  service,       -  -  -       173 

Day-boys,  generally  meant  to  leave  early  for  business     -  -  174 

Only  stimulus  for  these  to  be  found  in  the  "  local  examinations  "  -      175 

Consideration  of  the  general  effect  of  these  on  schools     -  176,  177 

Difficulty  of  combining  preparation  for  them  (1)  with  that  for  public 

schools,  (2)  with  that  for  universities  -            -            -  -  178,  179 

Value  attached  to  success  in  them  -  .  .  .  .       igQ 

(d)  Defects  of  teaching  in  the  grammar  schools ;  distraction  of 

the  masters,  and  modes  of  classification  -  180,  181 

(e)  Difficulty  of  getting  good  under-masters        ...       182 

Question  between  graduates  and  others  -  -  -  -  -       183 

Possible  simplification  of   work,  by  abandonment  of  Greek  in  lesser 
schools  ........       183 

(/)  Want  of  oral  teaching  in  lower  classes  and  of  work  on  paper 

in  the  higher  ......       I84 

(^)  Defects  of  building  and  arrangement  -  -  -      185 


Mr.  Green's  Report. —  Contents. 

Page 

Review  of  the  state  of  "  commercial  education  "  in  grammar  schools         185-191 

Iftfi 
Comparison  with  private  schools  .        ■ 

Cases  where  the  classical  standard  is  kept  up  at  the  expense  of  the 

commercial      -            -            -                         '            '            "  " 

How  far,  and  why,  this  is  unavoidable                                -             -  187 

In  some  cases  income  insufficient  to  keep  up  both           -  188 

Two  ordinary  ways  of  attempting  to  keep  up  both           -  -       189 

Alternative  studies ;  objections  to  this     -             -             -             -  -       189 

Separate  departments ;  objections  to  this             ...  190 

Suggestion  of  a  better  plan                      ...            -  191 

Review  of  the  mode  and  extent  to  which  private  effort  supplements  the 
action  of  grammar  schools  .  -  -       192-212 

A.  (1.)  Cases  where  the  private  schools  have  it  aU  their  own   way, 

e.g.  the  Potteries                     -  192 

Small  number  in  them— where  are  the  rest?                -            -  192 
Character  (a)  of  the  more,  (6)  of  the  less  expensive  private 

schools  here               ..----  193 

Vacuum  which  they  don't  fill               ....  194 
(2.)  Action  of  private  schools  as  cheap  boarding-schools;  why  they 

are  cheaper  than  grammar  schools                 ...  195 
Two  classes  of  them  in  respect  of  terms ;  demand  for,  and 

character  of,  the  cheaper  class  -  -       196-198 

Defects  in  the  principals,  the  assistants,  the  buildings              -  199 

Want  of  effective  examination              -  200 
Few  schools   of  this  class  use  "local  examinations;"  good 

effect  on  such  as  do               -                         -                        -  201 

What  is  wanted  to  extend  the  benefit              .            -            -  202 
(3.)  Action  of  cheap  private  schools,  as  day-schools,  side  by  side 

with  grammar  schools                                      -             -  203 
(4.)  Action    of    more    expensive    private    schools    in    like   juxta- 
position                                     -                                     -      204,205 

5.  Action  of  private  schools  of  the  latter  sort  as  boarding-schools  206 
What  the  grammar  school  might  do,  but  the  private  school 

cannot  do                   -                          ...             -  207 

B.  Supplemental  action  of  proprietary  schools  ;  1st  at  Leamington  208 

2nd  at  Tettenhall         -  ....      209 

Inferences  to  be  drawn  from  the  estabhshment  of  this  school,  and  diffi- 
culties in  its  way         ...  .  209,  210 

(3rd.)  Edgbaston ;  its  object ;  causes  of  its  partial  decline,  and  condi- 
tions of  its  success        ■  ...  211,212 

HoXv  far  are  National  and  British  schools  supplemental  to  grammar 

schools?  ---.....      212 

Consideration   of  the  possibility  of  getting    more  money  for  grammar 
schools,  and  of  the  way  in  which  it  should  be  applied   -  -  213-231 

Application  to  its  proper  purpose  of  the  income  of  grammar  schools  in 

villages,  now  applied  to  elementary  schools    -  .  .  .      213 

Uselessness  of  the  endawment  in  these  places,  as  at  present  applied      214,  215 


Mr.  Qreen's  Beport, —  Contents. 

Suggestions  of  change  in  certain  cases  :  Page 

(1.)  At  Bradley  and  Church  Eaton      -  -  -  -  -      216 

(2.)  At  Dilhorne 217 

(3.)  At  Audley  and  Newchapel  .....      218 

Possible  resources  of  the  grammar  school  at  Newcastle,  and  of  Orme's 

School 219,220 

Proposal  to  establish  a  high  school  at  Newcastle,  and  suggestions  for 
working  it--.-----      221 

Desirable  transfer  of  funds  at  Walsall  and  Hampton-Lucy         -  -      222 

Useless  charity  in  large  amounts  at  various  places  -  -  223-225 

Plan  for  establishing  high  schools  ;  great  need  of  them  -  -      226 

Where  should  they  be  ?  -  -  -  -  -  -      22? 

Supposing  them  to  be  established,  what  schools  should  continue  inde- 
pendent?        ..-..-.-      228 
What  should  be  affiliated  to  them?         -  -  -  -  -      229 

Limit  of  income  desirable  for  scliools  of  each  class  ...      229 

Cases  where  the  limit  is  reached,  and  where  it  is  not       -  -  230,  231 

Preparatory  schools  specially  wanted  in  certain  cases      -  -  -      230 

Obstacles  to  proposed  changes       -  -  .  .  .  231-237 

1.  Local  opposition  in  some  cases        .....      232 

2.  Cry  of  injustice  to  poor       ......      232 

3.  Existing  "  commercial  departments  "  in  the  way    ...      233 

4.  Want  of  initiative    -.-..--      233 
Suggestions  as  to  where  an  initiative  might  best  be  found,  and  as  to 

the  constitution  of  boards  of  trustees  -        -  -  -  -  234 

5.  Objection  of  masters  to  affiliation    -  .  -  -  .  235 

6.  Denominational  difficulty   ...---  236 

7.  General  want  of  interest  in  high  education  among  the  commercial 

class  -  .  -  .  237, 238 

Importance  in  this  respect  of  really  opening  the  old  universities  -  237,  238 

Education  of  girls  .......  238-261 

Incompleteness  of  accessible  information             ....  238 

Grades  of  school  in  respect  of  terms        .....  238 

Small  number  of  girls  to  be  found  in  them  ;  where  are  the  rest?  -  239 
With   girls,   sound   education  not  necessary  for  the  purposes  of  life, 

except  in  certain  cases              ......  240 

Training  of  teachers — the  apprenticing  system  and  its  results    -            -  241 

Grammar  schools  wanted  for  girls           .....  242 

Usefulness  of  the  "  Bath  Row  School "  at  Birmingham             -            -  243 

What  else  is  wanted  at  Birmingham       .....  244 

Demand  for  the  proposed  schools,  as  felt  by  various  classes        -            -  245 

Difficulties  in  the  way  of  their  successful  operation         ...  246 

Means  of  establishing  them — their  probable  expense      ...  247 

Waste  of  teaching  power  in  present  system         ....  248 

Probable  effect  of  the  proposed  schools  on  others,  and  on  the  opinion  of 

parents            ........  249 

Present  state  of  the  more  expensive  schools        ....  250 


ME.   GEEEN'S   EEPOET 

ON 

THE  SCHOOLS  IN  THE  COUNTIES  OE  STAFFORD 
AND  WARWICK, 

AND 

SPECIAL   EEPOET 

ON 

KING  EDWARD  VI.  FREE  SCHOOL,  BIRMINGHAM.* 


Mt  Loeds  and  Gentlemen, 

The  matters  to  which,  in  pursuance  of  my  instructions,  I  Dmsion  of  the 
directed  my  attention  at  Birmingham,  may  be  divided  under  two  »"''J«'=*- 
main  heads,  (A)  those  affecting  the  condition  of  the  grammar 
schools  externally,  which  naturally  fall  under  the  view  of  the 
governors  and  the  general  public,  and  (B)  those  affecting  it 
internally,  which  fall  rather  under  the  view  of  the  masters  and 
pupils  of  the  school. 

Under  A,  the  first  point  to  be  considered  is  the  constitution  of  Constitution  of 
the  Board  of  Governors,  as  determined  by  law  and  custom.  By  |°^y""'^ 
law,  i.e.,  by  the  original  letters  jiatent  of  Edward  VI.,  and  by  the 
Act  of  1831,  vacancies  in  the  Board  are  filled  up  by  co-optation. 
By  custom,  no  dissenters  during  the  last  half  century,  nor  any  one 
connected  with  the  municipal  government  of  the  town  since  the 
establishment  of  such  government,  have  been  admitted  to  the 
Board.  This  customary  exclusion,  it  is  to  be  observed,  is  the 
result  of  the  rule  of  co-optatiori. 

On  such  a  question  in  such  a  place,  social  and  political  feeling 
is  sure  to  run  rather  high  ;  but  while  opinion  with  regard  to  it  is 
strong,  the  facts  ascertainable  by  a  stranger  are  few.  I  shall  pro- 
bably best  serve  the  purpose  of  the  Commission  by  stating  the 
chief  aspects  of  the  question  as  it  presents  itself  to  an  inquirer  on 
the  spot,  and  one  or  two  points  in  which  the  present  system  ope- 
rates favourably  or  otherwise  on  the  welfare  of  the  school.  As  it 
is  universally  admitted  that  the  present  Board  has  discharged  its 
duties  with  all  care  and  conscientiousness,  such  a  statement  can 
involve  no  reflections  on  individuals. 

Hitherto,  so  far  as  I  could  ascertain,  the  Board  has  fairly  repre-  Exclusive 
sented  the  upper  or  more  select  section  of  society  in  Birmingham,  effect  of  thwm 
so  far  as  this  section  is  politically  conservative  and  attached  to  the 
Established  Church.  Its  enemies  assert  that  it  represents  merely 
a  clique,  but  this,  I  think,  is  only  true  in  the  sense  implied  in  the 
above  statement.  In  Birmingham,  as  elsewhere,  there  is  an  un- 
fortunate, though  natural,  tendency  in  the  professional  class,  and 

*  This  report  relates  ttiroughout  to  the  state  of  things  in  the  year  1865. 
a.  e.  3.  I 


92 


Birmingltnm  Free  School. 


R  elation  of 
governing 
body  to  the 
municipality. 


Practical 
results. 
General  im- 
mobility due 
(1)  to  absence 
of  moving 
spirits. 


(S')  To  fear  of 
resistance  from 
Town  Council. 


among  those  commercial  men  whose  families  have  been  well  on 
for  one  or  two  generations,  to  stand  aloof  from  municipal  affairs. 
The  exceptions  to  this  rule, — and  there  are  several  notable  excep- 
tions,— have  been  uniformly  men  of  liberal  politics,  and  generally 
dissenters.  Thus,  a  Board  composed  of  conservative  churchmen,  of 
good  social  position,  has  necessarily  been  antagonistic  to  the  town 
council,  and  careless  or  contemptuous  of  local  politics.  To  belong 
to  it  has  been  a  certain  social  distinction.  Social  and  municipal 
distinctions  have  not  coincided,  and  hence  the  Board  has  been  an 
object  of  public  animosity,  irrespectively  of  the  manner  in  which 
it  has  exercised  its  function. 

The  first  evil  resulting  from  this  state  of  things  I  should  de- 
scribe as  a  general  immobility  in  the  management  of  the  school. 
As  dissenters  or  radicals,  the  Board  has  excluded  most  of  those 
who  would  be  disposed  to  move,  and  likely  to  move  with  discre- 
tion. It  is  noticeable  that,  with  one  or  two  exceptions  lately  intro- 
duced, the  names  of  those  who  have  been  foremost  in  the  establish- 
ment and  conduct  of  such  educational  agencies  as  the  Midland 
institute  and  the  public  libraries,  are  not  to  be  found  on  the  list 
of  governors.  The  dissenting  congregations  in  Birmingham  are 
not  only  as  numerous  as  those  of  the  Establishment,  but  (as  would 
be  generally  admitted)  include  at  least  as  many  persons  of  intel- 
lect and  education.  Among  their  ministers  are  several  men  of 
great  ability,  and  specially  qualified  to  give  an  opinion  of  the 
educational  wants  of  the  town,  as  being  in  intimate  contact  with 
the  middle  class.  Among  the  dissenting  or  liberal  laymen,  again, 
are  to  be  found  those  who  would  be  best  able  to  commend  any 
desirable  change  in  the  scheme  under  which  the  school  is  at  pre^ 
sent  managed  to  the  approval  of  the  citizens.  The  actual  gover- 
nors, on  the  other  hand,  have  been  men  naturally  averse  to  change, 
and  possessed  by  a  just  pride  in  the  success  with  which  the  school 
grew  up  under  their  management  during  the  20  years  which  fol- 
lowed the  enactment  of  the  new  scheme  in  1831.  Their  secretary, 
who  is  also  their  solicitor,  and  who,  from  his  professional  eminence 
and  long  connexion  with  the  school,  has  great  influence  with  them, 
has  also  been  an  effective  power  on  the  side  of  maintaining  the 
"  status  quo."  The  conservative  tendency  thus  induced  has  been 
strengthened  by  a  permanent  practical  obstacle  to  change.  The 
governors  have  been  aware  that,  owing  to  the  state  of  their  rela- 
tions with  the  municipality  indicated  above,  the  enactment  of  any 
change  that  they  might  think  d'isirable  in  the  scheme  of  1831 
would  be  opposed  with  all  the  resources  of  the  municipal  purse.* 


*  As  it  is,  whenever  the  town  council  is  promoting  a  local  bill,  the  governors  of 
the  school  have  to  take  precautions  against  the  insertion  of  provisions  trenching  on 
their  privileges.  Not  long  ago  the  town  council  inserted  in  such  a  bill  a  clause 
providing  that  the  mayor  and  ex-mayor  of  the  borough  should  be  ex  officio  governors 
of  the  school.  1,000?.  was  mentioned  to  me  as  the  sum  spent  in  fighting  for  and 
against  this  clause. 

The  formidable  character  of  a  contest  with  the  town  council  may  be  illustrated 
by  the  fact  that  shortly  before  my  visit  to  Birmingham  about  7,000i  had  been  spent 
by  the  council  in  resisting  a  gas  company's  bill. 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  93 

I  did  not  find  that  all  the  governors  were  willing  to  admit  th9.t 
they  had  been  influenced  by  this  fear  of  opposition,  but  men  are 
not  always  conscious  of  their,  own  motives,  and  no  other  reason 
could  be  given  for  their  unwillingness  to  go  to  Parliament  to 
obtain  changes  which  they  admit  to  be  desirable,  and  which  many 
of  them  are  most  anxious  for.  The  most  important  of  these — a 
modification  of  the  present  absolutely  gratuitous  system  of  educa- 
tion— is  clearly  one  which  a  body,  not  commanding  popular  sym- 
pathy, could  not  hope  to  carry  through. 

A  second  objection  to  the  present  constitution  of  the  Board  Danger  of 
arises  from  its  liability  to  religious  exclusiveness  in  the  manage-  religious 
ment  of  the  school.  However  carefully  the  openness  of  the  school 
may  be  provided  for  by  the  Act  of  Parliament,  it  is  clear  that,  so 
long  as  the  right  of  nominating  scholars  is  exercised  as  a  right  of 
individual  patronage  by  the  several  governors,  which  has  hitherto 
been  the  case,  and  so  long  as  there  are  more  applicants  for  admis- 
sion than  can  be  admitted,  there  is  opportunity  for  a  preference 
being  shown  to  the  children  of  churchmen  as  against  those  of 
dissenters.  So  long,  also,  as  religious  instruction  according  to 
the  doctrines  of  the  Church  of  England  continues  to  be  given  at  . 
the  school,  there  is  a  possibility  that  difficulties  more  or  less  defi- 
nite may  be  put  in  the  way  of  exemptions  from  such  instruction. 
As  a  matter  of  fact,  however,  I  could  not  hear  of  any  suspicion  of  This  at  present 
unfairness  on  religious  grounds  in  the  distribution  of  nominations,  ™^'''^  danger, 
nor  does  exemption  from  religious  instruction  and  attendance  at 
prayers  subject  a  pupil  to  any  disadvantage  except  the  loss  of  a 
certain  number  of  marks.  Such  exemption  is  seldom  sought  for 
except  in  the  case  of  Jews.  The  fact  that  there  are  Jews  in  the 
school,  and  a  natural  proportion  of  dissenters,  including  several 
sons  of  ministers,  is  sufficient  evidence  on  this  head.  The  esta- 
blishment of  the  proprietary  school  at  Edgbaston,  on  the  basis  of 
the  entire  exclusion  of  religious  instruction,  is  not,  as  might 
seem  at  first  sight,  any  indication  of  unfairness  to  dissenters  at  the 
grammar  school.  It  was  founded  mainly  by  Unitarians,  who  pre- 
ferred a  purely  secular  system  on  general  grounds,  and,  with  the 
exception  of  a  few  Unitarians  and  Jews,  I  could  not  hear  of  any 
parents  whose  reasons  for  preferring  it  to  the  grammar  school  had 
anything  definitely  to  do  with  religion.  Its  system  excludes  cor- 
poral punishment  as  well  as  religious  teaching,  and  this  is  a  strong 
ground  of  preference  with  many  parents.  Others  choose  it  as 
more  select  than  the  grammar  school ;  others  as  more  conveniently 
situate.  On  the  whole,  after  conversation  with  the  leading  dis- 
senters of  the  town,  both  laymen  and  ministers,  I  satisfied  myself 
that,  though  they  objected  to  the  customary  exclusion  of  dis- 
senters from  the  Board  of  Governors  as  wrong  in  principle,  and 
liable  at  any  time  to  lead  to  practical  injustice,  they  had  no  cases 
of  present  hardship  to  allege,  except  such  as  arise  from  the  diffi- 
culty of  access  to  the  governors  experienced  by  poor  and  obscure 
parents,  which  s  greater  in  the  case  of  dissenters  than  of  church- 
men, as  the  former  have  not  so  ready  an  introduction  through 
their  ministers.    This  evil,  however,  arises  properly  from  the  nomi- 

i2 


94 


B{rmi7if/hnm  Free  School. 


Awkward 
local  restric- 
tions on 
eligibility. 


Their  result. 


Views  in  the 
town  as  the 
change 
desirable. 


nation  system,  not  from  the  constitution  of  the  Board,  and  will  be 
considered  below. 

The  only  other  point  in  the  constitution  of  the  Board  which  it 
is  important  to  notice  is  the  local  restriction  on  eligibility.  Ac- 
cording to  the  Act  of  1831,  only  such  persons  are  eligible  for 
the  office  of  governor  as  (a.)  reside  within  four  miles  of  the  present 
site  of  the  grammar  school,  and  are  bond  fide  rated  to  the  relief  of 
the  poor  of  the  parish  of  Birmingham,  or  (/3)  exercise  any  profes- 
sion or  carry  on  any  trade  within  the  limits  of  the  town,  parish, 
or  manor  of  Birmingham.  This  Act  was  passed  before  the  exist- 
ence of  the  present  borough,  the  limits  of  which  extend  far  beyond 
the  old  parish.  The  suburbs  in  which  the  better  classes  chiefly 
reside  are  outside  the  parish.  Acting  professional  men  would 
generally  be  qualified  under  (jS),  and  acting  men  of  business  under 
both  {a)  and  (/3),  but  men  retired  from  a  business  or  profession, 
who  might  very  usefully  give  their  leisure  to  the  management  of 
the  school,  would  almost  always  be  excluded.  As  the  loss  of  the 
original  qualification  does  not  disqualify  a  governor  once  elected, 
the  restriction  operates  less  awkwardly  than  it  otherwise  would. 
The  result,  however,  is  in  some  cases  rather  grotesque,  for  while 
an  active  Birmingham  citizen,  living  to  all  intents  and  purposes  in 
the  town,  is  ineligible  because  his  rateable  property  or  place  of 
business  happens  to  be  outside  the  old  parish,  another  man,  who 
resides  at  a  distance  from  the  town  and  seldom  comes  near  it,  may 
continue  a  governor  in  virtue  of  his  original  qualification,  or  may 
be  elected  for  the  first  time,  if  he  has  an  interest  in  some  firm 
carrying  on  business  within  the  parish.  An  extension  of  the  area 
of  eligibility  so  as  to  include  persons  either  carrying  on  business, 
or  rated  to  the  relief  of  the  poor,  or  holding  property  within  the 
borough,  and  resident  within  a  moderate  distance,  would,  I  think, 
give  general  satisfaction  both  to  the  governors  and  public.  On 
the  other  hand,  the  admission  of  persons  to  the  oflice  of  governor, 
not  closely  connected  with  the  town,  would  be  generally  objected 
to,  and  the  number  of  necessary  attendances  at  meetings  of  the 
governors  might,  it  is  generally  thought,  be  desirably  increased. 
According  to  the  scheme  of  1831,  it  is  only  the  neglect  to  attend 
any  meeting  during  two  years  that  disqualifies  a  governor,  and 
even  then  he  is  re-eligible. 

As  to  the  general  constitution  of  the  governing  Board,  which  it 
might  be  desirable  to  substitute  for  the  present  one,  opinion  in 
Birmingham  seemed  to  be  a  good  deal  divided.  Outside  the  circle 
of  the  governors  themselves  almost  every  one,  except  a  few  rather 
exquisite  politicians,  would  lament  the  present  absolute  separation 
and  antagonism  between  the  governing  body  of  the  school  and 
that  of  the  town,  and  most  would  condemn  the  principle  of  co- 
optation.  But  as  to  the  amount  of  power  over  the  school  which 
should  be  conceded  to  the  town  council,  and  as  to  the  way  in 
which  it  might  be  expected  to  exercise  this  power,  I  heard  rather 
different  opinions  from  men  of  equal  authority  on  the  subject. 
On  the  one  hand  I  found  men,  themselves  important  members  of 
the  town  council,  deprecating  the  concession  of  an  effective  con- 


Mr.  GreerCs  Report.  95 

trol  over  the  school  to  that  body.  One  of  them  told  me  that  if 
the  appointment  of  governors  were  placed  without  restriction  in 
the  hands  of  the  town  council,  though  many  of  their  nominees 
might  be  good,  he  could  foresee  the  appointment  of  others  "  who 
"  would  drag  every  school  question  through  every  public-house 
"  in  the  borough."  Others,  on  the  contrary,  urged  that  the 
management  of  the  school  would  have  small  attraction  for  dema- 
gogues ;  while  its  association,  directly  or  indirectly,  with  the  muni- 
cipal government  would  lead  more  men  of  education  to  seek  a  share 
in  the  latter.  As  an  indication  of  what  might  be  expected  from 
the  town  council,  they  instanced  the  appointments  which  it  now 
makes  to  the  committees  of  the  Midland  institute  and  the  town 
libraries,  which  are  admitted  to  be  good. 

Such  a  question  is  out  of  the  reach  of  statistics,  and,  according  Two  extremes, 
as  people  approach  one  or  other  of  the  above  views  as  to  what 
might  be  expected  from  the  town  council,  they  differ  as  to  the 
number  of  governors  which  it  should  be  allowed  to  nominate. 
Some  would  be  content  with  such  a  recognition  of  the  municipality 
as  would  be  involved  in  the  presence  of  the  mayor  and  ex-mayor 
"  ex  officio ''  on  the  Board—  an  arrangement  which  would  have  the 
minimum  of  effect,  as  by  the  time  these  officials  had  learnt  their 
business  in  relation  to  the  school,  that  relation  would  have  ceased. 
In  the  opposite  extreme  is  the  view  involved  in  a  resolution 
passed  by  the  town  council  itself,  claiming  the  entire  government. 
Between  these  two  extremes  lies  the  proposition  which  would  ^"^^  ^  '"^^°- 
abolish  the  co-optation  of  governors  altogether,  but  give  the 
appointment  of  one -third  or  half  the  Board  to  some  such  body  as 
the  borough  magistrates,  while  it  would  compel  the  town  council 
in  its  appointment  of  the  other  two-thirds  or  half  to  take  a  certain 
proportion  from  outside  its  own  body*  It  was  further  suggested 
to  me  that  it  might  be  well  to  limit  the  town  council  in  its  selec- 
tion of  the  rest  to  the  aldermen  or  ex-aldermen.  The  rationale 
of  this  last  restriction  would  be  that  the  popularity  of  a  mere 
demagogue  seldom  lasts  long  enough  for  him  to  be  made  an 
alderman. 

One  definite  practical  objection  was  mentioned  to  me  against  Practical  ob- 

placing  a  virtual  command  of  the  management  of  the  school  in  •''i^i'°° '''.*^°™' 

^       1       1       n    1  M       mi  n    ^         i      i   i-      plete  capitula- 

the  hands  of  the  town  council.     I  he  property  or  the  school  lies  tionto  Town 

in  the  streets  of  Birmingham,  and  its  pecuniary  interests  are,  in  Council, 
consequence,  constantly  liable  to  be  affected  by  schemes  for  im- 
provement of  the  town.  This  being  so,  it  would  seem  equally 
undesirable  that  these  interests  should  be  maintained  by  a  body 
(as  in  times  past)  distinctly  antagonistic  to  the  town  council, 
and  by  one  virtually  identical  with  it.  The  conflict,  not  of 
interest,  but  of  feeling,  between  the  two  bodies  has  once,  at 
least,  stood  in  the  way  of  arrangements  likely  to  enhance  the 
value  of  the  school  property;  but  though  it  is  most  desirable 
that  this  conflict  should  cease,  and  though  no  one  would  expect 

*  This  is  in  general  the  scheme  of  the  "  School  Reform  Association."    It  will  be 
found  iu  detail  in  their  report,  of  which  I  transmit  a  copy. 


96 


Birmingham  Free  School. 


Mode  of 
nominating 
&ee  scholars. 


the  town  cotincil  of  Binningham  to  follow  the  example  of  other 
town  councils  in  "  starving  the  grammar  school "  for  the 
benefit  of  the  ratepayers,  yet,  as  a  matter  of  business,  the  several 
interests  of  town  and  school  are  more  sure  of  being  fairly 
adjusted  if  kept  in  separate  though  friendly  hands. 
General  result.  The  general  tesults  of  my  inquiry  on  this  subject  were  these : 
(1.)  That  the  general  opinion  of  Birmingham,  so  far  as  it  is  in- 
tferested  In  the  question,  would  accept  any  modification  of  the 
present  system  of  co-optation  which  would  secure  a  representation 
on  the  governing  Board  of  the  rflunicipality  on  the  one  hand 
and  the  nonconformists  on  the  other.  (2.)  That  it  would  be 
opposed,  on  the  whole,  to  the  introduction  of  Crown  nominees  or 
magnates  of  the  neighbouring  counties  upon  the  Board.  I  have 
reason  to  believe  that  the  present  governors  are  willing,  not 
indeed  to  surrender  the  principle  of  co-optation,  but  to  bind 
themselves  to  the  co-optation  of  a  certain  number  of  town 
councillors  and  dissenters.  This,  however,  the  Commissioners 
will  be  able  to  ascertain  from  the  governors  personally.  I  should 
quite  expect  such  a  concession  to  be  well  received  by  the  town. 

I  now  come  to  a  question  of  wider  practical  bearings, — the 
nomination  of  free  scholars.  By  the  scheme  embodied  in  the 
Act  of  1831,  "'No  boy  shall  be  admitted  to  the  school  under  the 
"  age  of  eight  years,  and  who  shall  not  be  able  to  write  and 
"  read  English ;  and  the  master  under  whose  care  such  boy  is  to 
"  be  placed  shall  examine  and  admit  him  if  he  be  so  qualified, 
"  but  not  otherwise."  "  All  boys,  not  sons  of  inhabitants  of  the 
"  town,  manor,  or  parish  of  Birmingham,  or  of  parishes  touching 
"  upon  or  adjacent  to  the  same,  shall  pay  to  the  governors  for 
"  education  at  the  school  such  annual  sum  as  the  governors,  with 
"  advice  of  the  bishop,  shall  from  time  to  time  fix."  This  sum, 
by  a  subsequent  ordinance  of  the  governors,  was  fixed  at  not  less 
than  15?.,  nor  more  than  201.  a  year.  The  practice  in  pursuance  of 
the  above  rule  has  hitherto  (with  an  important  recent  modification 
to  be  noticed  afterwards)  been  as  follows.  As  many  "sons  of 
"  inhabitants,  &c."  as  the  school-building  would  accommodate, 
about  500,  have  been  admitted,  on  nomination  by  the  governors, 
without  any  fee  whatever.  The  nomination,  however,  has  not 
been  by  the  governors  in  council  or  collectively.  There  being 
20  governors,  each  has  a  twentieth  part  of  a  year's  nominations 
to  dispose  of  individually,  and  a  parent  desiring  admission  for  his 
boy  to  the  school  has  to  seek  out  a  governor  with  a  nomination 
to  spare.  Thus,  instead  of  a  general  list  of  applicants  being 
kept  by  the  secretary,  who  should  be  admitted  as  vacancies 
occurred,  a  private  list  is  kept  by  each  governor,  and  the  same 
boy  will  very  likely  have  his  name  down  on  several  of  these  lists. 
Accordingly,  v,-h"n  it  falls  to  the  turn  of  any  given  governor  to 
nominate  a  scholar,  he  has  first  to  ascertain  whether°any  of  the 
boys  on  his  list  have  been  already  nominated  by  some  one  else. 
It  then  remains  for  him  to  decide  whether  he  take  the  first  boy 
on  his  list  not  yet  nominated,  or  make  a  selection  according  tO  his 
knowledge  of  the  circumstances  of  the  applicants.     The  practice 


Mr.  Greenes  Report.  97 

of  the  governors  in  this  last  respect  has  not  been  uniform*  Some 
have  simply  followed  the  order  of  the  time  of  application ;  others, 
and  I  think  the  greater  number,  have  been  in  the  habit  of 
exercising  a  discretion. 

The  nomination  having  been  given,  the  examination  for  Of  examining 
enttance  follows.  This  consists  of  three  parts.  A  sum  is  written  ^^g^ated. 
on  a  board  in  figures,  which  the  boy  has  to  reproduce  in  words, 
and  another  in  words  which  he  has  to  reproduce  in  figures.  He 
has,  further,  to  write  down  one  or  two  simple  verses  of  the  Bible 
from  dictation,  and  to  read  aloud  a  few  other  verses.  If  he  made 
more  than  two  or  three  mistakes  in  each  subject,  he  would  be 
rejected.  In  regard  to  this  examination,  however,  an  important 
change  has  been  made  by  the  present  head  master  (appointed  in 
1862).  Under  his  predecessor,  the  examination  for  admission 
took  place  immediately  on  the  nomination  being  given;  and  as 
nominations  were  given  according  to  an  estimate  of  the  number 
of  vacancies  likely  to  occur  in  the  year,  an  interval  of  some 
months  might  elapse  between  the  nomination,  with  the  con- 
sequent entrance-examination,  and  the  actual  admission  to  the 
school.  This  interval  was  naturally  often  spent  by  a  boy,  the 
examination  being  safely  passed,  in  forgetting  that  which  enabled 
him  to  pass  it,  so  that  when  he  came  to  be  placed  in  the  school 
he  would  be  literally  unable  to  read.  According  to  the  present 
arrangement,  the  examination  for  entrance  does  not  take  place 
till  a  vacancy  actually  occurs,  and  immediately  precedes  the 
actual  entrance. 

It  will  be  observed  that,  according  to  the  above  mode  of  pro-  Three-fold 
cedure,  a  parent,  wishing  to  get  a  son  into  the  school,  has  a  three-  uncertainty 
fold  uncertainty  before  him.     In  the  first  place  he  cannot  tell  above^phtn  °™ 
when  he  may  find  a  governor  who  will  promise  him  a  nomination. 
Secondly,  the  nomination  having  been  promised,  he  cannot  tell 
when  it  will   be   given.     Thirdly,  the  nomination  having  been 
given,  he  cannot   teU   for  certain  when  a  vacancy  will   occur, 
which  will  enable  his  son  actually  to  enter. 

Of   the    inconvenient    results    arising   from    the    nomination  ^'^'^  effects  of 
system,  so  determined  by  the  scheme  of  1829,  or  by  custom,  it  (i)  due  to  re- 
will  be  well  to  take  that  first  which  is  at  once  least  considerable  striction  of 
and  least  disputable,  viz.,  the  confinement  of  the  free  education  freedom  to  the 
to   the    sons    of  inhabitants    of  the    parish  of  Birmingham    and 
adjacent  parishes.     Adjacent  is  understood  to  mean  contiguous. 
Now  there  are  certain  parishes  contiguous  to  the  present  Parlia- 
mentary borough   (which  did  not   exist   at  the  time  when  the 
scheme  in  question  was  enacted),  bilt  not  contiguous  to  the  old 
parish.      Their  inhabitants,  therefore,  cannot  send  sons  to  the 
grammar  school,*  while  other  people  residing  at  a  greater  dis- 

*  In  pursuance  of  the  clause  in  the  scheme  of  1829  (enacted  in  1831),  the 
governors  ordained  that  boys,  not  sons  of  inhabitants  of  the  parish  or  adjacent 
parishes,  should  pay  in  advance  an  annual  sum  of  not  less  than  15Z.  or  more  than 
20?.,  but  that  no  such  boys  should  be  admitted  to  the  exclusion  of  sons  of  inhabitants 
of  the  parish  or  adjacent  parishes.  As  more  of  the  latter  are  always  applying  for 
admission  than  can  be  admitted,  tbis  amounts  to  an  exclusion  of  all  othersi 


98  Birmingham  Free  School. 

tance  from  the  school,  but  within  a  parish  that  happens  somewhere 
to  abut  oa  the  old  parish  of  Birmingham,  can  send  their  sons  to 
it  without  any  payment  whatever.  I  heard,  for  instance,  of  a 
clergyman,  himself  formerly  a  master  of  the  school,  but  now 
holding  a  small  incumbency  in  the  parish  of  Northfield,  who 
could  not  make  use  of  the  school  for  his  sons,  because  this  parish 
is  not  conterminous  with  the  parish  of  Birmingham,  though  it  is 
with  the  borough.  On  the  other  hand,  people  resident  two  miles 
further  off  in  the  parish  of  King's  Norton,  which  meets  that  of 
Birmingham  at  a  single  point,  could  use  it  freely. 

The  excluded  parish  of  Northfield  contains  3,130  inhabitants. 
That  of  Yardley,  which  is  in  the  same  position,  being  conter- 
terminous  with  the  present  borough,  but  not  with  the  parish,  has 
a  population  of  3,848,  and  is  rapidly  increasing.  It  contains  a 
new  suburb,  Acock's  Green,  much  frequented  by  the  less  wealthy 
tradesmen  and  manufacturers  of  Birmingham.  The  number  of 
boys  in  these  two  parishes  whom  the  present  regulation  excludes 
is  no  doubt  comparatively  small,  but  it  may  at  any  time  increase 
with  the  establishment  of  a  popular  suburb  within  either  of  them. 
The  exclusion,  moreover,  is  liable  at  any  time  to  lead  to  dispute, 
for  other  divisions  have  so  far  superseded  parochial  ones  for 
practical  purposes,  that  neither  the  governors  or  secretary  ou 
the  one  hand,  nor  the  parents  on  the  other,  are  likely  always  to 
know  whether  a  boy  is  admissible  in  respect  of  residence  or  not. 
It  would  seem  much  simpler  to  ignore  parochial  boundaries 
altogether,  and  take  a  certain  distance  from  the  school  as  the 
measure  of  the  area  of  admissibility.  Two  facts,  at  any  rate, 
are  to  be  borne  in  mind :  one,  that  the  middle-class  population  of 
the  town  is  gravitating  more  and  more  to  the  suburbs ;  the  other, 
that  owing  to  the  position  of  the  school  close  to  the  central 
station,  and  to  the  point  where  the  several  lines  of  suburban 
omnibuses  converge,  it  is  available  as  a  day-school  for  boys  living 
almost  anywhere  within  a  radius  of  five  or  six  miles  of  it.  On 
this  subject  I  shall  have  afterwards  to  dwell  in  a  difierent 
connexion. 

So  much   for   the   local   limitations  on   the  privileges  of  the 

school.     Of  the  mode  in  which  these  privileges  are  "enjoyed" 

by  those  who  are  within  the  favoured  parishes  it  is  impossible  to 

speak  too  strongly.     Indiscriminately  free  admission  under  any 

system  would  be  an  evil  in  the  negative  sense,  for  it  involves  the 

sacrifice  of  fees  from  parents  very  well  able  to  pay  them,  and  it 

(2)  Bad  effect    excludes  the  stimulus   of  admission  by  competition.     Under  the 

on  preliminary  system  (now  modified)  which  has  been  pursued  at  Birmingham  it 

e  ucation.         becomes  a  more  positive  evil.     It  makes  the  primary  education  of 

boys  destined  for  the  free-school  worse  than  it  would  be  if  there 

were  no  free-school  at  all. 

To  explain  this  result  I  must  recall  what  I  said  above  of  the  way 
in  which  nominations  are  given,  and  the  uncertainty  which  results 
from  it.  A  parent  relies  on  getting  his  son  educated  for  nothing 
sooner  or  later,  but  he  cannot  tell  whether  it  will  be  soon  or  later 
A  clergyman  or  dissenting  minister,  any  respectable  professional 


Mr.  GreevUs  Report.  99 

man,  a  tradesman  with  a  "  genteel  connexion,"  would  be  pretty  Often  long 
sure  of  getting  a  nomination  as  soon  as  he  wanted  it.  These,  ^^^^  ^'^  ?**" 
however,  are  the  sort  of  people  who  would  take  care  that  their  tion,  during 
sons  were  being  educated  somewhere,  if  not  at  the  grammar  school,  which  boy 
As  it.  is,  the  school  is  largely  filled  with  the  sons  of  small  trades-  "ss'ected. 
men  and  manufacturers,  who  are  probably  more  numerous  rela- 
tively in  Birmingham  than  in  any  other  of  our  great  towns. 
Among  these  people  the  delay  experienced  in  getting  nominations 
is  a  source  of  considerable  irritation.  I  heard  it  often  asserted 
that  while  a  pushing  man,  or  one  who  could  make  himself  useful 
to  a  governor  or  governor's  friend,  could  get  a  nomination  at  once, 
though  perhaps  a  new  comer  into  the  town,  another,  who  had 
paid  rates  for  a  quarter  of  a  century,  had  to  wait  some  years,  and 
make  a  dozen  applications  for  one.  Such  complaints,  of  course, 
are  to  be  taken  at  what  they  are  worth.*  It  is  only  natural  that 
the  governors  should  exercise  some  discretion  in  the  bestowal  of 
their  patronage,  and  probably  the  diflSculty  complained  of  is  often 
due  to  the  applicants  not  going  the  right  way  to  work.  Several 
of  the  governors  will  only  notice  an  application  when  made  in 
writing.  The  applicant  perhaps  is  not  aware  of  this  rule,  or  has 
some  diflBculty  in  conforming  to  it.  He  makes  a  personal  applica- 
tion, is  repulsed,  and  for  ever  after  has  a  grievance.  But  though 
it  would  be  unjust  to  visit  such  grievances  on  any  governor  per- 
sonally, the  existence  of  them  is  due  to  the  system  which  makes 
the  nomination  of  scholars  matter  of  individual  patronage.  Their 
existence,  however,  is  the  least  part  of  the  evil  which  arises  from 
it.  The  irritation  of  the  parent  while  he  is  waiting  for  a  nomina- 
tion would  be  of  less  moment  if  he  kept  his  son  regularly  at  a  good 
school  in  the  interval ;  but  the  chances  are  that  he  does  not.  The 
anticipation  that  his  son  will  ultimately  get  an  education  for 
nothing  lowers  his  standard  of  educational  expenditure.  If, 
for  the  sake  of  getting  him  out  of  the  road,  he  sends  his  son  to  a 
private  school  at  all,  it  will  be  to  one  where  the  payment  is  too 
small  for  the  teaching  to  be  good.  Even  here  his  son  will  pro- 
bably get  less  than  the  average  amount  of  attention,  for  the 
master  can  have  no  inducement  to  take  pains  with  a  boy  whom 
he  may  any  day  see  transferred  to  the  grammar  school  without 
recognition  of  his  pains. 

The  consequence  of  this  state  of  things  has  been,  firstly,  a  dead  Hence  great 
weight  of  preliminary  ignorance  to  be  dealt  with  in  the  lower  ignorance  in 
classes  of  the  grammar  school;  and,  secondly,  a  degradation  of  the  school. 

*  One  of  the  governors  showed  me  on  his  list  applications  of  five  years'  standing, 
which  he  had  not  yet  heen  able  to  satisfy.  The  late  pupils  of  the  school,  whom  I 
talked  to  about  it,  specified  various  periods  as  those  during  which  they  had  been  kept 
waiting,  from  five  years  to  two.  On  the  other  hand,  I  heard  of  a  pushing  solicitor, 
who,  wishing  to  get  three  sons  in  at  once,  wrote  to  all  the  governors  at  once,  and 
immediately  got  five  nominations,  two  more  than  he  wanted. 

A  tradesman  of  the  town  observed  to  me  that  a  man,  whose  wife  was  stay  maker 
to  a  governor's  wife,  could  get  a  nomination  at  once.  This  he  seemed  to  think 
constituted  a  peculiar  intimacy  of  relation. 

The  editor  of  one  of  the  newspapers  of  the  town  told  me  that  people  often  sought 
nominations  through  him,  who  could  not  get  them  in  any  other  way. 


100 


Birmingham  Free  School. 


Instances. 


Hence  (1) 
many  boys 
turned  out  ill- 
equipped  for 
business. 


(2)Very  few 
■well-equipped 
as  scholars. 


State  of  the 
lower  part  of 
the  classical 
department. 


private  schools  in  the  town.  On  the  first  point  the  evidenoo  of 
the  masters  of  the  school  is  unanimous.  They  complain  that  hoys 
often  come  at  the  age  of  12  or  upwards  knowing  nothing  beyond 
the  minimum  which  is  requisite  for  admission.  One  day,  when  I 
was  in  the  school,  a  boy  of  14,  who  had  already  been  admitted, 
was  examined  by  the  head-master  in  order  to  ascertain  what  claSS 
he  was  fit  for.  He  knew  no  Latin,  spelt  "  wrong,"  "  roung,^'  did 
not  know  the  name  of  any  river  in  England,  or  of  any  English 
king  but  Charles  I.,  or  the  capitals  of  Scotland,  Ireland,  or  France, 
or  how  much  30  pence  made.  He  had  been  trained  at  a  private 
school  where  65  boys  were  taught  by  only  one  master.  This,  I 
was  assured,  was  by  no  means  an  uncommon  case.*  The  evil  will 
appear  in  a  stronger  light,  when  it  is  remembered  that  most 
of  the  boys  get  no  sort  of  education,  regular  or  incidental,  at 
home,  and  that  very  few  of  them  stay  at  school  beyond  16.  A 
boy  who,  after  waiting  a  year  or  two  for  a  nomination,  enters  the 
school  when  turned  12,  with  no  acquired  knowledge  of  English 
grammar,  and  without  ever  having  heard  English  correctly  spoken 
at  home,  defective  also  in  arithmetic  and  penmanship,  really  wants 
the  three  years,  which  are  all  that  he  will  spend  at  school,  to  obtain 
the  simple  elementary  knowledge  necessary  for  the  business  of 
life.  Now  this,  I  should  say,  has  been  the  ordinary  case  at 
Birmingham,  and  hence  two  results ;  on  the  one  hand  it  has  been 
very  difficult  to  keep  up  effective  classes  for  the  higher  subjects, 
whether  in  the  way  of  classics,  science,  or  modern  languages ;  on 
the  other  hand,  the  mass  of  boys  who  cannot  be  raised  to  the  level 
of  these  subjects  have  not  been  getting  the  lower,  practical  educa- 
tion so  effectively  as  they  might.  In  the  classical  department, 
though  arithmetic  and  writing  are  now  adequately  attended  to, 
yet  Latin  and  Greek  absorb  the  greater  part  of  both  the  teaching 
and  the  learning  power.  Yet  the  head  master  told  me  that  be- 
tween the  highest  boy  of  the  first  class  and  the  lowest  of  the 
second,  which  two  classes  are  taught  together  by  him,  and  do  not 
together  contain  more  than  about  25  boys,  he  could  place  six 
Rugby  forms.  Again,  it  is  the  exception  in  the  classical  school 
for  a  boy  to  rise  beyond  the  fifth  class,  yet  it  is  as  much  as  the 
best  boys  in  this  class  can  do  painfully  to  make  out  Ovid's 
Heroides  and  the  Greek  Delectus.  The  average  age  in  this  class 
is  13|.  Now  as  there  are  a  certain  number  of  sharp  small  boys 
in  it  under  13,  who  are  generally  at  the  top,  it  follows  that  it  con- 
tains a  quantity  of  boys  turned  14,  who  are  thus  probably  within 
a  year  of  leaving,  and  who,  after  learning  little  else  than  Latin 
and  Greek,  do  not  know  enough  even  to  read  an  easy  Latin 
book  to  themselves  in  after-life.  From  the  fifth  class  downwards 
is  to  be  found  a  mass  of  boys  who  clearly,  according  to  the  fitness 
of  things,  ought  not  to  be  in  the  classical  departmen't  at  all,  but  in 


*  Another  mstance  fell  under  my  notice  of  a  boy,  16  years  old,  and  the  son  of 
parents  rich  enough  to  keep  a  carriage,  who  had  not  even  the  qualification  in  readin* 
and  writing  necessary  for  admission.  His  parents,  expecting  the  school  ultimately 
to  teach  mm  everytmng,  had  let  him  run  idle; 


Mr,  Gfeen's  Etipoft.  101 

the  English.  They  have  entered  the  classical,  in  sotne  cases,  be- 
cause it  is  rather  more  genteel,  in  others  because  nominations  to 
the  classical  (the  pressure  for  them  being  less)  are  more  easily  ob- 
tained. As  it  is  they  are  struggling  with  Latin  and  Greek  most 
of  their  time,  when  they  ought  to  be  learning — for  the  simple 
reason  that  they  have  not  learnt  to  do  it  already,  and  will  not 
learn  afterwards — to  put  together  an  ordinary  English  sentence. 
In  the  English  department  itself  there  are  only  a  few  picked  boys 
who  master  the  elementary  subjects  early  enough  to  make  any- 
thing of  chemistry,  mathematics,  or  modern  languages. 

Such  a  state  of  things  is  very  depressing  to  the  masters,  and 
keeps  back  the  clever  or  better-taught  boys.  The  master,  if  he 
spends  himself  in  teaching  the  mass  what  ought  not  to  be  taught 
them  by  him  at  all,  has  not  life  for  "  forcing"  those  who  are  really 
susceptible  of  it,  and  who  in  turn  (as  some  of  them  have  told  me) 
find  that  they  are  not  urged  to  do  as  much  as  they  can.  A  head 
master,  who  has  an  eye  for  budding  talent,  may  of  course  so 
sweep  the  school  as  to  get  the  clever  boys  to  the  front,  and  leave 
the  rest  to  their  chance.  I  suspect  that  when  the  school  was  most 
distinguished  at  the  universities,  the  distinction  was  obtained  to 
some  extent  by  this  method,  but  it  is  a  method  which  few  men  can 
be  expected  to  have  the  ability,  and  not  all  the  conscience,  to 
pursue.  It  would,  however,  be  a  wrong  conclusion  from  what  has 
been  said  to  advise  that  the  school  should  so  lower  its  aims,  with 
regard  to  most  of  its  pupils,  as  to  give  them  merely  the  elemen- 
tary English  education  which  all  of  them  want,  and  many  now 
only  inadequately  obtain.  The  true  conclusion  is  that  this  educa-  Elementary 
tion  should  be  given  them  before  they  come  to  the  school,  and  this,  education 
with  a  change  in  the  nomination  system,  might,  I  believe,  be  the  °^|.  ^foyg  ^°' 
case.  In  other  words,  I  believe  that  the  governors  of  the  grammar  entrance. 
school,  if  their  hands  were  free,  might  set  the  standard  of  prelimi- 
nary education  in  the  town  as  they  pleased.  If  they  were  able  to 
say  that  the  privilege  of  free  education  at  the  grammar  school 
should  no  longer  be  given  away  as  a  gratuity,  but  as  a  reward  for 
elementary  knowledge,  they  would  soon  be  able  to  fill  it  with  boys 
from  their  own  elementary  schools,  and  from  the  private  schools  of 
the  town,  who  would  know  as  much  on  entering  it  as  many  now 
do  when  they  leave  it. 

An.  important  step  in  this  direction  has  been  taken  within  the  Competitive 
last  18  months.     The  governors,  though  not  entitled,  or  believing  examination 
themselves  not  entitled,*  under  the  Act  of  1831,  to  admit  any  sons  partly  intro- 
of  inhabitants,  &c.  at  a  fee,  have  been  able  to  some  extent,  owing  duced. 
to  the  great  pressure  for  entrance,  to  make  priority  of  entrance 
matter  of  competition.     At  the  instance  of  the  head  master  they 


*  The  head  master  is  disposed  to  think  that  under  the  existing  scheme,  if  so  many 
boys  were  admitted  free  as  the  present  building  will  accommodate,  i.e.,  about  500,  it 
would  be  allowable,  on  new  buildings  being  made,  to  admit  at  a  fee  any  number 
more.  Unfortunately,  as  soon  as  any  boys  are  adihitted  at  a  fee,  so  as  t6  interfere 
*ith  the  purely  charitable  character  of  the  institution,  it  becomes  chargeable  to  the 
local  rat«S,  to  the  probable  amount,  as  was  stated  to  me  by  one  who  ought  to  know, 
of  nearly  2,660/.  a  year. 


102 


Birrriingham  Free  School. 


The  system 
cannot  be 
thoroughly 
carried  out 
without  fees. 


agreed,  at  the  beginning  of  1865,  to  put  a  certain  number  of  nomi- 
nations each  year  into  his  hands.  He  was  then,  twice  a  year,  to 
hold  an  examination,  and  the  boys  who  did  best  in  it  were  to  enter 
the  school  at  once.  Those  who  failed  might  take  their  chance 
another  time,  or  wait  till  they  could  get  a  nomination  from  a 
governor  ia  the  ordinary  course.  The  number  of  nominations 
thus  thrown  open  to  competition  for  1865  was  40;  for  1866  it 
will,  I  believe,  be  80.  The  examination,  according  to  a  circular 
issued  by  the  head  master,  is  arranged  as  follows: — If  under  12, 
the  candidates,  whether  it  be  the  classical  or  the  English  depart- 
ment into  which  they  desire  admission,  are  examined  in  reading 
and  writing  from  dictation,  in  the  outlines  of  English  history  and 
elementary  geography,  in  Latin,  and  in  certain  rules  of  arithmetic, 
viz.,  the  first  four,  simple  and  compound,  reduction,  practice,  and 
simple  proportion.  If  over  12,  those  who  are  candidates  for  the 
English  school  are  examined  also  in  vulgar  fractions  ;  those  who 
are  candidates  for  the  classical  school,  in  vulgar  fractions  and 
Greek.  No  subject  is  in  any  special  sense  a  "  plucking  "  subject, 
but  Latin  and  arithmetic  are  made  the  most  of. 

Last  summer  the  announcement  of  these  nominations,  to  be 
given  by  competition,  brought  a  boy  all  the  way  from  Dereham, 
whom  circumstances  enabled  to  change  his  residence  to  Birming- 
ham, and  who  was  tempted  by  the  prospect  of  free  education. 
With  this  exception,  the  boys  who  have  been  head  in  the  compe- 
tition have  almost  uniformly  been  trained  at  the  elementary 
schools  on  King  Edward's  foundation.  After  them  have  come 
boys  from  some  of  the  national  schools  of  the  town.  Only  a  few 
from  private  schools  have  as  yet  gained  admission  in  this  way. 
This  competition  for  priority  of  entrance,  so  far  as  it  goes, — and 
henceforth  about  half  the  boys  admitted  will  be  admitted  in  this 
way, — is  a  departure  from  the  old  system  of  nomination  by  indi- 
vidual governors,  and,  so  far,  is  a  remedy  for  the  evils  which 
appear  to  have  been  incidental  to  that  system.  To  give  all  their 
nominations  by  competition  would  be  all  that  the  governors  under 
the  present  scheme  believe  themselves  able  to  do,  and  this  would 
probably  be  doing  a  great  deal  to  stimulate  preliminary  education 
and  raise  the  character  of  the  lower  classes  in  the  school.  It  is 
to  be  observed,  however,  that  if  all  nominations  were  given  in  this 
way,  the  distinction  of  obtaining  one  would  proportionately  fall. 
The  examination  would,  in  fact,  be  simply  an  entrance  examina- 
tion, become  competitive  through  the  pressure  for  entrance. 
Careless  parents,  though  they  would  make  better  provision  for 
their  sons'  preliminary  education  than  they  do  now,  would  still 
make  sure  of  getting  him  in  some  time,  and  once  in  he  would  not 
be  distinguished  from  the  most  carefully  trained.  The  bad  effect, 
too,  of  the  simply  gratuitous  system,  in  lowering  the  standard  of 
payment  for  education,  and  with  it  the  character  of  private  schools, 
would  still  continue.  It  is  therefore  most  desirable  that  the 
governors  should  have  power  to  exact  an  annual  fee  from  the 
ordinary  boys,  so  as  to  make  exemption  from  this  the  prize  for  a 
certain  number  who  should  do  best  in  the  entrance  examination. 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  103 

A  plan  of  this  kind  was  proposed  in  the  report  of  the  "  School 
"  Reform  Association "  ,of  the  town  issued  last  summer,  and 
would,  I  think,  be  acceptable  to  many,  probably  to  a  majority,  of 
the  governors. 

Whether  it  would  be  acceptable  to  the  public  in  general  is  a  How  would 
question  more  difficult  to  answer.  The  "  School  Reform  Associa-  proposal  of 
tion,"  which,  I  believe,  adopted  it  without  difficulty,  represents  most  reived  ? 
of  the  leaders  of  opinion  in  the  town.  On  the  other  hand  I  heard 
objections  to  it  on  what  may,  without  harshness,  be  called  senti- 
mental grounds,  from  quarters  whence  I  should  not  have  expected 
it ;  and  one  or  two  parents  of  past  or  present  pupils  of  the  school, 
belonging  to  the  class  of  lesser  shopkeepers,  spoke  of  the  present 
charge  for  books,  &c.  in  the  classical  school  as  being  quite  as  much 
as  could  be  borne,  without  addition  of  a  fee.  On  such  a  point 
conclusive  evidence  is  not  to  be  attained.  It  must  be  admitted, 
in  the  first  place,  that,  partly  from  long  habituation  to  a  gra- 
tuitous system,  partly  from  a  feeling  natural  to  a  people  keen  in 
business  and  only  half  convinced  of  the  value  of  education,  there 
is  some  niggardliness  at  Birmingham  in  regard  to  payments  for 
education.  Chemistry  is  taught  in  the  upper  division  of  the  first 
class  in  the  English  school,  and  this  is  a  study,  one  would  suppose, 
likely  to  be  valued  as  practically  available.  I  heard,  however, 
from  Mr.  Fleay,  who  was  acting  as  master  of  the  English  school 
last  summer,  that  three  parents  that  half-year  had  wished  to  with- 
draw their  sons  from  the  chemistry  lesson  on  account  of  the  expense 
of  the  books  and  apparatus,  which  then  cost  each  boy  25s.  The 
private  schoolmasters  of  the  town,  who  draw  on  the  class  of  small 
manufacturers  and  shopkeepers,  are  not  generally  able  to  charge 
more  than  4Z.  a  year,  with  a  very  small  sum  in  addition  for  books, 
&c.  The  cost  of  necessary  books  for  a  boy,  who  reaches  the 
upper  classes  of  the  classical  department  in  the  grammar  school, 
would  probably  not  fall  far  short  of  this.  Again,  though  most  of 
the  Birmingham  tradesmen,  sending  sons  to  the  grammar  school, 
could  very  well  affijrd  lOZ.  a  head  for  them  if  they  could  adjust 
such  a  sum  to  their  imagination,  yet  there  are  a  good  many  boys 
in  the  school,  and  those  often  among  the  most  promising — sons 
of  widows  or  of  tradesmen  whose  prosperity  has  been  in  inverse 
ratio  to  the  size  of  their  families — on  whom  such  a  fee  could  be 
paid  with  difficulty,  if  at  all.  I  heard,  for  instance,  of  a  promising 
boy  in  the  first  class  who  would  have  had  to  be  withdrawn  from 
the  school  on  account  of  the  cost  of  books,  but  for  the  charitable 
interposition  of  the  head  master.  Several  other  cases,  more  or  less 
similar,  occur  to  my  memory  at  once.  They  were  cases  of  this 
kind,  I  found,  that  people  generally  had  in  mind  when  they  objected 
oif-hand  to  the  abolition  of  gratuitous  education.  They  regarded  it 
as  meant  to  make  the  school  more  select  at  the  expense  of  its  univer- 
sal availability.  Whether  this  result  Avould  really  follow  or  no, 
would  depend  on  the  way  in  which  the  proposed  new  system  was 
worked. 

I  found  it  a  very  common  opinion  among  people  favourable  Proposal  to 
both  to  the  general  exaction  of  fees  and  to  the  principle  of  entrance  ^^fees^the"^"* 


104 


Birmingham  Free  School, 


rule,  Trith 
charitable  ex- 
ceptions. 


Evil  of  such 
exceptions. 


How  the  need 
of  them  might 
he  avoided. 


The  "ele- 
mentary 
schools." 


by  competition,  that  if  exemption  from  fees  were  made  without 
reservation  the  prize  for  excellence  in  the  examination  for  entrance, 
it  would  be  obtained  by  boys  whose  parents  could  affordto  pay  the 
most  for  a  preliminary  forcing.  To  be  among  the  first  in  this  exa- 
mination, it  was  urged,  would  become  an  intellectual  distinction. 
As  such,  parents  would  desire  it  for  their  children,  and  desiring  it, 
the  wealthy  would  have  better  means  of  obtaining  it,by  the  purchase 
of  ^'  cramming "  power,  than  the  poor,  nor  would  they  be  too 
proud  to  accept  it  because  it  involved  gratuitous  education.  Thus 
the  poverty  which  gives  the  only  true  title  to  such  education 
would  be  the  means  of  exclusion  from  it.  To  prevent  this  result 
various  modifications  of  the  competitive  system  have  been  proposed. 
Several  persons,  whose  opinion  was  of  importance,  while  proposing 
to  make  the  payment  of  a  fee  the  rule,  and  free  admission  a 
privilege  to  be  competed  for,  thought  that  the  competition  for  this 
privilege  should  be  restricted  to  boys  from  King  Edward's  elemen- 
tary schools,  or  from  schools  receiving  Government  aid.  To  meet 
the  case  of  boys  of  gentle  parentage,  sons,  for  instance,  of  de- 
ceased ministers,  for  whom  such  schools  might  be  unsuitable,  but 
who  might  yet  be  ill  able  to  pay  a  fee  at  the  grammar  school,  it 
was  suggested  that  a  certain  number  might  still  be  admitted  free 
on  nomination ;  the  nomination,  however,  to  be  given  by  the 
governors  collectively,  so  as  to  guard  against  the  suspicion  of 
favouritism. 

Any  restriction  on  the  competition  for  free  entrance,  such  as 
the  above,  would,  I  think,  be  undesirable  on  two  principal  grounds. 
In  the  first  place,  the  free  admission  would  still  retain  something 
of  an  eleemosynary  character.  The  free  boys,  having  gained 
their  freedom  in  virtue  of  a  protective  system,  would  be  regarded 
as  an  inferior  caste  by  those  who  paid.  This  at  any  rate  was  the 
uniform  anticipation  of  those  best  able  to  judge,  the  young  men 
who  had  lately  left  the  school  whom  I  consulted  on  the  subject 
Secondly,  the  restricted  competition  would  fail  to  do  what  I 
believe  might  be  done  by  open  competition,  in  the  way  of  stimu- 
lating and  elevating  the  private  schools.  They  would  still  con- 
tinue to  maintain  a  struggling  existence  side  by  side  with  the 
grammar  school,  instead  of  being  insensibly  affiliated  to  it. 

The  true  solution  of  the  difficulty  is  to  be  found,  I  believe,  in 
the  suggestion  made  in  an  appendix  to  the  report  of  the  "  School 
"  Reform  Association,"  that  the  standard  of  the  examination  for 
entrance  to  the  grammar  school  should  be  adjusted  to  that  of  the 
highest  class  in  the  King  Edward's  elementary  schools.  This 
suggestion,  indeed,  pretty  much  represents  the  actual  practice  of 
the  head  master  in  his  conduct  of  the  present  competitive  exami- 
nation for  nominations. 

In  the  elementary  schools  the  means  are  ready  to  hand  at  once 
for  relieving  the  grammar  school  from  the  duty  of  giving  a  mere 
clerk's  education,  which  is  all  that  many  who  now  use  it  want, 
and  for  giving  the  poorest  boys  an  equal  chance  with  the  richest 
of  obtaining  that  elementary  knowledge  on  which  the  competitive 
examination  for  entrance  to  the  grammar  school  ought  to  turn. 


Mr.  Greenes  Report.  1 05 

By  a  clerk's  education  I  mean  the  learning  to  read  and  spell  cor-  These  may 
rectly,  to  write  a  plain  hand,  to  oast  accounts  quickly,  to  compose  prepare  poor 
grammatically  an  ordinary  English  sentence,  and  to  know  some-  quatefy  both 
thing  of  the  map  of  England  and  (perhaps)  the  world.     This  for  proposed 
really  is  all  that  is  meant  by  a  "  practical "  or  "  commercial "  entrance  ex- 
education.     It  is  all  that  a  young  man  wants  to  qualify  him  for  foj.  tuainess. 
any  ordinary  office  in  the  way  of  commerce  or  manufacture,  and 
it  is  all  that  he  goes  to  a  "  commercial  academy  "  to  learn.     In 
special  manufactures  he  may  want  some  elementary  knowledge  of 
chemistry  or  mechanics,  but  this  he  can  commonly  learn  best  in 
the  business  ;  the  knowledge  of  a  modem  language  may  sometimes 
be  turned  to  account,  but  is  seldom  necessary ;   a  small  know- 
ledge of  Latin  words  and  declensions  is  necessary  for  a  druggist, 
and  the  faculty  of  making  out  an  easy  piece  of  a  Latin  author  for 
one  who  aspires  to  pass  the  "preliminary  legal"  examination. 
These,  however,  are  exceptional  cases.     The  ordinary  "  commer- 
cial "  education  means  simply  what  I  have  specified  above,  and 
this,  I  believe,  may  be  and  is  adequately  given  at  Birmingham  by 
the  King  Edward's  elementary  schools. 

To  satisfy  myself  on  this  point,  I  spent  some  time  in  one  of  the  Evidence  of 
elementary  schools,  that  in  the  Parade,  which  is  the  only  one  that  *^^^- 
has  hitherto  done  much  towards  feeding  the  grammar  school.  I 
should  say  without  hesitation  that  the  first  class  here,  consisting 
of  about  30  boys,  knew  more  all  round  than  the  six  best  boys  in 
any  commercial  academy  that  I  visited.  I  heard  them  do  lessons 
in  "mental "  (i.e.,  oral)  arithmetic,  in  history  and  geography,  in 
English  grammar,  and  in  Latin.  Their  mental  arithmetic  was 
excellent.  They  could  do  sums  in  fractions  and  decimals,  in  pro- 
portion and  in  practice,  without  slates  or  paper,  with  wonderful 
exactness  and  celerity.  The  outlines  of  English  history  and 
general  geography  they  all  seemed  to  know  very  well.  In  the 
analysis  of  English  sentences  there  was  more  diiFerence.  All 
knew  the  rules  well  enough,  but  two  or  three  were  much  quicker 
than  the  rest  in  applying  them  to  complicated  cases.  Their  hand- 
writing seemed  generally  good.  Now,  here  were  30  boys,  of 
whom  only  five  were  turned  13  (15  of  the  rest  being  betweeu  12 
and  13,  10  between  12  and  11),  who  to  the  best  of  my  judgment 
had  already  acquired  all  the  elementary  knowledge  necessary  for 
a  clerk.*  They  might,  without  losing  any  of  their  qualifications 
in  this  respect,  if  their  parents  did  not  insist  on  utilizing  them  at 
once  for  business,  be  transferred  to  a  school  which  should  give 
them  the  chance  of  developing  a  taste  for  science,  or  literature,  or 
even  classical  learning.  A  school  which  was  supplied  regularly 
with  boys  of  12  years  old,  knowing  as  much  as  these  boys  knew, 
though  it  might  not  turn  out  just  the  type  of  scholar  now  sent 
forth  from  the  foundations  of  Eton  and  Winchester,  would  not 


'  Of  three  boys  transferred  from  this  school  to  the  grammar  school  at  the  last 
competitive  examination  for  entrance  previous  to  my  vigit,  one  had  beei}.  placed  in 
the  third,  one  in  the  fourth,  and  one  in  the  fifth  class  of  the  English  department. 
This  means  that  the  lowest  of  them  was  placed  at  least  half-way  up  this  department. 


106 


Birmingham  Free  School. 


EeUef  of 
grammai' 
school  to  be 
obtained  thus. 


Steps  already 
taken  in  this 
direction. 


Latin  now 
taught  at  one 
elementary 
school. 


Effect  of  this. 


fail  to  produce  plenty  of  men  of  the  sort  who  now  get  first  classes 
at  Oxford,  and  become  wranglers  at  Cambridge.  The  elementary 
subjects  being  adequately  mastered  to  begin  with,  little  time  would 
suffice  for  keeping  them  up,  and  the  school  might  devote  itself  to 
the  higher  subjects  without  being  open  to  the  accusation  that  it 
turned  out  a  great  many  bad  clerks  and  accountants  for  the  sake 
of  turning  out  a  very  few  good  scholars.  Such  an  accusation 
must  inevitably  have  a  certain  amount  of  truth  at  present,  for 
however  careful  the  arrangements  may  be  for  teaching  arithmetic 
and  writing,  these  subjects  are  sure  to  flourish  more  (supposing 
the  teacher  to  be  competent)  where,  as  in  the  "commercial 
"  academies,"  they  are  taught  almost  alone,  than  where  they  are 
only  the  second  or  third  thing  in  the  master's,  and  hence  in  the 
scholar's,  mind. 

As  a  step  towards  making  this  elementary  school  act  as  a 
regular  feeder  to  the  grammar  school,  the  head  master  (who  has 
the  supervision  of  the  elementary  school)  has  had  Latin  introduced 
into  the  first  class.  He  will  probably  seek  for  authority  to  do 
the  same  in  the  other  elementary  schools  as  opportunity  offers. 
If  the  grammar  school  is  to  act  as  an  avenue  to  the  universities, 
it  is  very  desirable  that  boys  who  enter  it  at  about  the  age  of  12 
should  already  know  something  of  Latin.  Whatever  importance, 
therefore,  might  be  attached  to  elementary  "  English "  subjects 
in  the  entrance  examination,  Latin  would  naturally  hold  a  con- 
siderable place  in  it.  It  follows  that  if  boys  from  the  elementary 
schools  are  to  attain  the  front  rank  in  this  examination,  and  with 
it  the  privilege  of  free  education,  in  open  competition,  some 
amount  of  Latin  must  be  introduced  into  the  first  classes  of  these 
schools.  In  the  Parade  school  it  was  being  taught  last  autumn  to 
about  30  boys,  of  whom,  judging  from  the  experience  of  last  year, 
not  more  than  a  quarter  could  be  expected  to  go  on  to  the  gram- 
mar school.  It  is  taught  to  a  great  extent  orally  by  the  master, 
who  applies  very  effectively  to  the  Latin  lesson  the  method  which 
the  boys  have  learnt  to  employ  in  the  analysis  of  Enghsh 
sentences.  It  seemed  that  in  this  way  the  boys  escaped  the 
hopeless  mystification  as  to  the  nominative  and  accusative  cases, 
under  which  beginners  in  Latin  generally  labour.  In  virtue  of 
the  same  method  the  master  is  able  to  shorten  the  time  given  to 
English  grammar  and  analysis,  and  it  is  by  this  curtailment  chiefly 
that  time  is  found  for  the  Latin.  I  understood  that  only  one  or 
two  parents  had  objected  to  the  introduction  of  the  new  subject, 
and  the  master  finds  that  though  the  Latin  lesson  is  apt  to  be  less 
well  learnt  than  others  out  of  school,  it  is  very  popular  in  school. 

The  question  naturally  arises  whether  this  "modicum"  of 
Latin  can  be  taught  to  the  first  class  in  the  elementary  schools 
for  the  benefit  of  the  small  proportion  of  the  boys  who  go  on  to 
the  grammar  school  without  injustice  to  the  majority,  and  without 
gradually  drawing  into  the  elementary  schools  a  higher  class  of 
boys  than  that  which  now  uses  them.  As  to  the  injustice,  it 
must  be  admitted  that  it  is  no  positive  benefit  to  boys,  who  will 
forget  them  in  six  months,  to  learn  the  Latin  declensions  and 


Mr.  Green's  Report,  107 

conjugations.  At  tlie  same  time  it  must  be  remembered  that,  as 
it  is,  the  Latin  lesson  is  made  to  a  great  extent  a  general  gram- 
mar lesson.  Supposing  the  better  boys  to  give  two  hours  a  week 
to  Latin  for  a  year  under  a  master  who  would  make  it  interesting, 
as  a  good  trained  master  can,  by  the  oral  method,  and  turn  the 
previous  drill  in  English  grammar  to  account,  they  might  at 
least  learn  to  unravel  a  simple  Latin  sentence,  which  would  be  a 
great  step  to  begin  with  in  the  grammar  school.*  Now  of  these 
two  hours,  one  at  least  may  be  taken  as  saved  from  the  English 
grammar,  which  would  have  'Otherwise  to  be  taught  during  it. 
The  remaining  one  hour  a  vreek  is  no  great  amount  for  the 
average  boy  to  waste,  if  it  be  wasted,  for  the  sake  of  opening  the 
higher  learning  to  his  more  capable  brother.  That  a  rather 
higher  class  should  be  drawn  to  the  elementary  schools  than  at 
present  use  them  is,  I  think,  desirable.  The  boys  at  the  Parade 
school,  as  it  is,  are  rather  of  a  higher  grade  than  those  at  the 
other  three,  owing,  perhaps,  to  its  situation  in  rather  a  better  part 
of  the  town.  Most  of  them  are  sons  of  small  tradesmen  or  small 
manufacturers,  (jewellers,  for  instance,")  only  a  few  of  parents 
earning  weekly  wages.  As  this  school  is,  or  even  a  little  higher, 
I  should  think  all  the  elementary  schools  might  with  advantage 
become.  They  ought  at  least  to  occupy  a  position  definitely  Desirable  as 
above  the  schools  receiving  Government  aid.  They  ought  to  be  tending  to  raise 
able  to  offer  aspiring  boys  from  these  schools  a  definitely  higher  gchoolTaboTe^ 
education.  Now  these  schools,  as  it  is,  are  used  largely  by  the  the  rank  of 
smaller  tradesmen.  Several  boys  go  from  them  to  the  grammar  JJ'°5«  ™'^«'" 
school,  and  I  can  recal  the  case  of  one  of  the  most  promising  boys  in  °''^«™™«''  • 
the  first  class  of  the  classical  department,  who  stayed  at  a  National 
school  till  he  was  11. f  At  a  school  (under  Government  inspec- 
tion) connected  with  Mr.  G.  Dawson's  congregation,  the  boys  in 
the  first  class  pay  9rf.  cr  Is.  a  week,  and  several  of  them  learn 
Euclid,  and  read  Telemaque  in  French.  There  is  an  interval, 
however,  to  be  filled  between  such  schools  and  the  grammar  school, 
the  grammar  school,  i.e.,  as  it  ought  to  be,  and  the  King  Edward's 
elementary  schools  ought  to  fill  it.  Let  them  by  all  means 
receive  as  many  sons  of  small  tradesmen  or  mechanics  as  they  can, 
but  only  on  the  understanding  that  they  are  to  have  an  education 
distinctly  above  the  level  of  a  National  school. 

A  rise  in  the  standard  of  education  in  the  elementary  schools  More  oatlay 
would  involve  a  greater  outlay  on  teaching  power.     As  it  is,  I  required  on 
doubt  whether  they  are  adequately  supplied  in  this  respect.     The  sciiooL"^ 
staff  in  each  boys'  school  consists  of  a  master  (at  150Z.  a  year), 
an  assistant,  at  45Z.  a  year,  and  a  pupil-teacher.     For  teaching 
nearly  150  boys,  considering  the  age  and  attainments  of  many  of 
them,  one  additional  hand  at  least  is  wanted.     The  master  at  the 

*  At  present,  as  -will  be  seen  from  the  returns,  three  honrs  a  week  are  given  to 
Latin,  one  and  a  half  to  English  grammar,  in  the  Parade  (or  Edward  Street)  school. 

I  The  case  of  this  boy  was  remarkable,  though  not  at  all  uncommon.  He  entered 
the  grammar  sehool  at  11,  and  knowing  no  Latin  was  placed  at  the  bottom  of  the 
classical  department.  His  good  preliminary  training  enabled  him  to  rise  so  rapidly, 
that  in  four  years  he  had  traversed  nine  classes,,  and  ■was  within  about  15  of  the  top 
of  the  school. 

a.  c.  3.  K 


108- 


Birmngham  Free  School. 


Shoald  fees  be 
charged  in 
them? 


or  entrance  to 
them  be  com- 
petitive ? 


Parade  school  told  me  that  though  he  could  conduct  a  class  of  80  ■ 
boys  in  arithmetic,  in  other  subjects  40  was  as  many  as  he  could 
manage.  I  should  think,  from  what  I  saw,  that  in  such  a  lesson 
as  English  grammar,  and  still  more  in  Latin,  a  greater  subdivision' 
was  desirable.'  Again,  the  salary  of  the  master,  as  no  provision 
is  made  for  his  retirement,  seems  scarcely  sufficient,  especially  if 
in  time  to  come  he  is  to  be  expected  to  teach  Latin.  ^  I  know  of 
one  master  of  a  school  receiving  Government  aid  in  Birmingham, 
whose  income  is  considerably  la,rger.  45  Z.  a  year,  as  I  was  told 
by  the  master  in  the  Parade,  is  not  enough  to  attra;ct  an  assistant 
worth  having.  The  only  chance  of  filling  the  situation  satisfacV 
torily  is  to  retain  an  old  pupil  in  it.  On  the  whole,  if  the  elemen- 
tary schools  are  to  act  as  feeders  to  the  grammar  school,  I  should' 
say  that  an  additional  expenditure  of  100?.  or  150Z.  a  year  on  each: 
would  be  necessary.*  ' 
'  This  suggests  the  question  of  the  desirability  of  exacting  fees 
from  the  scholars  in  these  schools.  At  present  any  parent  can 
gain  admission  for  his  child  to  them,  as  soon  as  there  is  room  for 
him,  without  the  payment  of  any  fee.  Among  people  very  anxious 
to  do  away  with  simply  gratuitous  education  at  the  grammar 
school,  I  found  an  impression  that  the  time  had  not  come  for 
abolishing  it  at  the  elementary  schools.  I  failed,  however,  to. 
arrive  at  any  definite  result  on  this  point.  The  master  of  the 
Parade  school  thought  that  a  small  fee  would  not  be  objected  to, 
but  that  2Z.  ayear  would  be  the  maximum.  \l.  a  year  would 
sufl&ce  to  cover  the  additional  outlay  suggested  above. 

It  has  been  proposed  here  again  to  apply  the  competitive  systerii, 
sd  that  while  a  small  fee  should  be  paid  as  a  rule,  free  admission 
should  be  given  to  the  best  boys  from  the  schools  in  the. town 
under  Government  inspection.  In  this  way  a  regular  ascent' 
might  be  possible  for  the  promising  son  of  a  mechanic  from  the 
^National  or  British  school  to  the  grammar  school,  and  from  it  to 
the  University.  The  chief  objections  which  I  heard  to  such  a 
plan  were,  first,  that  though  in  exceptional  cases  a  boy  might  be 
able  to  turn  to  account  the  opportunities  of  higher  education  thus 
afforded  him,  yet  generally  a  double  change  of  school,  in  a  space 
perhaps  of  two  or  three  years,  would  be  bad  for  a  boy ;  secondly, 
that  the  character  of  the  National  or  British  schools  would  be 
lowered  by  the  regular  loss  of  their  best  boys  as  soon  as  they  came 
to  the  front,  and  that  thus  an  jnjury  would  be  done  to  their 
masters.  The  injury  would  be  greater  if  they  were  Dissenters, 
as  they  could  not  then  hope  to  get  masterships  on  King  Edward's, 
foundation.  It  is  of  some  significance  that  the  master  of  one  of 
the  best  of  these  schools,  who  made  the  last  objection  to  me,  added 
that  if  the  change,  which  lowered  the  standard  of  his  school,  were 
part  of  a  scheme  which  made  free  entrance  to  the  grammar  school 
a  privilege  to  be  gained  by  competition,  he  should  at  once  abandon 
his  school,  and  make  a  much  larger  income  by  preparing  boys  for 
the  entrance  examination. 


*  This  is  irrespective  of  the  department  for  girls. 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  109 

.  Whether  the  above  plan  were  carried-  out  or  no,  picked  boys  Proposed 
from  the  National  and  British  schools  might  be  sure  of  winning  notbeexdusive 
their- fair  share  of  free  admissions  to  the  grammar  school  in  the  of  any  class, 
ftipst  unrestricted  competition,  if  the  line  of  examination  already 
adopted  is  continued  or  extended.  The  apprehension  that  as  the 
Standard  of  the  school  rises  it  will  gradually  be  modified,  so  ais  to 
be  more  like  the  examination  for  entrance  to  the  foundations  at 
Eton  and  Winchester,  is,  I  think,  unfounded.  Any  .head-master 
would  see  that  a  school,  situate  in  a  noisy  street  in  the  middle'  of 
a  smoky  town,  can  never  hope  to  draw  largely  on  the ''  genteel^' 
dasses.  His  chance  of  working  it  with  distinction  depeiids 
^peaking  generally)  on  his  success  in  getting  the  cream  of  the 
boys  whose  parents,  as  a  class,  want  a  mercantile' educaition  for 
them,  and  in  stimulating  them  to  seek  the  "  higher  culture."  To 
do  this  he  must  take,  as  his  test  of  promise,  proficiency  in  th^ 
recognized  elements  of  a  mercantile  education.  Of  what  may  be 
e;xpected  from  the  better  National  school-boys  in  an  examination 
in"  these  elements,  a  sufficient  sign  is  afforded  by  the  results  of  the 
'■  BirminghaBi  prize  education  scheme."     The  managers   of  this  •'<'-,"• 

scheme  offer  special  prizes  to ,  boys  educated  in  schools  under 
Government  inspection  in  the  following  subjects :  arithmetic, 
ordinary  and  "mental,"  English  history,  geography,  dictation, 
letter-writing,  and  English  grammar.  Now  these  are  just  the 
subjects  which,  with  the  addition  of  Latin,  constitute  for  boys 
tmder  12  the  programme  of  the  competitive  examination  for 
priority  of  entrance  instituted  by  the  present  head  master.  Under 
the  prize  scheme  at  the  examination  last  preceding  my  visit  to 
Birmingham,  five  boys  under  12  got  special  prizes  for  ordinary 
arithmetic,  six  for  mental  arithmetic,  three  for  geography,  six  for 
dictation,  two  for  English  history,  one  for  letter-writing,  one  for 
grammar.  Having  seen  the  examination  papers,  I  am  convinced 
that  these  prize  boys,  even  without  the  knowledge  of  Latin,  of 
which  they  might  probably  learn  a  little  in  extra  hours,  would  be 
quite  sure  of  getting  admission  to  the  grammar  school  by  compe- 
tition according  to  the  present  system,  and  that  on  any  new 
system  which  gave  20  per  cent,  of  the  admissions  free,  making 
payment  the  rule,  supposing  the  entrance  examination  to  remain 
the  same  in  principle,  they  would  have  a  good  chance  of  gaining 
their  freedom.  The  real  difficulty  would  be  to  tempt  the  parents 
of  such  boys  to  consent  to  the  continuance  of  their  education  after 
they  had  learnt  everything  necessary  for  practical  purposes,  and 
had  become  available. for  earning  money. 

Enough  has  probably  been  said  to  show  that  with  the  existing  Desirable  to 
appliances  for  preliminary  education,  boys  of  the  poorer  "middle  extend  number 
class  "  might  hold  their  own  in  any  well-managed  system  of  com-  "5^00^*°**'^ 
petition  for  free  entrance  to  the  grammar  school.     The  grammar 
school  might  make  a  wider  -sweep  of  thei  best  boys  of  this  class  by 
increasing  the  number  of  its  affiliated  schools.     The  four  that  now 
exist  are  all,  I  think,  within  a  radius  of  a  mile  from  the  Exchange, 
which  is  the  practical  centre  of  the  town.     The  class  of  small 
shopkeepers  is  very  strong  in  many  of  the  suburbs,  and  three  or 
four  more  elementary  schools  might  be  established  in  these,  e.g., 

E  2 


1 10  Birmingham  Fi-ee  School. 

at  Aston,  on  the  Coventry  and  Moseley  roads,  or  even  at  Smeth- 
wick,  with  great  advantage,  and  perhaps  with  a  prospect  of 
drawing  more  hoys  likely  to  go  on  to  the  grammar  school  than  are 
attracted  by  those  in  the  centre  of  the  town.  The  wants  of 
the  middle  class  in  these  suburbs  are  very  inadequately  sup- 
plied by  private  schools.  This  is  indicated  by  the  success  of 
the  Bridge-trust  school  at  Handsworth,  which  on  being  esta- 
blished in  a  region  where  there  had  only  been  one  or  two  struggling 
private  schools  before,  though  it  charges  a  fee  of  4?.  a  year,  at 
once  drew  100  boys,  and  within  a  year  rose  to  150. 

Such  suburban  affihated  schools  would  naturally  tend  to  take 
a  higher  standard  than  the  existing  elementary  schools.     They 
would  do  so  for  two  reasons ;  firstly,  because  the  suburbs  are 
better  provided  with  schools  for  the  poor  than  the  old  parts  of  the 
town,  which  the  rich  have  deserted ;  secondly,  because  the  shop- 
keepers, who    reside  in   them,  are  on   the  whole  a  higher  class. 
These  schools  would  in  fact  be  parallel,  in  respect  of  the  boys 
who  would  attend  them,  to  the  existing  commercial  academies. 
Relation  of  the       This  brings   me  to  the  general  question  of  the  relation  of  the 
grammarschool  grammar  school  to  private  schools.    Here  two  facts  deserve  special 
schooir'^^*^     attention.     (1.)  The  more  educated  class    of  parents   using  the 
grammar  school,  who  naturally  do  not  like  (supposing  them  to  be 
able)  to  send  them  to  it  very  young,  feel  a  want  of  adequate  pre- 
paratory schools  for  them.     There  are  several  ladles,  chiefly  about 
Edgbaston,  who  keep  schools  for  little  boys,  and  the  masters  of 
the  grammar  school  assured  me  that,  with  the   exception  of  the 
boys  from  the  King  Edward's  elementary  schools,  those  prepared 
by  these  ladies  were  generally  the  best  prepared.     This,  however, 
does   not   satisfy  the  want,  for   a  boy  outgrows  a  lady's  school 
before    a    sensitive   parent  would   think  him  old  enough  to  be 
knocked  about  at  the  grammar  school.     (2.)  The  number  of  boys 
attending  schools  of  any  kind,  public  or  private,  professing  to  be 
of  the  "middle"  kind,  in   Birmingham    and  its  suburbs,  seems 
much  smaller  than  it  ought  to  be.     The  population  of  the  borough 
of  Birmingham  and  the  contiguous  parishes  was,  I  believe,  in  1861 
365,742,  having  grown  to  this  from  273,328   since  1851.     Pro- 
bably It  might  fairly  be  reckoned  at  400,000  in  1865.     Now,  so 
far  as  my  experience  has  gone,  even  with  the  present  low  standard 
of  middle  education,  6  in  1,000  is  a  fair  proportion  to  expect  to 
be  in  attendance  at  middle  schools.     There  ought,  accordingly,  to 
be  2,400  at  such  schools  in  the  above  district.    I  cannot,  however, 
account  for  anything  like  the  number.     The  grammar  school,  with 
its  branches,  will  account  for  1,000 ;  the  Edgbaston  proprietary 
.school  and  the  Bridge-trust  school  at  Handsworth  *  for  another 
300.^    With  regard  to  the  private  schools,  I  could  not  succeed  in 
•getting  precise  information,  but  I  do  not  think  they  will  account 
for  more  than  another  400.     This  gives  a  total  of  1,700  as  against 
the  expected  2,400.f 


»  A  good  many  of  the  hoys  at  Handsworth  come  from  West  Bromwich  and  other 
places  outside  the  district  -which  I  am  considerins 
t  See  Note  A.  ®' 


Mr.  GreerHs  Report.  Ill 

Two  inferences,  It  would  seem,  may  safely  be  drawn  from  these  Bad  effect  on 
facts.  The  existing  private  schools,  on  the  one  hand,  are  not  of  a  ihem  at  present, 
kind  to  suit  parents  whose  requirements  are  at  all  high,  and  on 
the  other  they  fail  to  get  any  sufficient  hold  of  boys  of  the  lower 
middle  class.  Here,  then,  is  a  gap  for  the  grammar  school,  so  far 
as  its  funds  allow,  to  fill.  It  may  naturally  be  objected  that  the 
demand,  if  a  real  one,  will  attract  its  own  supply ;  that  the  educa- 
tional want,  if  it  is  really  felt,  will  be  satisfied  by  private  enter- 
prize.  The  answer  to  this  is,  firstly,  that  with  people  so  ill 
educated  as  small  tradesmen  and  manufacturers  commonly  are, 
the  supply  of  education  must  precede  and  create  the  demand  ; 
secondly,  that  at  Birmingham  the  grammar  schoolj  as  hitherto 
rnanaged,  has  tended  to  prevent  the  required  supply  being  fur- 
nished by  private  enterprize.  A  private  schoolmaster  at  Birming- 
ham has  at  present  three  principal  difiiculties  to  contend  with: 

(1)  the  competition  of  cheap  boarding-schools  in  agreeable  localities  ; 

(2)  the  impossibility  of  making  his  terms  high  enough  to  do  his 
work  really  well ;  (3)  the  premature  and  irregular  departure  of 
his  pupils.  With  the  second  and  third  of  these  difficulties  the 
grammar  school  has  a  good  deal  to  do.  It  is  true  that  the  terms 
of  the  private  schools  at  Birmingham,  varying  from  4Z.  to  6?.  a 
year,  are  not  lower  than  those  which  I  found  common  elsewhere, 
but  in  the  "  midland  metropolis  "  one  would  expect  them  to  be 
higher  than  in  country  towns.  At  any  rate  one  would  expect  to 
find  certain  private  schools  of  a  higher  kind,  such  as  that  kept 
by  Mr.  Langley  at  Wolverhampton,  charging  10/.  or  121.  a  year 
for  day-boys.  I  am  not  aware  of  any  such  school  in  Birmingham 
or  in  its  suburbs,  nor  of  private  day-schools  can  I  recall  more  than 
two  that  ever  send  in  for  University  local  examinations,  and  these 
two  only  send  in  at  considerable  intervals.*  The  simple  explana- 
tion of  this  low  standard  is  that  a  private  school  cannot  hold  up  its 
head  against  the  competition  of  a  rich  grammar  school  which  is 
really  in  good  repute,  and  gives  its  education  for  nothing.  A 
father  will  neither  pay  much  for  his  son's  education,  when  he 
knows  that  his  neighbours  are  paying  nothing  at  all,  nor,  in  a 
general  way,  will  he  keep  him  at  the  school  where  he  has  to  pay, 
after  he  gets  a  chance  of  sending  him  where  he  will  not.  Hence 
the  complaint  heard  everywhere  from  private  schoolmasters,  that 
they  lose  their  boys  as  soon  as  they  begin  to  make  something  of 
them,  is  heard  with  special  frequency  at  Birmingham. 

No  one  would  complain,  on  general  grounds,  of  boys  being  I*  niiglit  insen- 
transferred  from  the  private  schools  to  the  grammar  schools.  On  ^^^  '*** 
the  contrary,  it  is  the  best  thing  that  can  happen  to  them.  The 
evil  is,  that  so  long  as  the  transfer  is  made  in  the  present  irregular 
and  unrecognized  manner,  it  lowers  the  private  school  without 
bringing  any  countervailing  credit  to  it  or  benefit  to  the  grammar 
school.  If,  on  the  other  hand,  the  transfer  were  only  made  as  the 
result  of  a  public  examination,  held  at  regular  intervals  which 
should  exclude  all  but  those  who  know  as  much  as  a  well-taught 

*  See  Appendix  on  Private  schools  at  Birmingham. 


112  Eirminrihain  Free  Sch'ool. 

,    ^ ,     .         boy;  of  11  or  12.  years  old  ought  to  know,  and  should  gain  for  those 
,       \  \yho  excel  in  it  free  education  as  an  exceptional  privilege,  then, 

instead  of  being  injurious  to  the  private  schools,  it  would  offer  them 
a  definite  distinction  to  aim  at.  It  was  not  to  all  the  private 
schoolmasters  that  I  could  bring  the  possibility  of  such  an  altered 
system  sufficiently  home,  to  ascertain  how  far  they  would  acquiesce 
in  it.  It  has  already  been  introduced  imperfectly  by  the  com- 
petitive examination  for  priority  of  entrance,  and  I  found  one 
school  for  small  boys — very  good  of  its  kind — at  Sutton- Cold- 
field,  of  ■vyhich  the  master  was  distinctly  laying  himself  out  to 
prejp.are  for  this  examination.  Others  were  evidently  disposed,  tp 
do  the  same  as  soon. as  the  examination  should  have  attained  a 
certain  amount  of  recognized  dignity.  Others,  again,  spoke  with 
contempt  of  the  commercial  education  afforded  by  the  grammar 
school— a  contempt,  as  I  generally  found,  applicable  to  a  past 
condition,  of  the  English  department — aijd  considered  that  undey 
any  system  they  would  maintain  a  rivalry  with  it.  Some  of  these 
■\Y0uld  probably  find  it  more  for  their  interest,  if  the  system  above 
indicated  were  carried  out,  to  acquiesce  in  the  position  of  prepaci- 
tory  schools.  Others  would,  no  doubt,  still  have  an  independent 
work  to  do,  especially  in  the  discipline  of  dull,  idle,  or  backward 
boys,  and  these  would  have  reason  to  be  thankful  for  a  change 
which,  by  preventing  the  education  of  such  boys  for  nothing  at 
the  grammar  school,  would  raise  the  price  of  it  in  the  private 
school. 
Any  need  of  •■:;  '^^^  change  in  the  character  of  the  private  schools,  which  might 
preparatory  thus  be  expected  to  follow  from  the  proposed  change  in  the  mode 
schools  distinct  pf  entrance  to  the  grammar  school,  would  go  far  to  supply  the 
lary  ones  ?  want  of  good  preparatory  schools  now  felt  by  the  more  educated 
class.  Tliis  is  to  be  borne  in ,  mind  in  considering  schemes,  th^ 
have  been  suggested  for  the  establishment  of  a  preparatory  school 
out  of  the  funds  of  the  grammar  school.  These  schemes  may 
virtually  be  reduced  to  two,  one  for  establishing  a  separate  j  pre- 
paratory department  in  the  same  situation  as  the  present,  school; 
another  for  establishing  several  smaller  preparatory  schools  in  the 
suburbs.  The  first  of  these  is  favoured  by  the  head  master,  though 
I  do  not  know  that  he  would  be  opposed  to  the  other.  He  her 
lieves  that  it  would  be  possible,  by  building  at  one  end  of  the 
present  play-ground,  to  accommodate  500  more  boys,  at  a  cost  of 
about  6,000/,  He  believes  that  a  large  increase  in  the  numberspf 
-  -    ■  the  school  is  desirable,  with  a  view  to  creating  a  more  effective 

competition  towards  the  top.  The  governors  have  also  had  a  plan 
under  consideration  for  building  on  the  present  site  with  the  same 
object,  but  at  a  much  larger  cost.  With  regard  to  any  such 
scheme  it  is  to  be  considered  whether  it  is  desirable  (1)  to  burd^ 
the  head  master  with  the  supervision  of  more  boys  than  he  alrefidy 
has  under  him  ;  and  (2)  to  bring  the  little  boys  into  the  middle  of 
the  town.  _  On  the  first  point  the  present  head  master  will  forgive 
.me  for  saying  that,  great  as  his  energy  is,  he  has  already  quite  as 
much  on  his  hands,  in  the  way  of  general  management,  as  is 
consistent  with  the  retention  of  the  freshness  necessary  for  the 


.    Mr.  Green's  Report.  113 

leffective  teaching  of  the  first  class.     On  the  second,  it  must  be  •■,: 

remembered  that  most  of  the  boys  for  whom  such  a  school  would  ■:  ' 

be  wantedj  supposing  the  elementary  schools  to  do  their  work 
properly,  are  of  the  class  that  resides  in  the  suburbs.  The  little 
boys  would,  many  of  them,  be  unable  to  go  home  between  morn- 
ing and  afternoon  schools,  and  would,  in  consequence,  have  to 
iaog  about  the  streets  and  get  dinner  at  cook-shops.  -       ■ 

1  As  to  the  establishment  of  a  special  preparatory  school  (ot  This  need  would 
schools)  in  the  suburbs,  my  own  notion  would  be  that  the  estal-  mettypmate 
-blishment  of  suburban  schools,  on  the  plan  of  the  present  elementary  enterprise, 
ones,  ougbt  to  take  precedence  of  it.  The  latter  would  supply  a 
want  not  likely  otherwise  to  be  supplied,  while  the  work  of  the 
preparatory  school,  as  soon  as  admission  to  the  grammar  school 
was  made  something  of  a  distinction,  would,  I  should  expect,  be 
largely  done  by  private  establishments,  which  would  find  their 
account  in  doing  it  well.  It  was  suggested  to  me  by  a  private 
schoolmaster  that- the  grammar  school  might,  with- ad  vantage,  sub- 
sidize private  schools  that  should  be  found  to  act  effectively  as 
preparatory  to  it.  The  suggestion  was  significant  in  several 
ways ;  but  such  schools,  I  think,  if  they  did  their  work  well,  sup- 
posing the  gratuitous  system  at  the  grammar  school  to  be  abolished, 
would  find  themselves  suflSciently  subsidized  by  parents.  If  the 
governors  determined  to  establish  a  suburban  preparatory  school, 
their  unoccupied  land  at  Lady- wood  would  give  them  an  excellent 
site. 

One  other  suggestion  with  regard  to  the  admission  of  scholars  Three  stan- 
remains  to  be  noticed.  In  an  appendix  to  the  report  of  the  local  dards  of  admis- 
"  School-reform  Association "  it  is  proposed  that  there  should  be 
-two  standards  of  admission,  one  for  boys  between  10  and  12, 
another  for  boys  over  12.  A  distinction  of  the  same  sort  is  made 
in  the  head  master's  programme  for  the  competitive  entrance- 
examination.  It  has  been  thought  by  some  that  it  might  be 
'desirable  to  have  a  third  entrance-examination  for  boys  above  M 
or  15,  and  that  some  of  those  who  excelled  in  it  should  be  admitted 
free,  though  residing  beyond  the  limits  of  the  coUtigUous  parishes, 
f within  a  radiua (say)  of  10  miles.  The  object  of  this  would  be  Why? 
to  constitute  a  sort  of  affiliation  of  the  neighbouring  grammar 
schools  at  Solihull,  Sutton-Coldfield,  Yardley  (Hall-Grreen),  and 
Walsall,. and  of  the  Bridge- Trust  school  at  Handsworth,  to  the 
Birmingham  grammar  school.  None  of  these  schools  have  exhi- 
bitions, except  an  insignificant  one  at  "Walsall,  and  they  hafdly 
ever  keep  a  boy  beyond  16.  They  are  thus  scarcely  able  to  give'  " 
any  one  disposed  to  stay  longer  an  effective  education  for  the  Uni- 
versity* The  Birmingham  grammar  school,  which  is  quite  avail- 
able as  a  day-school,  by  use  of  the  railway,  for  a  resident  at  any 
of  tbese  places,  might  add  the  requisite  supplement  and  furnish  a 
passage  to  the  Universities.  For  this  purpose,  however,  a  change 
would  have  to  be  made  in  the  local  restriction  on  eligibility  to  ex- 
hibitions imposed  by  the  scheme  of  1831. 

According  to  this,  a  candidate  for  an  exhibition,  resident  in  the  Change  of  local 
parisjiy'is,  if  qualified,  to  have  a  preference.     The  qnaUficntion  is  regSd'toe^- 


114 


Birmingham  Free  School. 


Wtions  neces- 
sary. 


General  result 
of  proposed 
changes. 


understood  to  be  fitness  to  pass  his  examinations  at  the  IJniversitj 
As  has  been  already  stated,  the  parish  is  not  conterniinous  with 
the  borough.  According  to  the  census  of  '61  it  contains  212,621 
inhabitants,  as  against  296,076  in  the  borough.  Another  64,000 
may  be  added  for  the  population  of  the  adjacent  parishes,  entitled 
to  send  boys  freely  to  the  grammar  school.  The  whole  number 
of  boys  in  the  school,  therefore,  should  be  to  those  having  a  pre- 
ferential title  to  exhibitions  as  about  5  to  3.  Really,  owing  to 
the  gravitation  of  the  respectable  classes  away  from  the  centre  of 
the  town,  the  proportion  is  a  good  deal  larger.  At  the  examina- 
tion last  Midsummer  of  five  candidates  for  exhibitions,  only  one 
was  resident  in  the  parish.  He  was  decidedly  the  worst  of  the 
lot,  but  being  qualified  was  necessarily  elected. 

Among  distinguished  ^fay-scholars,  genuine  Birmingham  boya, 
whom  the  present  rule  has  excluded  from  exhibitions,  may  be 
mentioned  the  present  Professor  Lightfoot,  of  Cambridge,  and 
Mr.  Humphrys,  who  has  just  got  one  of  the  Chancellor's  medals 
at  Cambridge.  A  few  years  ago  the  son  of  a  widow  at  Hands- 
worth,  in  order  to  qualify  himself  for  an  exhibition,  took  a  lodging 
at  considerable  expense  and  inconvenience  within  the  parish,  at 
which  he  used  to  sleep.  The  governors  have  since  made  an  ordi- 
nance requiring  three  years  bona  fide  residence  of  the  parents 
within  the  parish,  in  order  to  constitute  a  qualification. 

The  removal  of  this  restriction  in  favour  of  the  parish  is  uni- 
versally desired ;  but  in  order  to  give  efifect  to  the  plan  mentioned 
above,  it  would  be  necessary  to  deal  further  with  the  secondary 
preference  of  inhabitants  of  contiguous  parishes,  and  substitute 
for  it  a  preference  of  residents  within  ten  miles.  Such  a  change 
might  provoke  some  opposition,  which,  however,  might  be  pro- 
pitiated by  the  foundation,  when  the  school  funds  allow  it,  of  an 
additional  exhibition.  The  proposed  affiliation  would  be  sure  to 
draw  good  material  to  the  school,  and  is  the  more  natural,  as  all 
the  grammar  schools  mentioned,  except  that  at  Walsall,  are  in 
places  which  are,  or  are  becoming,  respectable  suburbs  of  Bir- 
mingham. I  have  before  my  mind  one  boy  in  particular  at  Sutton- 
Coldfield,  whom  his  father  told  me  he  should  certainly  send  to 
Birmingham  if  he  were  eligible  for  an  exhibition,  and  who,  accord- 
ing to  his  present  promise,  is  likely  to  gain  distinction  at  the 
University.  At  Handsworth  I  heard  of  another  case  of  the  same 
kind,  but  had  not  an  opportunity  of  becoming  acquainted  with 
the  boy  in  question. 

The  general  effect  of  the  scheme  above  delineated,  which  in  its 
main  features,  even  when  I  have  not  so  presented  it,  expresses  the 
opinions  of  people  of  importance  in  connexion  either  with  the 
town  or  with  the  school,  would  be  to  make  the  present  grammar 
school  a  central  high  school,  having  affiliated  branches.  Supposing 
it  to  be  carried  out,  a  parent  proposing  to  send  a  son  to  the 
grammar  school,  would  be  situated  as  follows.  He  would  in  the 
first  place  be  relieved  from  all  the  annoyance  of  seeking  for  a  nomi- 
nation, and  from  the  uncertainty  as  to  when  it  would  be  obtained. 
He  would  know  that  at  a  certain  time,  without  asking  any  one's 


Mr.  GreerHs  Report.  115 

favour,  he  would  have  to  present  his  son  for  examination,  for  which 
the  elementary  schools,  perhaps  at  a  trifling  fee,  if  he  chose  to 
avail  himself  of  them,  would  furnish  an  adequate  preparation. 
If  the  son  found  himself  among  the  first  quarter,  or  so,  at  the 
examination,  ho  would  be  admitted  free.  If  he  failed  to  reach  this 
position,  but  still  passed,  his  father  would  have  to  consider  whether 
he  should  enter  the  grammar  school  at  a  fee,  or  take  another  year 
or  two  of  education  at  the  elementary  school,  so  as  perfectly  to  fit 
himself  for  a  merchant's  or  manufacturer's  office.  Supposing  him 
not  to  succeed  in  passing,  and  to  be  too  old  to  try  again,  this  would 
of  itself  be  an  indication  that  he  was  the  sort  of  boy  for  whom 
continued  education  at  the  elementary  schools,  or  (if  he  were  in  a 
better  social  position)  at  a  private  academy,  would  be  more  suitable 
than  an  effiart  after  classical  or  scientific  accomplishment  at  the 
grammar  school. 

After  using  my  best  endeavours,  I  was  unable  to  hear  of  any  They  would  not 
cases  in  which  such  an  arrangement  would  act  as  a  real  hardship,  involve  hard- 
There  are,  it  is  true,  at  Birmingham,  over  and  above  the  class  ^ 'P*"^"^""®" 
of  small  shopkeepers  to  be  found  everywhere,  a  large  number  of 
people  who  might  be  reckoned  either  among  the  "  working  "  or  the 
"  middle  "  class,  according  to  the  definition  taken  of  each  class.* 
According  to  the  Government  "  Reform  Statistics,"  they  would  be 
reckoned  "  workmen,"  for  they  work  with  their  own  hands,  having 
commonly  an  apprentice  and  a  journeyman  or  two  under  them. 
Many  of  these  people  who  now  send  sons  to  the  English  depart- 
ment of  the  grammar  school  would  probably  be  prevented  from 
doing  so  by  any  considerable  fee.  I  recall  the  case  of  a  young 
man,  for  some  time  head  of  the  English  department,  and  who  had 
clearly  derived  a  good  deal  of  real  culture  from  it ;  whose  father, 
a  brass  founder  in  a  small  way,  sent  another  son  to  a  school  where 
he  only  paid  about  a  shilling  a  week.  This  may  be  taken  to 
represent  the  father's  natural  standard  of  payment.  A  higher  fee, 
charged  at  the  grammar  school,  would  have  prevented  him  from 
sending  his  son  to  it,  which  would  undoubtedly  have  been  a  very 
great  loss.  It  is  noticeable,  however,  that  the  son  whom  he  did 
send  had  been  previously  educated  at  one  of  the  elementary 
schools,  to  which  he  chiefly  ascribes  his  success  at  the  grammar 
school,  and  would  have  been  quite  sure  to  win  his  freedom  in  a 
competitive  examination  on  the  system  indicated  above.  If  he 
had  not  had  the  ability  to  do  so,  it  would  have  been  no  hardship)  to 
him  to  continue  at  the  elementary  school.  On  the  whole  I  found 
that  although  my  suggestion  of  the  propriety  of  paying  fees,  in 
conversation  with  late  pupils  of  the  school,  was  generally  met  at 
first  by  the  objection  that  it  would  exclude  a  great  number,  yet  it 
afterwards  appeared  that  those  among  the  number  whose  exclusion 
would  be  undesirable,  would  be  sure  to  obtain  free  admission  by 
competition,  and  that  the  rest,  being  of  the  class  called  by  their 

*  These  people  work  chiefly  as  hrass  founders  or  "jewellers."  Statistics  with 
regard  to  them  will  be  found  in  a  paper  on  the  trades  of  Birmingham,  read  at  the 
last  meeting  of  the  British  Association,  and  published  in  the  association's  report. 


116 


Birminrjlunn  Free  School. 


What  should  be 
the  amount  of 
the  fee  ? 


Fee  should  be 
the  same  for 
both  depart- 
ments. 


schoolfellows  "roughs,"  would  be  better  at  the  (improved  and 
extended)  elementary  schools.  The  other  objection  which  I  heard 
from,  the  sarae  quarter,  that  if  freedom  were  exceptional  free  boys 
would  be  despised,  though  it  would  be  valid  if  the  freedom  were 
eleemosynary,  would  not  apply  if  the  freedom  were  made  the 
reward  of  intellectual  merit.  To  admit  it  would  be  to  contradict 
all  the  experience  derived  from  similar  systems  elsewhere. 

As  to  ihe  proper  amount  of  the  fee,  i  venture  to  think  that  the 
"  School-reform  Association,"  was  idisposed  to  place  it  too  high. 
They  propose  to  fix  it  at  half  the  cost  of  education  of  each  boy. 
By  reckoning  under  the  cost  of  education  the  money  spent  on 
payment  of  exhibitioners,  the  management  of  the  estate,  secretary^ 
salary,  &c.,  they:  make  this  cost  about  2<dl.  a  year.  The  fee 
accordingly  would  be  10?.  a  year.  They  are  in  favour,  moreover, 
of  making  the  fee  for  the  English  department  loss  than  that  foj: 
the  classical,  on  the  principle  that  education  in  it  costs  less. 

A  fee  of  lOZ.  a  year  would,  I  think,  effect  a  much  larger 
exclusion  than  is  desirable.  There  is  no  private  school  in  the  town, 
so  far  as  I  know,  which  at  present  charges  more  than  6Z.,  and  the 
case  of  the  Edgbaston  school  is  not  in  point.  It  has  no  endow- 
ment, is  situate  in  a  genteel  suburb,  and  is  meant  to  be  more  select 
than  the  grammar  school,  if  it  is  to  be  in  any  large  measure  fed 
by  the  elementary  schools,  can  ever  hope  to  be.  The  selectness 
of  the  grammar  school  ought  to  be  of  a  different  kind,  a  select- 
ness secured  not  solely  by  the  fee,  but  also  by  the  standard  of  the 
entrance  examination,  which  from  its  relation  to  its  own  elementary 
schools  it  has  peculiar  facilities  for  keeping  up.  I  should  think 
the  fee  commonly  charged  by  the  private  schools,  i.e.  from  4?.  to 
6/.  a  year,  would  for  the  present  be  enough.  4Z.  a  year  is  the  fee 
at  the  Bridge-trust  school  at  Handsworth,  which  succeeds 
admirably.  %l.  a  year  on  each  boy  would  in  fact  cover  nearly  half 
the  sum  spent  on  actual  teaching  power  at  the  grammar  school.. 

The  head  master  objects  to  the  plan  of  making  ■  a  difference 
between  the  fees  payable  in  the  classical  and  English  departments 
as  tending  to  lower  the  position  of  the  latter.  At  present,  so  far 
as  I  could  make  out  from  boys  who  had  lately  left,  there  is  a 
certain  amount  of  caste  separation  between  the  boys  of  the  two 
departments  which  a  difference  of  payment  would  tend  to  fix  and 
perpetuate.  It  would  also  tend  to  commit  the  governors  to  the 
maintenance  of  the  present  division  into  departments,  which  as  I 
shall  afterwards  point  out,  is  or  may  become  of  questionable 
utility,  nor  is  the  doctrine  that  the  fee  should  be  proportionate  to 
the  cost  of  education  one  which  it  is  desirable  to  press.  According 
to  strict  economical  principles  it  ought  doubtless  to  be  soj  but 
educational  endowments  are  inconsistent  with  strict  economical 
principles  altogether.  They  in  fact  act  as  bribes  to  parents  to  seek 
a  higher  education  for  their  children  than  they  otherwise  would, 
nor,  m  a  place  where  the  temptation  to  put  boys  to  business 
early,  and  the  aversion  to  the  "higher  culture  "  as  impractical,  are 

•ong,  can  this  bribery  be  better  bestowed  than  in  inducing  parents 

prefer  the  "  classical "  to  the  «  English  "  education  for  their  sons 


stroni 
to 


;    Mr.  Gveen.s>~Rfi1('rU  117 

by  offering  them  the  more  costly  educ^lional  article  S,t,  the  same 
price  as  the  less.:        ;         , 

;    ;0f  the.  money  gained  by  the  exaction  of  fees,  the  greater  part  Future  disposal 
might  with  advantage  be  spent  within  the  grammar  school  on  °f  income, 
increasing  the  number  and  pay  of  the  hiasters,  on  founding  scholar-  ; . 

ships  tenable  sit  thet  school^  and  perhaps  on .  founding  new,  or 
increasing  the  yalue  of  the  present,  exhibitions.  Whatever  arises 
;fr©m  the  natural  increase  in  the  value  of  the  school  property  may 
then  be  -Bp^nt  oa  the  extension  of  the  elementary  schools.  This 
increase  will  in  all  probability  be  rapid  and  large,  It  will  depend 
.partly  on  the  letting  for  building  purposes  of  the,  vacant  land 
beldnging  to  the  school  at  Ladywood..  The  letting  of  this  can  only 
be  a  question  of  a  few  yearsj  Within  10  years  the  annual  income 
,^,f  the  school,  which  is  already  13,000/.,  may  fairly  be  expected  to 
have  reached  20,000Z.,  with  a  prospect  of  continuous  increase  after- 
wards, as  leases  fall  in.  The  cost  of  the  improvement  in  the 
.existing  elementary  schools,  which  I  have  spoken  of  as  desirable, 
.might  be  covered  by  the  exaction  of  a  yearly  fee  of  1/.  from  each, 
pupil.  This  being  off  their  hands,  I, do  not  see  why  the  governors 
should  not  at  once  set  about  building  four  additional  elementary 
schools.  The  yearly  cost  of  the  existing  four  for  girls  as  well  as 
;boys  is,  I  believe,  about  2,800Z. ,  By  the  time  the  new  ones  were 
builti  the  governors  might  expect,  I  should  think,  to  have  this 
additional  amount  of  yearly  income  at  command.  If  not,  they 
might  begin  with  admitting  boys  only,  though  (as  I  shall  explain 
elsewhere)  -it-  would  be  most  desirable,  as  soon  as  possible,  to 
:supply  additional  accommodation  for  girls.  On  all  points  connect^ 
with  finance,  however,  I  speak  with  special  deference  to  the 
judgment  of  the  governors. 

In  concluding  what  I  have  to  say  on  this  part  of  my  subject,  I 
will  observe  once  again  tha,t  the  changes  in  the  existing,  system  ,  j_ 

which  I  have  suggested,  and  which  in  substance  would,  I  believe 
be  acceptable  to  many  or  most  of  the  governors,  can  only  be 
carried, out  as  a  whole  by  a  new  scheme,  and  that  to  carry  such,  a 
scheme  through  Parliament  will  scarcely  be  possible  without  some 
concession  to  the  town  as  to  the  i  constitution  of  the  governing 
board.  As  the  governors,  I  am  convinced,  have  a  single  eye  to  the 
welfare  of  the  school,  I  should  not  be  surprised  to  hear  that  some 
such  concession  was  under  consideration  by  them. 

(B.)  In  regard  to  the  internal  working  of  the  school,  the  first  Dmsioninto 
thing  to  notice  is  the  division  into  two  departments,  the  "  classical "  departments, 
and  the  "  English,"  in  which  the  curriculum  of  instruction  is  wholly 
different,  and  which  are  not  taught  together  on  any  single  subject. 
The  Act  of  1831  provided  for  the  building  of  two  new  schools,  one 
to  be  classical,  the  other  to  teach  "  the  modern  .languages,  arts, 
and  sciences."     These  were  to  .  be   in   different  situations.     The  Its  origin, 
former  was  to  be  built  on  the  old  grammar  school  site,  the  latter 
in  Peck  Lane.    The  classical  school — the  existing  structure  — was 
built  first,  and  was  so  costly  that  when  it  was  finished  there  was  no 
;nioney  to  build  a  commercial  school  on  a  different  site  ;  accordingly, 
;in  virtue  of  an  Act  of  18.37,  it  was  arranged  that  the  commercial 


1 1 8  Blrmingliam  Free  School. 

school  should  be  held  in  the  same  building  as  the  other.  ^  The  room 
originally  intended  for  a  library  was  devoted  to  it,  and  in  this,  ever 
since  its  establishment  in  the  following  year  (1838),  it  has  continued 
to  be  held. 
And  history.  J'or  some  time  the  English  department  continued  to  hold  quite  a 

secondary  position.  According  to  the  scheme  of  1838,  a  master 
was  appointed  to  teach  it  at  a  salary  of  250Z.  a  year,  to  whom  an 
assistant  was  assigned.  For  some  time  these  two  masters  had  the 
sole  teaching  of  it.  Its  position  gradually  improved,  but  no  con- 
siderable change  was  made  till  1860,  when  by  an  ordinance  of  the 
governors  it  was  arranged  that  the  second-master  of  the  school,  who 
had  formerly  been  engaged  in  the  classical  department,  and  whose 
income  is  over  5507.  a  year,  in  addition  to  a  house  and  liberty  to 
take  12  boarders,  should  have  the  management  of  the  English 
department.  The  second-master  who  first  undertook  this  charge 
wa&  Mr.  Neville  Hutchinson,  now  teacher  of  chemistry  at  Rugby, 
and  under  him,  according  to  all  accounts,  this  department  made  a 
great  start.  Now,  except  so  far  as  the  instructions  of  the  head 
master  are  given  solely  to  the  classical  school,  the  two  are  nearly 
on  a  level  in  respect  of  teaching  power.  Of  10  ordinary  under 
masters,  six  work  under  the  head  master  in  the  classical,  four 
under  the  second  master  in  the  English  school.  Of  the  work  of  one 
German,  two  French,  four  arithmetic  and  writing  masters,  the 
English  school  gets  its  full  share.  The  mathematical  master  now 
confines  himself  to  the  classical  school.  The  number  of  boys  in 
the  two  schools  is  about  equal,  but  nominations  for  the  English 
department  are  in  by  far  the  larger  request.  The  proportion 
between  applications  for  them  and  applications  for  admission  to 
the  classical  department  was  stated  by  some  of  the  governors  to 
be  as  two  to  one,  by  others  to  be  as  four  to  one. 
Functions  of  Of  the  several  functions  of  these  two  departments,  the  best 
each.  generalnotion  may  be  given  by  saying  that  on  the  whole  the  classical 

department  has  set  itself  to  teach  classics,  with  a  supplement 
of  mathematics,  and  little  else ;  that  the  English  department  sets 
itself  to  give  a  boy  a  clerk's  education,  with  the  addition  of  some 
knowledge  of  Latin,  and  (supposing  him  to  complete  the 
course)  of  English  literature  and  history,  French  and  German, 
mathematics  and  chemistry.  A  boy  of  ability,  who  went  througii 
the  classical  school,  would  be  as  thoroughly  qualified,  except  in 
mathematics,  for  Oxford  or  Cambridge  as  school  could  make  him. 
One  who  stayed  in  the  English  department  till  16,  and  spent  the 
last  two  years  in  the  first  class,  would  probably  have  learnt  enough 
Latin  to  make  out  30  or  40  lines  of  Virgil  in  an  hour,  would  have 
gone  some  way  in  trigonometry,  would  havegot  up  four  or  five  plays 
of  Shakspeare  well,  would  know  the  outline  of  English  history, 
and  enough  French  or  German  (not  generally  bothf  to  read  an 
ordinary  book  or  write  an  ordinary  letter,  would  have  had  a  good  deal 
of  practice  in  writing  English,  and  have  learnt  enough  cliemistry 
at  least  to  be  very  much  interested  in  the  subject.  As  preliminary 
to  this,  it  would  have  been  his  own  fault  if  he  had  not  learnt  all 
that  a  clerk  needs  to  learn,  except  book-keeping,  thouo-h  very 


.Mr.  Greenes  Report.  119 

likely  during  his  last  two  years  at  school  he  would  have  lost  some 
of  his  readiness  at  accounts  and  spoilt  his  handwriting.  It  must 
be  remembered,  moreover,  that  the  above  account  only  applies  to 
just  the  cream  of  the  boys,  and  that  in  respect  of  the  English 
sclioblit  represents  a  state  of  things  that  has  obtained  only  during 
the  last  three  or  four  years,  and  has  scarcely  yet  found  its  way 
into  popular  appreciation  in  the  town. 

Between  the  classes  of  boys  severally  using  the  two  departments  Kind  of  boys 
It  is  difficult  to  draw  a  more  definite  distinction  than  that  the  '^sing  each, 
classical  boys   are   on  the   whole   more   "  genteel."     The  more 
wealthy  merchants  and  manufacturers,  those,  at  least,  whose  wealth 
is  of  longer  standing,  generally  send  their  sons  to  boarding  schools. 
If  they  sent  them  to  a  day  school,  it  would  be  most  likely  to  the 
Edgbaston  proprietary  school,  especially  in  case  they  were  Dissen- 
ters. The  professional  men  of  the  town,  on  the  other  hand,  generally 
make  use  of  the  grammar  school.     The  medical  men,  from  the 
nature  •  of  their  calling,   are  still  unlikely   to   withdraw    to  the 
suburbs,  and  I  was  told  by  one  who  ought  to  know  that  probably 
four-fifths  of  them  had  themselves  been  educated  at  the  grammar 
sehool.     These  naturally  send  their  sons  to  it.     The  clergy  and 
dissenting  ministers,  and  to  a  considerable  extent  the  solicitors,  do 
the  same.     The  professional  class,  then,  may  be  reckoned  tlie  first 
element   in   the   constituency    of  the    classical  school.    I  do  not 
suppose  that  any  one  belonging  to  it  ever  sent  a  son  to  the  other 
department.*     Any  one,   again,  who  had  been  much  in  contact 
with  educated  people,  or  who  believed  his  son  to  have  what  is 
called  '•  a  turn  for  books,"  would  prefer  the  classical  department. 
Others,  again,  would  select  it  from  a  vague  notion  of  its  being 
higher  in  social  estimation  ;  otliers,  lastly,  would  accept  a  nomina- 
tion  to  it,  simply  because  it  can  more  quickly  be  obtained.  Any 
one  who  distinctly  meant  to  put  his  son  to  some  business  at  or 
before  the  age  of  16,  would  naturally  send  him  to  the  English 
school,  though  he  might  take  the  other  as  an  alternative.     As   a 
matter  of  fact  many  boys  do  leave  the  classical  department  for 
business  under  16,  as  will  be  seen  from  the  returns. 

The  distinction  of  departments,  then,  does  not  correspond  to 
that  between  the  "  classical  "  and  "  modern  "  departments  at  such 
schools  as  Cheltenham  or  Marlborough,  where  the  "  modern " 
prepares  specially  for  Woolwich,  or  the  civil  service,  or  civil  en- 
gineering. It  represents  a  distinction  of  social  circumstances  as 
much  as  or  more  than  a  distinction  of  educational  objects.  The 
course  of  education  in  the  classical  department  is  determined  ex- 
clusively with  reference  to  the  old  Universities,  yet  not  more  than 
about  four  boys  a  year,  excluding  boarders,  go  from  it  to  these 
Universities.    From  the  English  school,  again,  almost  all  the  boys 


*  Of  10  day  boys  in  the  first  class  last  summer,  four  were  sons  of  professional 
men.  In  the  third  were  nine  sons  of  professional  men,  nine  sons  of  men  in  various 
kinds  of  business,  the  rest  being  sons  of  widows  or  boarders.  One  of  the  masters  of 
the  fourth  and  fifth  classes  (there  are  two  parallel  fourths  and  fifths)  told  me  that  of 
about  25  boys  under  him  seyep  or  eight  were  sons  of- medical  men. 


120  Birmingham  Free  School, 

become  clerks  in  offices  of  various  kinds,  but  the  course  of  study 
in  the  upper  classes  of  this  department  gives  no  special  qualifica- 
tion for  such  clerkships.  A  boy  from  the  third  or  fourth  class— as 
I  learnt  from  late  pupils  of  the  school,  whb,  after  gaining  some 
real  culture,  were  toiling  at  desks — would  be  quite  as  well  fitted 
for  them  as  one  from  the  first.  The  state  of  the  case  may  be  put 
in  short  thus  : — The  education  necessary  for  commercial  life,  the' 
school,  in  its  English  department,  now  adequately  gives — gives, 
[{■  however,'  in  its  lower  classes,  and  no  better  than  it  is  given  at  one' 

of  the  elementary  schools  or  at  a  good  National  schooL  It  also 
gives  an  education  which  qualifies,  if  pursued,  for  the  highest  dis- 
tinctions at  Oxford  and  Cambridge.  The  eduCationj  however, 
given  in  the  higher  classes  of  the  English  school,  and  to  all  those 
in  the  classical  school,,  except  the  few'who  go  to  Oxford  or  Cain- 
bridge,  is  one  having  no  special  reference  to  any  office  or  distinc- 
tion to  be  obtained  after  the  education  itself  is  over.  I  do  not 
say  this  in  condemnation'  of  the  school.  It  is  not  that  the  boys, 
in  large  numbers,  want  a  particular  kind  of  education  for  their 
after  life,  which  the  school  refuses  to  give,  but  that  the  educatioa 
necessary  for  this  purpose  is  too  scanty  to  fill  the  course  of  a 
school  whose  standard  is  decently  high. 

On  this  part  of  the  subject  the  questions  which  it  seems  impor- 
tant to  answer  are  the  following: — (1.)  Does  the  school  give  the 
education  which  it  professes  to  give  for  practical  purposes  as  effec- 
tively as  it  might  ?     (2.)  Does  it  do  all  that  might  be  done  to 
supplement  this  education  by  general  culture?     (3.)  Are  there 
any  lines  of  life  the  education  for  which  is  in  any  demand,  and  is 
not  supplied  by  the  school  ?     (4.)  Could  more  be  done  than  is 
done  by  the  school  to  tempt  its  pupils  to  reach  a  higher  calling— | 
one,  at  least,  which  requires  a  more  learned  education — than  that 
to  which  circumstances  naturally  lead  them  ? 
Defects  of  prac-      (1.)  On  the  first  of  these  questions,  there  has  no  doubt  been  a 
tical  education,  general  notion  in  the  town  that  boys  from  the  grammar  school 
have  not  been  well  trained  as  clerks.     They  have  had  the  reputa- 
Eeasons.  tion  of  writing  badly,  and  being  bad  accountants.     These  are  the 

points  on  which  I  generally  found  that  the  private  schoolmasters 
of  the  town  believed  themselves  able  to  do  more  for  an  average 
boy  than  the  grammar  school  did.  The  merchants,  however,  are 
very  ready  to  take  boys  from  the  grammar  school  as  clerks,  and  I 
believe  that  the  complaints  made  against  it  refer  properly  to  a 
past  period,  when  the  masters  in  the  English  department  were  not 
numerous  enough  for  their  work,  and  before  certain  changes  intro- 
duced by  the  present  head  master  had  taken  effect.  The  most 
Formerly  important  of  these  concern  the  teaching  of  arithmetic.  In  the 
inadequate  pro-  early  days  of  the  English  school,  very  poor  provisio.n  was  made 
Irithmetio.  ^^^  *^^^*  '^^^  '^^^^^  present  arithmetical  master  told  me  that  when 
he  first  came  he  had  to  teach  -arithmetic  unaided  to  all  the  boys 
of  the  English  school,  210  in  number.  There  was  then  only  one 
black  board  in  the  school.  After  additional  arithmetical  teachers 
had  come  to  be  employed,  there  still  continued  to  be  no  distinct 
arithmetical  classification,  and  the  ordinary  masters  took  no  part 


3Ir.  Green's  Report.  121 

in  teaching  it.  As  a  boy's  place  in  the  school  depended  chiefly 
on  his  merit  in  other  subjects  than  arithmetic,  it  would  constantly 
l^appen  that  "the  same  arithmetical  work  was  being  done  by  boys 
utterljoftifferent  in  arithmetical  knowledge,  to  the  great  discourage- 
ment'and  hindrance  of  those  who  were  advanced  in  it.  A  boy 
from  the  'elementary  schools,  transferred  to  the  grammar  school, 
would  at  that  time  rather  lose  ground  than  otherwise  in  arithmetic, 
as  one  or  two  such  boys  'told  me  had  been  the  case  with  them- 
selves. At  present  the  separate  classification  for  arithmetic  in  the 
English  school  is  nearly,  though  not  quite,  complete.  The  boys 
in  the  two  upper  classes' form  one  group,  which  is  rearranged  on  al 
mathematical  basis  three  mornings  a  week.  The  classes  below 
the'  second  form  another  group,  which  is  rearranged  on  an  arith- 
metical basis  three  afternoons  and  one  morning  during  the 
week  (six  hours  a  week  in  all).  The  best  20  of  this  group  form  a 
class  by  themselves.  They  belong  commonly,  I  was  told,  to  the 
lower  classes  in  general  work,  being  often  boys  froiii  the  elemen- 
tary schools.  Below  this  20  the  arithmetical  classes  are  rather 
larger,  but  still  do  not  contain  more  than  30  each.'  The  ordinary 
masters  being  now  employed  to  teach  arithmetic  in  addition  to  the 
special  arithmetical  masters,  they  are  smaller  than  the  classes  for 
general  work.*  Special  examinations  in  arithmetic  are  now  held 
throughout  the  school  at  stated  intervals  during  the  half  year,  and 
special  prizes  are  given  for  it. 

According  to  the  above  arrangement,  it  can  scarcely  be  said 
that  arithmetic  is  neglected  in  the  English  school,  and  the  teachers 
are  admitted  on  all  hands  to  be  very  efficient.  At  the  examina- 
tion last  Midsummer,  my  coUeague,  who  attended  to  that  depart- 
ment, pronounced  the  arithmetic  to  be  on  the  whole  quite  satis- 
factory. To  this  braiich  of  education,  however,  as  to  others,  the 
outward  arrangements  of  the  English  school  cannot  but  be  preju- 
dicial. This  school  is  taught  altogether  in  one  large  room,  which 
is  very  noisy  (as  it  faces  New  Street,  the  busiest  thoroughfare  of 
the  town),  and  decidedly  over-crowded.  To  accommodate  more 
scholars,  a  gallery  has  been  erected  at  each  end  of  the  room,  and 
in  each  gallery  about  50  boys  are  taught.  Under  one  of  the  gal- 
leries is  a  class-room,  separated  by  glass  doors  from  the  body  of 
the  school-room. 

Masters  and  pupils  are  unanimous  in  describing  the  noise  of  NoiseinEnglish 
this  room  as  most  distressing.  The  junior  classes  in  the  galleries  school, 
suffer  the  most.  In  each  gallery  is  one  master,  having  to  teach 
in  one  case  50,  in  the  other  57  boys.  This  is  a  considerable 
number  for  one  man  in  any  case,  and  the  difficulty  is  increased  by 
the  boys  under  each  master  being  divided  into  two  classes,  one  of 
which  learns  a  lesson  or  writes  something  while  the  other  is  being 


*  The  result  of  the  above  management  is,  that  if  a  boy  is  carried  by  his  general 
work  into  the.  second  class  he  has  to  give  more  time  to  mathematics  than  to  arith- 
metic, though  his  knowledge  of  the  latter  may  be  far  from  complete.  Instances  of 
this  kind  are  not  uncommon,  and  so  fer  the  arithmetical  classification  is  not  yet 
perfect. 


122  Birmingham  Free  School. 

heard.  The  arrangements  do  not  allow  of  the  master  properly 
overlooking  one  class  while  he  hears  the  other.  He  is  troubled 
at  once  with  the  buzz  of  the  learning  class  on  one  side  of  him, 
with  the  murmur  ascending  from  the  classes  below,  and  with  the 
roar  of  wheels  in  the  street.*  He  is  at  the  same  time  breathing 
the  atmosphere  natural  to  the  upper  regions  of  a  crowded  and  ill- 
ventilated  (though  lofty)  room.  The  teachers  and  boys  on  the 
floor  do  not  suffer  quite  so  much,  but  still  considerably,  As  there 
is  not  room  for  all  the  boys  under  one  master  to  write  at  once, 
the  master  (who  always  has,  nominally  or  virtually,  two  classes,) 
has  one  part  of  his  boys  standing  round  his  desk  to  say  a  lesson 
while  the  rest  are  learning  or  writing.  Over  the  latter  he  cannot 
maintain  a  proper  supervision,  and,  as  they  sit  writing  at  double 
desks,  so  as  to  face  each  other,  they  are  very  apt  to  keep  up  a 
game  involving  more  or  less  noise  all  the  time.  Each  master, 
again,  in  turn,  except  the  lowest,  carries  off  one  of  his  classes  to 
the  sepai'ate  class  room,|  and  meantime  his  other  class  is  left  in  the 
large  room,  with  no  one  to  keep  it  in  order  but  the  second  master 
(master  of  the  English  school),  who  is  responsible  for  the  general 
order  of  the  room,  but  is  all  the  while  teaching  or  looking  over 
exercises  himself. 

The  result,  even  under  good  management,  is  an  amount  of  sus- 
tained noise,  increased  by  a  strong  echo  in  the  room,  which  makes 
a  stranger  wonder  that  any  teaching  can  go  on  at  all.  After  long 
habituation  to  it,  the  late  second  master  told  me  that  teaching  in 
the  English  school  cost  double  the  labour  that  it  would  in  a  quiet 
room,  and  produced  only  half  the  effect.  The  late  pupils  of  the 
school  speak  to  the  same  purpose.  One  of  them,  who^e  experience 
was  of  a  period  six  or  seven  years  ago,  told  me  that  towards  dusk 
on  an  autumn  or  winter  afternoon  ,  the  English  school  "  became  a 
"  mere  bear-garden."  The  discipline  has  probably  been  more 
effective  lately,  but  those  who  had  left  the  top  of  the  English 
school  within  the  last  year  or  two  all  agreed  in  saying  that  during 
a  lesson  round  the  master's  desk  in  the  great  school,  especially  if 
the  lesson  was  in  mathematics  or  a  modern  language,  the  noise 
was  very  distressing,  and  that  they  got  twice  as  much  good  from 
a  lesson  in  the  separate  class  room. 
Preliminary  It  is  very  likely  that  sometimes  a  dull  or  idle  boy,  knowing  hardly 

Ignorance.  anything  to  begin  with  (which  is  the  case  with  many  who  enter 
the  grammar  school),  amid  this  noise  and  distraction  may  remain 
virtually  untaught  in  the  elements,  however  good  the  teaching 
may  be,  and  that  such  an  one,  on  his  removal  to  a  well-manao-ed 
private  school,  just  when  he  is  beginning  to  be  ashamed  of  his 
ignorance,  may,  with  the  more  direct  personal  attention  which  he 
there  receives,  improve  rapidly  in  elementary  knowledge.  It  is- 
very  likely,  also,  that  such   a  boy  might  learn  spelling"  writing. 


*  I  found  myself  that,  as  I  stood  by  tHe  master's  side  in  one  of  these  galleries,  I 
conld  not  hear  half  of -what  the  boys  said,  though  his  more  practised  ear  seemed  able 
to  do  so.  As  the  boys  stand  round  him  in  three  sides  of  a  quadrangle  it  must  be 
very  difficult  ior  those  on  one  side  to  hear  -what  is  said  by  those  on  the  other 

•f  Each  master  has  the  use  of  this  for  about  1^  hoiu-s  a  day 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  123 

and  arithmetic  more  effectively  where  virtually  little  else  is 
attended  to,  than  where,  as  in  the  grammar  school,  they  are  the 
accompaniments  of  Latin  and  other  subjects.  This  is  ])robably 
the  true  account  of  the  cases  often  mentioned  to  me  (without 
details)  by  private  schoolmasters,  of  boys  who  have  come  to  them 
from  the  Ens;lish  department  of  the  grammar  school,  ignorant  of 
the  elements,  and  under  their  care  quickly  acquire  them. 

The  remedy  for  such  cases  of  elementary  ignorance  (which  Remeiiies. 
already,  I  think,  belong  rather  to  the  past  than  the  present)  is  to 
be  found,  as  I  have  previously  stated,  rather  in  the  improvement 
of  preliminary  education  through  King  Edward's  elementary 
schools  or  otherwise,  than  within  the  grammar  school  itself.  A 
boy  from  the  first  class  of  the  elementary  schools,  as  I  have  go^l 
evidence  for  saying,  would  be  able  to  do  accounts  or  write  a  busi- 
ness letter  sufiiciently  for  practical  purposes  before  entering  the 
grammar  school.  When  in  it  he  would  only  require  to  keep  up 
what  he  already  knew.  The  elementary  part,  however,  of  the 
education  in  the  English  department  of  the  grammar  school 
would  improve  like  all  other  branches  with  the  improvement  of  the 
accommodation  for  teaching.  More  room  is  imperatively  required. 
The  boys  now  taught  on  the  floor  might,  perhaps,  with  an  addi- 
tional class-room  be  adequately  provided  for,  but  the  gallery 
classes  ought  to  be  removed  altogether.  Such  removal,  I  should 
think,  was  required  on  sanitary,  if  on  no  other  grounds.  One 
additional  master  also  is  certainly  wanted  for  the  lower  part  of 
the  English  school. 

So  much  for  the  English  department.    Many  of  the  complaints.  Boys  in  the 
however,  which  may  be  heard  in  Birmingham  as  to  the  neglect  of  <='assical  de- 
practical  education  in  the  grammar  school  refer  really  to  the  case  should  rather 
of  boys  who  have  been  placed  in  the  classical  department,  and  be  in  the 
then  removed  for  business  at  or  under  the  age  of  16.     That  such  ^"S'^^'*- 
boy»  should  not  be  found  well  qualified  for  their  work  is  very 
natural.      Distraction   through   noise   and    overcrowding    cannot 
indeed  be  now  com])lained  of  in  the  classical  school.     The  room 
in  which  it  is  taught  is  considerably  larger  than  the  other,  and, 
unlike  it,  was  originally  meant  for  a  schoolroom.     It  lies  also 
away  from  the  street.     But  though  it  only  had  to  accommodate 
as  many  boys  as  the  other  school,  it  was  found  inconveniently  full, 
till  on  Mr.  Hutchinson's  resignation  of  the  ofiice  of  second  master, 
some  rooms  in  his  house,  which  is  part  of  the  school  building, 
were  converted  at  the  instance  of  the  head-master  into  class-rooms. 
This  made  it  possible  to  withdraw  four  classes  altogether  from 
the  great  schoolroom,  which  cannot  now  be  said  to  be  either  too 
full  or  noisy.     If  the  classical  school  now  fails  to  give  a  clerk's 
education  adequately,  it  is  because  its  object  is  different.     It  has 
as  yet  no  separate  classification  for  arithmetic,  and  marks  for  this 
subject  have  not  much  influence  as  compared  with  those  for  Latin  System  of  the 
and  Greek  on  the  promotion  from  class  to  class.    In  the  six  lower  ^'^'^f^  purely 
classes  about  three  hours  a  week  are  given  to  it.     The  teachers 
are  able,  and  the  classes  are  small,  but  a  boy  not  well  trained  in 
it  to  begin  with  would  be  very  likely  not  to  learn  it  well,  simply 
a.  c.  S.  L 


124 


Birmingham  Free  School. 


Hence  little 
general  culti- 
vation of  in- 
ferior boys. 


from,  finding  it  treated  as  quite  a  secondary  subject.  Supposing 
him  to  leave  for  business  at  15  or  16,  when  he  has  reached  the 
fourth  or  fifth  class  (and  this  is  a  very  common  case),  he  will  pror 
bably  for  the  two  previous  years  have  attended  to  hardly  anythiijg 
but  Latin  and  Greek,  and  if  he  learnt  a  "good  roiind  hand", in 
the  lower  classes,  will  have  lost  it  for  a  scribble  with  writing 
exercises  in  the  higher.  He  will,  in  fact,  be  much  less  fitted  for 
a  clerk  than  a  boy  from  the  elementary  schools.  What  is  wrong 
here,  however,  is  not  the  teaching  of  the  classical  school,  except 
in  so  far  as  it  fails  through  want  of  a  separate  arithmetical  classi- 
fication, but  the  arrangement  through  which  ,  the  boy  was  placed 
in  the, classical  school  at  all.  This  points  to  a  fault  in  the  relgr 
tion  between  the  two  departments,  which  will  be  considered  more 
fully  afterwards. 

(2.)  On  the  second  of  the  questions  mentioned  above^-Does 
the  grammar  school  do  all  that  might  be  done  to  supplement  the 
practical  elementary  education  by  general  culture  ? — what  has 
just  been  said  of  the  classical  department  has  an  important  bearing. 
It  would  certainly  seem  that  a  boy  who  does  not  rise  above  the 
fourth  or  fifth  class  in  the  classical  school,  and  leaves  it  at  16, 
gets  very  little  "  general  culture "  indeed.  Setting  aside  the 
amount  of  arithmetic  specified  above,  and  a  little  Euclid  which  he 
only,  learns  when  he  reaches  the  fifth  class,  he  will  have  learnt 
scarcely  anything  but  the  elements  of  Latin  and  Greek.  Of 
geography  he  will  have  learnt  something  in  the  lower  classes,  buj 
as  it  is  dropped  in  the  higher  he  will  probably  have  forgotten,  ifc 
Of  history,  unless  he  has  had  some  special  interest  in  it,  he  will 
have  learnt  next  to  nothing.  One  hour  a  week  is  given  to  history 
(ancient)  in  the  fourth  and  fifth  classes,  and  not  so  much  as  this 
regularly  in  the  third.  It  is  not,  I  think,  generally  taught  witH 
much  spirit,  and  no  regular  cycle  of  periods  is  arranged.  A  boy, 
who  has  read  one  period  of  history  in  one  class,  reads,  the  same, 
perhaps  in  a  difierent  manual,  on  his  promotion  to  the  next 
French,  now  that  means  are  provided  for  teaching  it  in  a  separate 
class-room,  (a  provision  universally  admitted  to  be  most  bene- 
ficent,) he  will  have  had  the  opportunity  of  learning  well,  but  as 
attention  to  it  will  have  had  very  little  comparative  influence  on 
his  promotion  in  the  school,  the  chances  are  that  he  will  have 
neglected  it.  Latin  and  Greek,  in  short,  have  been  supreme  in 
his  education,  and  he  has  learnt  enough  of  them  to  make  out 
Cassar  and  Xenophon  with  difficulty.  Within  a  couple  of  years, 
probably,  of  his  beginning  commercial  life  he  will  remember  a 
few  examples  from  the  Latin  and  Greek  grammar,  and  nothing 
more. 

This  exclusive  attention  to  classics  is  felt  as  an  evil  by  parents 
who  have  sent  their  sons  to  the  classical  department,  not  from 
chance  or  from  a  notion  that  it  is  the  more  distinguished,  but  from 
a  distinct  desire  that  they  should  obtain  some  amount  of  classical 
knowledge.  In  the  case  of  boys  who  rise  Ivigher  and  stav  loncfir 
than  the  one  I  have  supposed,  though  the  evil  may  be  less, as  tije 
amount  of  classical  knowledge  gained  is  greater,  still,  unless,  they 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  125 

are  ititcnded  foB  Cambridge',  the  want  of  all  supplementary  culti- 
vation i^  to   be   lam'ented.     Among   the   discontented   parents^ 
however,  though'  there  wafe  a  desire  for  more  history,  more  modem 
languages,  more  physical  sciemje,  as  the  case  might  be,  I  did  not 
find  any  desire  for  an  essential  curtailment  of  the  classical  studies. 
The  qiiestioDj  therefore,  seems  to  be.  Can  the  classical  character 
of  the  classical  department  be  kept  up,  and  at  the  same  time  more 
provision  made  for  general  cultivation  ?      As  matters  stand  at  Hard  to  main- 
present  it  requires  an  absorbing  and  exclusive  effort  to  keep  np  tain  classical 
the  classical  standard  in  the  upper  part  of  the  school.     Anything,  a^y  o^g].°~B. 
therefore,  'which  tended  to  lighten  this  necessary  effort  would  so  tem. 
far  facilitate  the  introduction  of  supplementary  studies. 

The  difficulty  of  maintaining  the  standard  is  due,  I  believe.  Why  ? 
mainly  to  three  causes:  (a),  want  of  preliminary  education;  (/3),  the 
exhaustive  drain-  of  laoys  from  the  middle  of  the  school  who  leave  for 
commercial  life,  and  the  consequent  rapidity  of  proiliotion ;  (7),  a 
certain  want  of  spirit  in  the  junior  masters,  due  mainly  to  the  hard- 
ness of  their  position.  On  {a)  enpugh  has  been  said  already  in  a 
different  connexion.  A  boy  who,  up  tftjtheiage  of  12  or  over,  has 
not  learnt  to  speak  or  write  his  own  langnage  correctly,  and  who  has 
not,  be  it  observed,  in  many  cases,  those- about  him  at  his  home  to 
whom  such  correctness  is  habitual,  is  proportionately  unreceptive  of 
Latin  and  Greek  grammar.  With  the  want  of  early  education  is 
also  closely  connected  the  want  of  encouragement  and  assistance 
in  learning  lessons,  especially  classical  lessons,  at  home.  So  far  as 
the  school- has  a  remedy  for  this  evil,  it  can  only  be  through  the 
operation  of  its  entrance  examination. 

For  (|3)  there  is  probably  no  remedy,  short  of  a  higher  apprecia- 
tion of  education  among  men  of  business,  and  a  modification  of 
the  received  view  that  16  is  the  latest  age  at  which  a  boy-  ought 
to  enter  an  office.  Whatever  the  remedy,  of  the  evil  there  is  no 
question.  After  the  midsummer  examination,  it  is  no  uncommon 
thing  in  the  middle  of  the  school  for  a  whole  class  to  be  changed^ 
through  either  the  promotion  or  departure  of  the  boys  who  com- 
posed it.  The  better  boys  are  often  promoted  two  classes  at  a 
time.  The  consequences  are  (1),  that  it  is  next  to  impossible'  to 
maintain  a  proper  graduation  of  study  in  the  supplementary  sub- 
jects ;  and  (2),  that  in  order  to  qualify  the  boy,  thus  rapidly 
thrown  up  into  the  third,  fourth,  and  fifth  classes,  who  can  often 
scarcely  construe,  for  being  taught  along  with  boys  aspiring  to 
scholarships  at -Oxford  and  Cambridge,  under  the  headmaster, 
Latin  and  Greek  have  to'  bci  worked  at  to  the  exclusion  of  every- 
thing else. 

As  to  (7),  I  should  be  sorry  to  cast  any  reflection  on  so  hard-  Condition  of 
worked,  and,  as  it  seems  to  me,  hardly-used  a  body  of  men  as  the  *astws 
under-maeters  at  Birmingham.  -They  do  their  work  in  all  cases 
conscieiltiously,  and  in  many  very  effectively.'  I  may  say  here, 
however;  once  tfor  all,  that  I  think  their  position  a  very  trying 
one;  and  their  p'ay  inadequate.  They  ai?e,  in  Consequence,  with 
scarcely  an  exception,  gloomy  and  down-hearted,  and  men  in  their 
temper,  however  diligent  and  coiiscientiQus,are  not  likely  to  do 

L  2 


126  Birmingham  Fiee  School 

their  work  with  much  freshness  or  elasticity.  The  pay  of  the 
head  and  second  master  is,  of  course,  quite  sufficient.  Below 
them,  the  teacher  of  the  3rd  class  gets  altogether  3251.  a  year,  and 
the  mathematical  master  250?.  The  senior  master  in  the  English 
school  (having  been  originally  the  chief  master)  also  gets  250/. 
The  rest  of  the  ordinary  masters  get  200Z.  a  year,  and  are  expected 
to  be  graduates  of  Oxford  or  Cambridge.  No  one  who  knows 
anything  of  these  Universities  will  suppose  that  any  but  quite 
inferior  men  would,  for  such  a  salary,  take  such  a  place,  with  all 
the  unpleasantness  of  teaching  rough  boys  in  a  noisy  school,  unless 
under  peculiar  circumstances,  or  as  leading  to  something  better. 
It  is  probably  on  the  latter  ground  that  the  governors  hope  to 
attract  young  men  for  a  time  to  the  school,  but  the  attraction  is 
very  poor  of  its  kind.  "Within  the  school  itself—  setting  aside  the 
second  mastership,  which  requires  special  qualifications  not  likely 
to  be  found  in  any  of  the  ordinary  masters — there  is  only  one 
possible  promotion  to  look  forward  to,  and  that  is  only  to  a  salary 
of  325?.  a  year.  The  prospect  of  promotion  to  better-paid  scholastic 
employment  elsewhere  is  at  best  a  precarious  one,  nor  for  most 
kinds  of  such  employment  would  apprenticeship  at  Birmingham 
be  reckoned  a  good  qualification.  But  even  if  it  were,  teaching 
supplied  solely  by  apprentices  is  hardly  likely  to  be  what  it 
should  be,  especially  if  the  apprentices  are  discontented  at  having 
stayed  longer  than  their  time.  For  a  certain  number,  at  any  rate, 
of  more  permanent  teachers  adequate  provision — i.e.,  provision 
that  would  render  marriage  possible — ought  to  be  made.  The 
mathematical  mastership,  for  instance,  is  one  which  cannot  with 
advantage  be  constantly  changing  hands,  yet  the  present  salary  is 
wholly  inadequate  to  retain  a  good  master.  The  present  holder 
of  it,  whose  loss  would  have  been  a  great  one,  has  been  kept  to 
the  town  by  domestic  circumstancesj  and  having  a  Cambridge 
fellowship,  he  is  able  to  live  in  tolerable  comfort.  Otherwise, 
no  one  of  his  merit  could  have  been  retained  without  double 
the  salary.  As  it  is,  I  think  that  he  feels  his  position  to  be  a  hard 
one.* 

Supposing  the  pay  of  the  ordinary  graduate  masters  to  be  raised, 
as  it  ought  to  be,  by  at  least  lOOZ.  a  year,  the  question  would  arise 


*  The  salary  of  the  ordinary  under-master,  2007.  a  year,  is  not  more  than  may  be 
made— at  Birmingham,  I  helieve,  in  at  least  one  instance  is  made — by  the  master  of 
a  school  receiving  Government  aid.  The  question  suggests  itself -whether  the  junior 
classes,  in  the  English  department  at  any  rate,  might  not  with  advantage  be  taught 
by  masters  of  this  sort  :  for  instance,  by  masters  promoted  from  King  Edward's 
elementary  schools.  At  present  the  two  lowest  classes  in  the  English  school  are 
taught  by  a  master  holding  a  Government  certificate,  and  with  very  satisfactory 
results.  The  promotion  of  a  master  from  the  elementary  schools  was,  I  believe,  tried 
some  years  ago,  but  not  found  to  answer.  The  repetition  of  the  experiment  was 
very  much  deprecated  by  the  older  graduate  mastera  (not  the  head  master)  to  whom 
I  spoke  about  it.  Though  it  cannot  be  disputed  that  in  method  of  teaching  a  good 
certificated  master  is  likely  to  excel  a  raw  graduate,  it  is  said  that  he  has  not  the 
same  civilizing  influence  on  the  boys,  an  influence  certainly  much  needed  in  the 
lower  classes  of  King  Edward's  School.  However  this  might  be,  the  difficiUty  of 
properly  amagamating  the  graduate  and  non-graduate  masters  is  a  sei-ious  one,  and 
)»,  I  think,  felt  aa  such  already. 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  127 

whether  this  should  be  given  in  cash  or  by  the  provision  of  board 
and  lodging  at  a  common  hall,  after  the  example  of  Marlborough 
and  "Wellington  Colleges.  My  intercourse  with  the  under-masters 
led  me  to  think  that  the  latter  arrangement  would  be  far  the  most 
desirable.  It  Is  not  easy  for  them  to  get  suitable  lodgings  at  all, 
and  then  only  at  a  considerable  distance  from  the  school,  and 
(generally)  from  each  other.  They  have  not  naturally  much 
opportunity  of  mixing  in  the  society  of  the  place,  and  may  not 
much  care  to  avail  themselves  of  what  they  have.  Living  toge- 
ther they  would  form  a  society  among  themselves,  their  interest 
in  the  school  would  be  quickened  by  comparison  of  counsels,  and 
they  could  supply  themselves  more  readily  with  books  and  news- 
papers. Altogether  their  life  would  be  more  cheerful  and  on  better 
terms  with  celibacy. 

If,  by  the  removal  of  the  evils  above  explained,  it  were  possible  Desirability 
to  raise  the  general  standard  of  the  middle  part  of  the  classical  ^°™S  more 
school,  more  attention  might  be  given  to  history  or  physical  science  classical 
or  modern  languages,  without  diminishing  the  effectiveness  of  the  education, 
school  as  a  nursery  for  the  Universities.  Such  a  modification  of 
the  present  system  would  be  desirable  for  boys  destined  for  the 
Universities,  as  well  as  for  those  meant  for  business ;  but  unless 
carried  further  than  would  be  consistent  with  the  educational  in- 
terests of  the  former,  it  would,  I  think,  scarcely  meet  the  case  of 
the  latter.  There  is  such  an  essential  difference  between  the  case 
of  boys  whose  regular  education  terminates  at  the  age  of  17  at 
latest,  and  that  of  boys  with  whom  it  will  be  continued  for  some 
years  longer,  that  it  is  hard  to  see  how  the  same  system  can  suit 
both.  Every  one  knows  that  if  a  boy  is  to  get  a  scholarship  at 
Oxford  or  Cambridge,  classics  or  mathematics  must  form  the  back- 
bone of  his  education.  Nor  did  I  find  that  for  boys  intended  for 
the  University  of  London,  with  a  view  to  the  medical  profession, 
any  essential  departure  from  the  classical  and  mathematical  system 
was  desired  by  their  parents,  except  sometimes  with  reference  to 
what  the  school,  of  course,  cannot  take  into  account — the  capacity 
of  individuals.  A  boy,  on  the  other  hand,  whose  education  is  to 
stop  when  he  leaves  school,  must  lay  at  school  the  foundations  of 
any  general  knowledge  to  whicli  he  may  afterwards  attain.  If  he 
has  not  there  become  acquainted  in  outline  with  the  history  of 
modern  nations  and  modern  literature,  and  of  physical  science,  the 
chances  are  that  he  will  be  repelled  from  reading  on  these  subjects 
in  after-life  by  elementary  ignorance,  or  that,  if  he  attempts  it,  his 
reading  will  be  wasted  from  having  nothing  to  fasten  upon.  This 
class  of  boys  would  really  be  better  suited  by  the  education  given 
in  the  first  class  of  the  English  department,  if  somewhat  extended. 
Their  transfer  to  this  department  is,  however,  prevented  not  only 
by  social  considerations,  but  by  the  physical  impossibility,  accord- 
ing to  present  arrangements,  of  accommodating  more  boys  in  it. 
Their  removal,  moreover,  would  so  attenuate  the  classical  depart- 
ment that  there  would  not  be  enough  competition  in  its  lower 
regions  to  form  effective  classes  for  those  who  remained  in  it. 
Without  an  entire  revolution  of  system  their  case  could  only  be 


128 


Birmingham  Free  School. 


What  is  done 
for  it  in 
English 
Department. 


Such  cultiva- 
tion does  not 
'  pay '  in 
business; 


met  by  allowing  alternative  studies,  i.  e.,  by  allowing  boys  in  the 
classical  department  to  substitute  for  some  of  the  ordinary  lessons 
work  to  be  done  in  common  with  the  upper  boys  of  the  English- 
school.  Such  an  arrangement  could  only  be  made  with  great  diffi- 
culty, and  before  saying  more  about  it,  it  will  be  well  to  explain 
what  provision  for  "  general  culture "  is  now  made  in  the  latter 
department. 

The  education  given  in  the  first  class  of  the  English  school  is 
very  multifarious,  and  the  question  which  an  observer  w6a1d  first 
a,sk  abput  it  would  be,  for  -what  in  particular  does  it  qualify  its  re- 
cipients ?  This  is  a  question  which  it  would  be  difficult  to  answer, 
but  the  explanation  of  the  difficulty  is  that  the  business  of  Bir- 
mingham absorbs  nearly  all  the  boys  who  pass  through  the  English 
school,  and  that  this  business  is  not  of  a  kind  which  requires  any 
preliminary  education  but  the  most  elementary.  An  aoquaintaBoe 
with  "  book-keeping"  is,  of  course,  necessary  for  a  clerk,  but  the 
general  voice  of  the  merchants  seems  to  be  that  a  boy  learns  it  better 
in  the  mercantile  house,  according  to  the  particular  method  of  the 
house,  than  at  school.  It  is  not  at  present  taught  in  the  grammar 
school.  The  only  advantage  to  be  gained  by  teaching  it  there 
would  be  this,  that  possibly,  if  his  clerk  came  to  him  having 
already  some  practical  knowledge,  the  merchant  might  not  insist  on 
his  coming  quite  so  young,  and  that  thus  a  boy,  instead  of  leaving 
at  15,  might  be  kept  to  16  ;  but  the  opposite  results  might  follow^ 
The  merchant  might  say  that  the  "  practical  knowledge,"  not  being 
of  the  right  sort,  only  made  the  boy  more  difficult  to  shake  down 
into  the  regular  routine  of  the  office.  Eor  the  kind  of  manufacture 
involving  the  electro-deposit,  such  as  "jewellery,"  some  elementary 
knowledge  of  chemistry  is  useful — so  much  only,  however,  as  may 
soon  be  acquired  by  an  apprentice  in  the  business.  The  son  of  a 
jeweller,  meant  to  continue  the  father's  business,  might  be  allowed 
by  his  father  to  remain  longer  at  school  on  the  understanding  that 
the  chemistry  learnt  there  might  be  turned  to  practical  account. 
I  became  acquainted  with  a  case  of  this  kind,  but  the  boy  in  ques- 
tion, though  he  found  some  of  his  chemical  knowledge  useful,  had 
learnt  far  more  than  was  necessary  for  his  calling,  and  was  seeking 
opportunity  to  continue  his  chemical  studies  in  Germany.  An- 
other case  was  mentioned  to  me  of  a  boy  from  the  English  school 
who  obtained  a  well-paid  place  in  Allsopp's  brewery  on  the 
strength  of  his  chemical  knowledge.  Cases  again  may  occur 
where  a  knowledge  of  French,  or — which  at  Birmingham  is  more 
likely — of  German  may  be  turned  to  account,  but  they  are  quite 
exceptional.  A  commercial  house,  doing  a  large  foreio-n  trade, 
generally  employs  a  foreigner,  or  one  who  has  lived  considerably 
abroad,  to  do  its  foreign  correspondence,  and  only  perhaps  10  per 
cent,  of  its  clerks  would  be  wanted  to  know  even  the  commercial 
terms  of  any  language  but  their  own.*     A  school  knowledge  of 


♦  In  a  house  connected  chiefly  Tvith  the  South  American  trade,  and  where  con- 
sequently Spanish  was  the  modern  language  in  demand,  I  understood  that  of  50 
clerks  only  six  were  required  to  know  any  Spanish.    A  thormigh  knowledge  of  it 


Mr.  Greenes  Report.  329 

mechanics  could 'be  held  up  as  practically  useful  with  less  plausibi- 
lity at  Birmingham  than  in  many  other  large  towns,  as  it  has  no 
great  madhine-'makiiig  establishment.  For  those  manufactures 
which  involve  engraviii^,  and  which  are  largely  pursued  at 
Birmingham,  some  practice  in  drawing  is  necessary,  and  many 
masters,  I  believe,  compel  their  apprentices  to  take  lessons  in  it. 

On  the  Avhole,  though  the  prospect  of  pi-aotical  availability  may  StiU  something 
not  be  altogether  without  influence,  it  cannot  at  Birmingham  be  ^?"^  for  it  in 
relied  on  as  a  general  incentive  to  any  study  beyond  the  region  of  of^English^^ 
the -simplest  elementary  knowledge,  or  as  a  set-off  to  the  desire  to  department. 
make  a  boy  practically  useful  as  soon  as  possible^  The  English 
department,  therefore,  in  its  promotion  of  "  general  culture,"  has 
very  little  to  appeal  to  but  the  genuine  desire  for  knowledge, 
though  in  its  selection  of  the  sort  of  knowledge  to  be  cultivated  it 
may,  and  does,  look  to  the  appearance  of  practical  usefulness. 
From  conversation  with  late  pupils,  and  from  what  I  saw  and 
heard  at  the  midsummer  examination,  I  believe  that  a  boy  who 
stays  two  or  three  years  in  the  "  upper  first"  class  of  this  depart- 
ment gets  as  good  an  education,  looking  to  his  future  life,  as  under 
the  circumstances  is  possible.  He  is  in  the  first  place  well  trained 
in  English,  which,  considering  his  probable  domestic  antecedents, 
is  itself  a  great  point.  A  yearly  prize  is  given  for  an  examination 
in  plays  of  Shakspear,*  and  a  boy  who  stays  long  enough  comes 
really  to  know  and  think  about  some  five  or  six  of  the  best  plays. 
A  more  general  acquaintance  with  English  literature  used  to  be 
cultivated  by  lessons  in  a  short  history  of  it  by  Collier.  For  this 
the  acting  master  last  summer  had  substituted,  I  should  think 
wisely,  a  lesson  three  times  a  week  in  Chaucer  and  Shakspear ;  a 
short  English  theme,  or  paraphase,  is  written  in  or  out  of  school 
every  week ;  at  midsummer  a  prize  is  given  for  an  English  essay. 
I  saw  several  of  the  essays  both  for  last  year  and  for  previous 
years,  which  showed,  at  least,  that  the  better  boys  learnt  to  get 
together  a  considerable  amount  of  information,  and  to  express  it  in 
good  form  and  correct  English.  The  study  of  English  history 
seemed  to  suffer  from  want  of  good  manuals,  the  "  Student's 
Hume  "  being  used  by  the  first,  "  Mrs.  Markham  "  by  the  lower 
classes.  The  best  indication  of  the  general  result  of  the  English 
part  of  the  education  is  that  it  clearly  gives  the  better  boys  a  taste 
for  English  reading.  I  recall  one  boy  in  particular,  who  within 
rather  more  than  a  year  after  leaving  school,  had  in  his  evenings 
read  through  Macaulay's  History,  Hallam's  Constitutional  History, 
Clarendon,  and  Craik's  History  of  English  Literature. 


would  only  be  wanted  in  the  one  man  who  conducted  the  foreign  correspondence. 
In;  order  to  fill  this  department,  a  large  merchant  commonly  sends  one  of  his  sons 
.ahroad  for  a  time.  A.n  ordinary  clerk,  bred  at  the  grammar  school,  could  scarcely 
aspire  to  it.  The  number  of  merchants  and  manufacturers  at  Birmingham,  however, 
riot  too  magnificent  to  use  the  grammar  school,  and  yet  desiring  a  practical  know- 
ledge of  modern  languages  for  their  sons,  is  very  considerable.  Spanish  and  German, 
I  believe,  are  each  in  more  demand  for  mercantile  purposes  than  French. 

*  This  is  a  prize  given  by  Professor  Lightfoot,  of  Cambridge,  and  open  to  both 
departments,  though  unifoi-mly  obtained  by  the  English. 


130  Birmingham  Free  School. 

Latin,  though  taught  in  the  lower  classes  of  the  English  school, 
used  to  be  given  up  iu  the  first.  It  has  now  been  restored,  and  is 
taught  in  the  time  (one  hour  ,ind  forty  minutes  a  week)  formerly 
given  to  "  Morell's  Analysis."  The  boys  seemed  able  to  make  out 
Virgil  slowly,  but  with  fair  correctness,  and  the  acting  master, 
•when  I  was  there,  used  to  treat  Latin,  English,  and  German 
grammar  comparatively. 

Of  the  chemistry  I  cannot  speak  from  personal  knowledge; 
three  lessons  a  week  are  given  in  it,  and  the  examiner  who 
attended  to  it  last  midsummer  pronounced  it  fairly  done.  The 
great  difficulty  with  regard  to  it  is  that  most  boys  who  reach  the 
"  upper  first,"  in  which  alone  chemistry  is  tanght,  seldom  stay 
more  than  a  year  in  it,  whereas  two  years  is  i-eckoned  the  minimum 
necessary  for  gaining  an  adequate  practical  knowledge  of  it.  In 
mathematics  the  better  boys  generally  go  some  way  in  trigono- 
metry, as  far  as  the  "  solution  of  triangles."  The  examiner  last 
midsummer  reported  that  they  did  well  what  they  professed  to  do, 
though  he  dia  not  reckon  the  standard  high,  as  considering  the 
age  of  the  boys  and  the  time  given  to  other  subjects,  it  was  hardly 
likely  to  be. 

The  teachers  in  French  and  German  are  tlioroughly  good. 
Tlie  better  boys  generally  learn  one  language  well  and  the  other 
imperfectly,  according  as  their  taste  inclines  them  more  to  one 
or  the  other.  The  head  boy  last  summer  seemed  to  have  learnt 
German  as  thoroughly  as  was  possible  for  one  of  his  age  who  had 
not  been  in  the  country,  and  was  going  to  perfect  himself  by 
residence  there. 

The  special  study  of  geography  is  stimulated  by  a  prize.  Last 
summer  some  of  the  boys  appeared  to  be  very  well  up  in  the  more 
advanced  geography  (physical,  &c.),  though  they  had  rather  for- 
gotten the  simpler  elements.  The  arrangement  made  for  teaching 
drawing  is  that  those  who  want  to  learn  (102  last  summer)  attend 
the  school  of  Art  on  half-holiday  afternoons.  They  are  taught 
by  the  master  of  this  school  and  his  assistants,  all  together  and 
by'themselves,  for  a  certain  payment  made  by  the  governors.  It 
is  generally  admitted  that  this  arrangement  does  not  work  well, 
the  boys  being  languid  and  careless  over  their  work,  and  that  if 
it  is  to  be  learnt  satisfactorily,  drawing  must  be  tauoht  at  the 
school  as  part  of  the  school  work. 

Te-w  reach  this.  The  great  fault  with  regard  to  this  general  education  is  that 
very  few  boys  comparatively  come  within  its  range  at  all,  and  that 
for  those  who  do  it  does  not  last  long  enough.  Not  a  fifth  part  of 
the  boys  who  enter  the  English  school  reacli  the  "  upper  first " 
class,  and  below  it  the  only  considerable  supplement  of  the  "  clerk's 
Why  more  education  "  is  Latin.  Of  such  as  do  reach  it  even  those  who  stay 
don't.  in  it  the  longest  find  the  subjects  rather  over  crowded,  and  if  the 

pupil  is  conscious  of  this,  much  more  must  the  master  be.  The 
only  way  of  affording  relief,  under  present  circumstances,  would 
be  by  again  discontinuing  Latin  in  the  "  upper  first,"  and  this  I 
tlilnk  would  be  undesirable  both  in  itself  and  as  interfering  with 


Mr.  Greenes  Report.  131 

the  possibility  of  that  transfer  from  the  English  to  the  classical 
school,  which  at  present  is  the  only  channel  through  which  access 
to  the  University  can  be  gained.  The  real  remedy  is  more  remote, 
arid  is  to  be  found,  firstly,  in  such  an  improvement  of  preliminary 
education  as  will  bring  boys  up  to  the  standard  of  the  first  class 
more  quickly  and  frequently,  and,  secondly,  such  an  enhanced 
appreciation  of  general  education  in  the  town  as  will  induce  parents 
to  leave  their  sons  a  year  or  two  longer  at  school.  In  order  to 
encourage  this,  the  head-master  is  anxious  for  the  conversion  of 
two  prizes  of  \Ql.  each,  now  given  annually  by  the  governors  to 
the  best  boys  in  the  English  school,  into  scholarships  of  61.  a  year 
each,  tenable  at  the  school  and  open  to  boys  under  14. 

To  revert  to  the  case  of  the  boys  in  the  classical  department  who  Possibility  of 
are  meant  for  commercial  life,  the  unsuitableness  of  their  present  o^timng  the 
education  might  be  remedied  if  above  a  certain  class,  say  the  sixth,  mentsXr  " 
i.e.,  when  it  had  become  apparent  whether  they  were  likely  to  certain 
make  anything  of  an  education  having  reference  to  the  Univer-  subjects, 
sities,  they  were  allowed  for  Greek  to  substitute  lessons  in  English, 
or  German,  or  physical  science,  with  the  upper  boys  of  the  English 
school.     I  must  confess  that  none  of  the  masters  gave  any  coun- 
tenance to  the  suggestion   of  such  an   arrangement.     Over  and 
above  the  inherent  difficulties  of  a  system  of  substitution,  the 
social  difference  between  the  boys  of  the  two  departments  was 
thought  to  be  an  impediment  to  any  such  partial  amalgamation. 
But  for  this  difference,  which  is  such,  it  must  be  admitted,  that  a 
stranger  could  tell  at  a  glance  to  which  of  the  two  departments  a 
given  class  belonged,  it  is  difficult  to  see  why  in  modern  languages 
lessons  at  any   rate    some    amalgamation   has  not  already  been 
established. 

Another  institution  has  been  suggested,  for  the  extension  of  Eveniusr 
the  general  education  of  those  who  leave  young  for  business,  in  classes. 
the  shape  of  evening  classes  connected  with  the  school.  At  the 
"  Midland  Institute  "  evening  classes  are  held  in  English  history 
find  literature,  in  chemistry,  mechanics,  &c.,  but  they  are  not  much 
frequented  by  late  pupils  of  the  grammar  school.  They  were  not 
in  fact  intended  by  the  original  founders  of  the  institute  for  the 
class  to  which  these  pupils  generally  belong,  but  rather  for  artisans. 
For  the  most  part  thej'  are  not  attended  by  artisans,  but  by  clerks, 
clerks,  however,  generally  both  older  and  less  respectable  socially 
than  the  boys  turned  out  even  by  the  English  department  of  the 
grammar  school.  I  could  not  obtain  exact  statistics  on  the  point, 
but  I  satisfied  myself  that  hardly  any  young  men  educated  at  the 
grammar  school  were  in  attendance  at  any  of  the  classes,  except 
at  the  chemical  one.  On  the  whole  the  "  Institute  "  does  not 
furnish  any  regular  continuation  to  the  education  begun  at  the 
grammar  school.  Evening  classes  held  in  the  school  hj  teachers 
belonging  to  the  school  would  be  more  likely  to  do  so.  Several 
young  men,  who  ->ad  lately  left  the  English  department,  assured 
me  that  they  should  like  nothing  better  than  to  go  on  with  their 
lessons  in  the  evenings  under  their  old  master  and  with  their  old 
companions.     Some  of  them  had  actually  been  in  the  habit  of 


T^ 


132 


Birmingham  Free  School. 


Difficulties 
in  way  of 
these. 


Certain  lines 
of  professional 
life  for  -vrliieh 
no  preparation 
given  at  the 
school. 


doing  work  privately  with  one  or  other  of  the  masters  of  the 
school,  though  distance  of  residence  is  apt  to  make  such  an 
arrangement  very  awkward. 

The  practical  difficulties  in  the  way  of  evening  classes  at  the 
school  would  be  these  ;  firstly,  on  the  part  of  the  pupils,  many 
houses  keep  them  at  work  tiU  7  or  7  "30,  after  which  the  going  and 
coming,  with  a  meal,  would  occupy  at  least  another  hour ;  secondly, 
on  the  part  of  the  school,  it  has  at  present  neither  the  necessary 
room  nor  the  necessary  teachers  at  command.  All  the  available 
rooms  are  occupied  with  boys  during  the  day,  and  have  to  be 
given  up  to  cleansing  and  ventilation  at  night.  On  the  three 
weekly  half-holidays,  however,  it  might  be  possible,  I  should  think, 
to  get  the  cleaning  and  ventilation  done  sufficiently  during  the 
afternoon.  The  want  of  teaching  power  is  a  more  serious  obstacle. 
The  only  man  who  would  be  looked  to  in  an  ordinary  way  for 
holding  these  classes  would  be  the  second  master,  and  he  has  quite 
enough  on  his  hands  without  it.  This  want  might  be  supplied  by 
the  addition  to  the  staff  of  ordinary  masters  of  one  or  two  men 
who  should  act  rather  in  the  capacity  of  lecturers  on  special  sub- 
jects, an  addition  which  is  or  may  become  desirable  for  further 
purposes,  to  be  mentioned  shortly. 

(3.)  It  appears,  from  what  has  been  already  said,  that  the  gram- 
mar school  suffers  from  not  being  able  to  set  before  its  scholars 
any  definite  practical  object  for  the  attainment  of  which  any  high 
education  is  necessary.  We  are  thus  led  to  the  third  of  the  ques- 
tions proposed  above.  Are  there  any  lines  of  life,  the  education 
for  which  is  in  any  demand  and  is  not  supplied  by  the  school  ?  I 
have  already  said  that  as  a  rule  the  business  of  Birmingham  can 
and  must  abs.orb  the  boys  of  Birmingham.  This  is  certainly  true 
of  almost  all  who  pass  through  the  English  department  and  of 
most  of  those  who  pass  through  the  classical.  Of  the  rest  a  few- 
go  to  Oxford  and  Cambridge,  while  more  are  articled  to  solicitors 
or  matriculate  at  the  London  University.  For  the  "  preliminary 
"  legal  examination  "  a  boy  from  the  upper  part  of  either  depart- 
ment might,  I  should  think,  with  a  very  little  special  preparation, 
be  adequately  qualified.  The  matriculation  examination  for  the 
•London  University  is  very  miscellaneous,  but  an  ordinary  boy 
who  made  the  most  of  the  instruction  in  the  classical  department 
would  not  require  much  extra  teaching  to  pass  it,  though  he  miwht 
have  reason  to  regret  that  mathematics  had  not  been  made  more 
of  in  his  education  and  that  he  had  not  learnt  any  physical  science. 
Other  openings,  which  are  found  very  tempting  to  younw  men 
elsewhere,  ai-e  afforded  by  tlie  military  college  at  Woolwich  and 
by  the  Indian  Civil  Service.  At  Birmingham,  of  course,  these 
openings  could  never  be  sought  after  as  they  are  at  such  a  place 
as  Cheltenham.  There  are  many  parents,  however,  even  at  Bir- 
mingham, to  be  found  in  the  professional  class,  especially  among 
the  clergy  and  dissenting  ministers,  who  cannot  find  good  openings 
for  their  sons  in  business  and  who  would  think  an  education  at 
the  University  too  expensive  and  questionable  a  speculation.  For 
such  people  the  grammar  school  offers  rather  an  awkward  alterna- 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  133 

tive.  In  the  English  school,  which  ihey  would  probably  think  unfit 
for  their  sons  on  social  groutidsjan  education  is  to  be  had  which  would 
suit  them  if  they  looked  to  commercial  life ;  in  the  other  depart- 
ment a  classical  system  is  maintained  with  peculiar  rigidity  and 
exclusiyeness,  only  qualifying  specially  for  the  Universities. 

If  a  better  educational  provision  were  made  for  this  class  of  Ifeglect  of 
people,  it  would  appear,  I  think,  to  be  already  larger  than  is  mathematics. 
commonly  supposed,  and  more  persons,  whose  pla«e  of  residence 
is  not  absolutely  fixed  for  them  by  circumstances,  might  be 
attracted  to,  or  retained  in,  the  suburbs  of  the  town  by  the  pros- 
pect of  special  educational  advantages  for  their  sons.  According' 
to  the  present  constitution  of  the  school,  such  provision  could  only 
be  made  by  the  method  of  alternative  studies.  In  regard  to 
mathematics,  this  method  has  already  been  introduced,  but  can 
scarcely  be  said  to  be  effectively  worked.  Above  the  fourth  class 
a  boy  is  allowed  to  do  extra  mathematics  instead  of  verses.  Only 
two  boys,  however,  were  last  summer  availing  themselves  of  this 
liberty.  The  verses  being  written  out  of  school,  the  extra  mathe- 
matics are  done  also  out  of  school.  As  the  mathematical  master 
has  no  access  to  the  boys,  or  the  boys  to  him,  out  of  schoolj  this 
implies  that  they  are  not  done  under  the  master's  supervision,  and  as 
individual  attention  is,  I  believe,  of  special  importance  to  progress 
in  mathematics,  it  follows  that  they  are  done  with  corresponding 
want  of  effect.  In  the  ordinary  mathematical  work,  done  in 
school,  as  there  is  no  separate  classification  for  it,  the  master  is 
unable  to  push  the  more  advanced  mathematicians,  as  he  otherwise 
might,  through  having  to  teach  them  along  with  the  most  back- 
ward. Of  20  boys,  taught  together  in  the  first  class  last  summer, 
one  had  gone  over  analytical  conic  sections,  and  begun  the  dif- 
ferential calculus,  while  those  at  the  bottom  were  only  doing  the 
simpler  parts  of  algebra.  Nor  in  the  regular  hours  do  the  arrange- 
ments allow  of  the  master's  bestowing  especial  attention  on  the 
more  advanced  pupils.  As  soon  as  he  begins  to  do  so,  he  finds 
that  their  time  with  him  is  up,  and  that  they  are  wanted  for  a 
classical  lesson. 

The  substitution  of  extra  mathematics  for  composition  might  be 
made  more  effective  by  arranging  that  composition  should  be  done 
in 'School,  in  place  of  certain  lessons  now  prepared  in  school,  but 
which  should  then  be  prepared  at  home.  The  mathematical  work, 
which  is  substituted  for  composition,  might  then  also  be  done  in 
school  under  the  personal  attention  of  the  mathematical  master. 
Supposing  this  to  be  done,  and  the  mathematical  classification  to 
be  recast,  a  more  effective  preparation  for  "Woolwich  might  be 
given.  As  it  is,  I  believe  that  only  three  boys  from  the  grammar 
school  have  gained  admission  there,  and  of  these  two  left  before- 
hand for  special  preparation.  For  the  Indian  and  the  higher 
departments  of  the  English  Civil  Service,  a  preparation  could  only 
be  given  by  allowing  a  further  system  of  substitution,  and  by 
providing  lectures  in  English  history  and  literature,  together  with 
additional  teaching  power  in  mathematics  and  natural  science.  On 
the  practicability  of  such  a  plan  I  have  not  the  materials  for  es- 


134 


Birmingham  Free  School. 


Third  depart- 
ment ■wanted? 


View  of 
University 
among  com- 
mercial men. 


presslni?  an  opinion.  It  would  In  fact  amount  to  the  institution  of 
a  new -department,  giving  a  higher  education  than  the  Present 
English  one  and  not  adjusted  to  the  requirements  ot  the  old 
Universities,  like  the  present  classical  one.*  Such  a  department 
would  satisfy  an  existing  demand,  but  whether  that  demand  would 
become  large  enough  to  make  the  proposed  department  answer, 
and  whether  it  could  be  supplemented  by  a  demand  for  general 
education  on  the  part  of  the  boys  meant  for  commercial  life  but 
now  bred  in  the  classical  school,  I  cannot  venture  to  say.  At 
any  rate,  until  the  general  character  of  the  middle  region  of  the 
classical  department  is  raised,  it  does  not  afford  an  adequate  basis 
for  "  bifurcation."  Until  there  are  more  boys  in  it  of  the  age  of 
15,  thoroughly  grounded  in  Latin,  arithmetic,  and  Euclid,  and 
likely  to  stay  two  or  three  years  longer  in  the  school,  though  not 
meant  for  the  University,  it  would  be  questionable  policy  to  pro- 
vide a  separate  course  of  instruction  for  them.  "With  the  improve- 
ment of  preliminary  education,  however,  the  time  may  come  for 
doing  this,  and  with  it  for  engaging  one  or  two  special  lecturers, 
in  physical  science,  in  Englisli^history  and  literature,  or  even_  in 
logic,  whose  presence  might  facilitate  the  establishment  of  evening 
classes,  suggested  above,  and  lessen  the  present  requirement  of 
multifarious  knowledge  in  the  second  master. 

(4.)  The  essential  question,  then,  with  regard  to  such  a  new 
middle  department  would  be  whether  enough  promising  boys  could 
be  kept  at  school  till  the  age  of  18,  properly  to  fill  it.  It  is  the 
same  question  as  that  on  which  depends  the  success  of  the  school 
as  a  place  of  preparation  for  the  Universities.  We  are  thus 
brought  to  the  fourth  topic,  proposed  above.  Could  more  be  done 
than  is  done  by  the  school  to  tempt  its  pupils  to  seek  a  higher 
education  than  they  seek  at  present  1 

The  unfrequency  of  aspiration  for  University  training  al  Bir- 
mingham is  not  really  to  be  wondered  at.  Great  fortunes  are  not 
made  there  quickly  enough  to  allow  of  there  being  many  persons 
able  to  send  sons  to  the  ijniversity  simply  as  a  matter  of  luxury, 
and  tliese  would  not  make  use  of  the  grammar  school.  Plenty 
could  well  afford  to  pay  for  a  University  education,  if  it  enabled 
their  sons  to  provide  for  themselves  afterwards,  but  such  people 
naturally  ask  themselves,  what  is  to  come  of  it  ?  On  the  one  hand, 
if  advantage  is  taken  of  openings  ready  to  hand  in  commercial  life, 
the  sons  are  under  the  father's  eye  ;  the  father  knows  what  they 
are  about,  and  may  feel  pretty  confident  that,  by  the  time  they 
are  25,  they  will  be  prosperous  enough  to  marry,  and  may  lead  in 
more  affluence  and  comfort  the  life  that  he  has  led  before  tliem. 
The  Universities,  on  the  other  hand,  are  unknown  ground  to  him. 
He  thinks  of  them  as  places  where  young  men  stay  at  great  ex- 


*  If  it  could  te  made  to  give  a  preparation  for  the  profession  of  a  civil  engineer  as 
well  as  for  Wool-wicli  and  the  civil  service,  its  practical  availability  Mould  he  much 
extended.  There  is  a  faculty  of  civil  engineering,  as  well  as  of  medicine  and  theology, 
at  Queen's  College,  Birmingham,  but  it  has  failed  with  the  general  failure  of  that 
institution.  This  failure,  however,  is  not  to  be  taken  as  a  sign  that  the  institution 
did  not  meet  an  existing  want,  hut  rather  to  be  ascribed  to  faulty  management. 


Mr.  Greens  Rcjwrt.  135 

pense  till  tbey  are  23,  and  then  are  unfitted  for  business  without 
knowing  what  else  to  do  with  themselves.  Unless,  therefore,  he 
has  a  definite  project  for  making  his  son  a  clergyman,  a  project 
only  possible  among  churchmen,  and  rare  amongst  them,  he  puts 
him  to  commercial  life,  which  means,  and  probably  for  some  time 
to  come  will  mean,  that  he  takes  him  from  school  at  the  latest  at 
the  age  of  16.  This  is,  and  must  be,  the  natural  course  of  things 
at  Birmingham  with  the  commercial,  and  to  a  large  extent  with 
the  professional  class.  On  the  other  side  must  be  set  a  consider- 
able though  not  very  discriminating  appreciation  of  intellectual 
decorations,  which  is  strong  even  among  men  who  have  very  little 
education  themselves.  There  must  also  be  set  the  reflection  that 
in  the  commercial  class  are  a  considerable  number  of  men  who, 
through  no  fault  of  their  own,  have  not  greatly  prospered,  and  can 
find  no  very  favourable  openings  for  their  sons  in  business.  Such 
persons  are  easily  encouraged  by  the  appearance  of  a  taste  for 
books  in  their  sons  to  seek  for  them  a  scholastic  career,  and  the 
temptation  of  exhibitions  and  scholarships  can  be  set  before  them 
with  great  effect.  As  a  rule,  it  is  not  among  the  rich  that  the 
grammar  school  must  seek  for  a  large  supply  of  boys  to  train  for 
the  University.  Among  them  a  University  career  will  always  be  Who  can  be 
looked  upon  as  a  speculation,  and  as  comparatively  not  a  good  one.  fo^Jard  to  it 
To  men  with  a  less  advantageous  alternative  before  them,  if  a  way 
Is  opened  to  it  by  exhibitions,  it  will  offer  much  higher  attractions. 
This  is  not  the  place  to  remark  on  the  limitation  of  these  attrac- 
tions to  churchmen,  by  the  exclusion  of  dissenters  from  the  ulti- 
mate prizes  on  which  they  depend,  the  fellowships  and  the 
masterships  in  grammar  schools.*  Such  as  they  are.  King  Edward's 
foundation  has  excellent  means  of  bringing  them  home  to  Bir- 
mingham parents.  Through  its  elementary  schools  it  can  draw 
into  its  net  all  the  more  promising  boys  in  the  town  of  other  than 
wealthy  parentage,  and  by  a  proper  application  of  its  funds  it 
might  provide  a  graduation  of  scholarships,  tenable  at  the  school.  Value  of  ex- 
for  the  best  of  these,  which  should  carry  them  on  to  the  exhibitions,  hibitious. 
which  again  would  carry  them  to  the  University. 

It  has  already  had  a  most  beneficent  influence,  as  I  had  several 
opportunities  for  observing,  in  familiarizing  persons  of  quite  the 
lower  trading  rank  with  the  notion  of  a  possible  University  career 
for  their  sons.  A  small  baker  or  publican,  who  thinks  of  sending 
his  son  to  College,  can  quote  instances  of  men  in  the  same  position 
who  have  done  the  same  before  him.  In  order,  however,  to  make 
the  avenue  to  the  Universities  as  wide  and  open  as  possible,  the 
following  changes  seem  desirable,  (a)  a  more  systematic  affiliation  of 
thee  lementary  schools  to  the  grammar  school,  (^)  more  facility 
of  transfer  from  the  English  to  the  classical  school,  (y)  the 
institution  of  scholarships  tenable  at  the  school,  (s)  a  modification 


*  I  may  perhaps  be  allowed  here  to  call  attention  to  the  unintelligible  rule  at 
King  Edward's  School,  which  confines  the  second  mastership  to  clergymen.  The 
second  master  has,  so  far  as  I  know,  no  religious  functions  whatever  to  perform,  and 
the  rule  greatly  limits  the  area  of  eligibility. 


136 


Birmingham  Free  School. 


Difficulties  of 
transfer  from 
English  de- 
partment to 
classical. 


of  the  present  rule  with  regard  to  the  examination  for  exhibitions, 
and  gradually  an  increase  in  their  number. 

On  (a)  enough  has  been  said  in  a  previous  part  of  this  report. 
It  may  be  added  that  even  on  the  old  system,  when  the  transfer  of 
a  boy  from  an  elementary  school  to  the  grammar  school  depended 
on  the  chance  of  his  attracting  the,  head  master's  attention  on 
occasion  of  his  inspection  of  the  former,  one  instance  occurred  of  a 
boy,  so  transferred,  who  finally  got  a  first  class  and  an  open  fellow- 
ship at  Oxford,  and  another  of  one  who  got  an  appointment  in  the 
Indian  Civil  Service.  Similar  cases  have  probably  occurred,  which 
(lid  not  come  to  my  knowledge.  I  saw  enough,  however,  to  con- 
vince me  that  In  the  elementary  schools,  as  they  are,  (and  still  more, 
as  they  might  become,)  there  exists  a  material  out  of  which  a 
succession  of  boys  fit  for  scholarships  at  Oxford  and  Cambridge 
might  be  moulded.  '  Li; 

{p)  At  present  a  boy  may,  with  the  consent  of  his  parents,  be 
transferred  from  the  English  to  the  classical  school  at  the  pleasure 
of  the  head  master,  and  such  transfer  is  not  unfrequently  made. 
Both  the  young  men  just  referred  to,  on  promotion  from  the  ele- 
mentary school,  began  an  the  English  department  of  the  grammar 
school.  Among  others  transferred  from  the  English  department 
to  the  classical,  I  heard  of  one  who  had  become  4th  wrangler,  and 
of  another  who  had  got  a  scholarship  at  St.  John's,  Cambridga! 
The  transfer^  however,  is  difficult  to  manage,  owing  to  the  dlscer- 
pancy  of.  studies  between  the  two  departments.  The  only  study 
.contributing  directly  to  University  success,  that  is  carried  far  in 
the  English  department.  Is  that  of  mathematics,  while  in  the  other 
department  classics  have  It  all  their  own  way.  The  chances  are 
ihat  a  boy  In  the  English  department  however  diligent  and 
successful  he  may  be  in  his  school  work,  never  thinks  of  changing 
his  position  till  he  Is  15  or  16  years  old,  the  age  at  which  an 
independent  Interest  in  study  seems  generally  first  to  awaken.  By 
this  time  he  probably  has  gone  as  far  in  mathematics  as  all  but 
the  few  best  puplk  in  the  classical  school.  He  also  knows  some 
English  history,  and  has  had  some  practice  in  writing  English.  Of 
Latin  he  probably  knows  enough  to  construe  Cjesar,  and  has  been 
well  drilled  in  the  grammar.  So  qualified,  his  mathematics  and 
general  Intelligence  would  carry  him  to  the  second  class  of  the 
classical  school,  and  his  Latin  perhaps  to  the  fourth,  but  he  knows 
no  Greek.  Now -Greek  Is  begun  in  the  eighth  class  of  the  classical 
department ;  in  this,  therefore,  he  would  have  to  be  placed  among 
little  boys  and  dunces.  This  is  In  Itself  discouraging,  and_^thougS 
If  he  worked  hard  at  Greek,  he  might  find  himself  in  two  years  in 
the  class  for  which  his  general  attainment  qualified  him  to  begin 
with,  during  all  this  time  In  every  subject  but  Greekj  he  ^tfould 
naturally  have  been  losing  ground  ;  owing  to  the  want  of  a  separate 
mathematical  classification  he  will  have  been  doing  work,  while 
knowing  some  trigonometry  himself,  with  boys  who  have  not 
begun  Euclid  and  can  scarcely  do  vulgar  fractions.  His  English 
knowledge  will  have  been  lying  fallow,  and  even  m  Latm  he  will 
have  been  doing  work  below  his  proper  level.     The  consequence 


il/r.  Greenes  Report  137 

of'  this  state  of  things  is  that  unless  a  boy  is  transferred  from  the 
English  to  the  classical  department  while  still  very  young,  at  13  or 
under,  the  transfer  is  not  likely  to  be  successful.  Its  success, 
therefore,  depends  on  the  skill  of  the  masters  in  picking  out 
promising  talent  among  the  little  boys,  and  however  great  this 
skill  may  be,  it  can  scarcely  fail  to  miss  a  good  deal  that  a  better 
organization  might  lay  hold  of.  Talent  often  does  not  fully  appear 
till  a- later  age,  and  if  it  is  especially  of  the  mathematical  kind 
there  is  on  the  present  system  veiy  little  object  in  transferring  it 
to  the  classical  department.  Moreover,  neither  the  boy  nor  his 
parent,  when  the  boy  is  stilLyoung,  may  care  for  a  transfer,  and 
yet  both,  two  or  three  years  later,  when  a  taste  for  learning  has 
manifested  itself,  may  be  glad  of  it. 

That  the  evil,  here  indicated,  is  a  real  one,  I  had  sufficient 
evidence  in  what  I  heard  from  old  pupils  of  the  English  school." 
Several  of  these  told  me  that  they  had  distinct  thoughts,  when  they 
\yere  about  the  top  of  the  English  school  and  had  become  interested 
ia  study,  of  transferring  themselves  to  the  classical  with  a  view 
tOr-reaching  the  University,  but  that  in  the  first  place  they  did  not 
like  the  notion  of  passing  from  the  top  of  one  department  to  near 
the  bottom  of  the  other,  and,  secondly,  they  knew  that  their  strong- 
points  mathematics,  would  go  for  nothing  in  the  classical  depart- 
ment. They,  all,  however,  seemed  to  think  that  the  prospect  of 
obtaining  a  small  scholarship,  tenable  in  the  classical  school,  would 
have  been  a  great  inducement  to  themselves  to  make  the  experiment, 
and  would  tell  strongly  on  both  parents  and  boys  generally  in  the 
same  direction,  thus  confirming  the  view,  suggested  to  me  in  other 
ways,  of  the  -sensibility  of  the  trading  class  even  to  slight 
intellectual  decorations.  One  young  man  in  particular,  who,  having 
been  born  in  humble  life,  and  educated  in  the  English  department,  i  -  ' 

had  found  his  way  to  Cambridge,  and  become  a  wrangler  without  "     ■ 

entering  the  classical  department  at  all,  assured  me  from  his  own 
knowledge  that  a  high  wrangler  might  be  got  every  year  from  the 
English  department,  if  only  he  could  be  induced,  as  such"  a  one 
easily  might  be,  by  a  small  scholarship  and  the  prospect  of  an 
exhibition  to  stay  long  enough  at  the  school. 

The  question  of  the  possibility  of  establishing  a  better  relation  How  these 
between  the  two  departments  involves  the  question  of  the  position  <^^"  ^^  ™^'- 
which  Greek  ought  to  occupy  in  a  school  which  sets  itself  to  pre- 
pare for  the  Universities.  On  the  answer  to  this  question  depends 
generally,  to  a  great  extent,  the  possibility  of  eflfectively  com- 
bining the  education  of  average  boys  for  commercial  life,  and  that 
of  picked  boys  for  the  University.  It  would  seem  to  an  un- 
practised man  that  a  diligent  and  intelligent  boy  who  had  beea 
well  grounded  in  Latin  might  soon  gain  an  equal  knowledge  of 
Greek  though,  he  did  not  begin  it  till  three  or  four  years  later. 
This,  however,  is  not  the  general  opinion  of  schoolmasters,  and 
thus,  in  the  classical  department  of  King  Edward's  School,  which 
boys  enter  only  just  able  to  read  and  write,  out  of  eleven  classes 
Greek  is  begun  in  the  eighth.  With.out  venturing  to  criticize  the 
intrinsic  utility  of  this,  I  will  only  remark  that  it  would  unques- 


138 


Birminijliam  Free  School. 


"Want  of 
scholarship. 


Mathematics 
should  count 
forexhibitions 


tionably  facilitate  the  transfer  of  promising  boys  from  the  Englis.i 
to  the  classical  school  if  Greek  were  not  begun  so  low  down  in  the 
latter.  For  the  same  purpose^  on  the  other  hand,  it  is  most  desir- 
able that  the  standard  of  Latin  should  be  kept  as  high  in  the  Eng- 
lish school  as  is  compatible  with  justice  to  the  commercial  boys,  and 
for  this  reason  it  is  most  happy  that  it  has  been  restored  to  its  for- 
mer place  in  the  instruction  of  the  upper  first  of  that  department.' 

(7)  The  unpleasantness,  however,  of  passing  from  the  top  of 
one  department  to  a  low  class  in  the  other  would  be  faced  by  those 
who  could  face  it  with  most  advantage,  if  any  distinct  recognition 
of  their  attainments  were  offered  them,  independently  of  their 
place  in  the  school,  and  some  more  substantial  reward  proposed  to 
them  in  the  future.  The  first  requisite  for  this  purpose  is  a 
distinct  classification  in  the  classical  department  for  mathematics, 
if  not  for  history  and  modern  languages.  The  second  is  the 
establishment  of  scholarships,  tenable  in  the  classical  department, 
which  the  best  boys  from  the  other  department  might  have  a 
chance  of  obtaining.  The  latter  want  has  been  to  some  exteat 
recently  met  by  the  liberality  of  the  present  head-master  in  offer- 
ing at  his  own  expense  two  scholarships  every  year,  of  lOZ.  a  year 
each,  open  to  boys  under  16,  and  tenable  during  the  stay  of  the 
holder  at  the  school.  One  of  these  each  year  is  to  be  given  for 
excellence  in  mathematics,  in  order  to  elicit  talent  from  the 
English  school.  This  institution,  which  the  Grovernors  will  pro- 
bably put  upon  a  permanent  basis  when  the  state  of  their 
finances  allows  it,  will  serve  the  purpose  at  once  of  satisfying  the 
ambition  of  the  boy  who  ventures,  when  old  enough  to  go  to 
business,  on  a  change  of  departments,  and  of  taking  him^  to  some 
extent,  off  his  father's  hands, 

(S)  Such  a  boy,  however,  will  probably  have  no  reason  to 
congratulate  himself  on  his  experiment  if  he  fails  ultimately  to  get 
either  an  exhibition  at  the  school  or  a  scholarship  at  the  University. 
According  to  the  present  rule,  the  exclusion  of  mathematics 
from  the  examination  for  exhibitions,  will  very  likely  prevent  him 
from  getting  the  first,  and  the  low  standard  of  mathematics  in  the 
school,  which  this  exclusion  causes,  from  getting  the  second.  The 
school  has  10  exhibitions  of  50?.  a  year,  tenable  for  four  years,  at 
Oxford  and  Cambridge,  of  which  two  or  three  are  given  away  in 
alternate  years  respectively.  According  to  the  scheme  of  1829, 
the  examination  is  to  be  solely  classical.  The  examiners  are  to 
"  report  to  the  Governors  the  names  of  such  boys,  being  candi- 
"  dates  for  exhibitions,  as  they  shall  find  qualified  to  receive 
"  exhibitions,  and  shall  arrange  the  names  of  the  said  candidates 
"  according  to  their  respective  excellence  in  classical  learning." 
The  Governors  are  then  to  "  give  exhibitions  to  such  of  the  boys 
"  as  shall  be  reported  qualified  to  hold  the  same,  according  to  the 
"  order  in  which  such  boys  shall  be  respectively  classed  by  the 
"  examiners."  *     This  rule  is  precisely  carried  out.     It  is  true 


*  Another  clause  in  the  scheme  of  1829  empowers  the  gOTernors  to  make  fresh 
statutes  "  touching  the  orders,  goTernment,  and  direction  of  the  head  master  and 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  139 

ihat  in  the  case  already  mentioned,  of  the  boy  who  began  in  the 
English  school  and  finally  became  fourth  wrangler,  some  con- 
sideration, as  ,1  was  told,  was  allowed  to  his  mathematical  exoel- 
ience,  without  which,  he  would  not  have  got  an  exhibition,  but  I 
30uld:not  iasoertain  how  this  was  managed,  or  that  anything  of 
the: kind  had  been  done  before  or  since..  The  result  is  very  dis-^ 
30uraging  to  mathematical  study,*  and  with  it  to,  the  prospects  of 
1  boy  who  transfers  himself  to-tJie  classical  department  from'  the 
Srst  class  of  the  English. 

As  to>  the  evil  of  the  above  rule  there  is  so  much  agreement 
that  it  alone  might  have  been  expected  to  induce- the  Governors 
to  apply  for  an  alteration  of  the  scheme,  if  other  considerations 
bad  not  interfered.     There  is  not  quite  the  same  agreement  as   to  - 
the  position  which  should  be  given  to  mathematics  in  .the  final 
examination.     The  head-master  would  wish  them  to  >  count  to  a 
limited  extent  for  all  the  exhibitions  rather  than  that  they  should 
bave  a  preference  for  any.     This  arrangement  might  be  desirable 
m  generalgrounds,  but  the  case  of  the  boys  transferred  from  the 
English  department  would  scarcely  be  met,  unless,  for  an  occasional , 
exhibition,  at  any  rate,  mathematical  m6rit  had  the  preference. . 
[f  the  Governors  were  able  so  to  increase  the  number  of  exhibi-i 
;ions  as  to  give  away  three  every  year,  and  if  the  same  relative." 
[^reference  were  given  to  mathematics  t  for  one  as  to  classiesMfor 
:hc  other  two,  none  being  purely  either  classical  or  mathematical, 
;he  several  conditions  of  the  problem  might,  perhaps,  be  satisfied. 
Sufficient  general  encouragement  would  be  given  to  mathematical 
study  to  make   the  result  more  adequate  to  the  time  nominally 
aestowed  on  it,$   and  a  boy  from  the  English  school  who  was- 
^ood-,  enough  to  get  the  mathematical ,  scholarship  at   15,  might 
baye  leasonable  hope  of  obtaining  at  the  end  of  his  school-time 
the  means  of  access  to  the  University. 

I  may  be  allowed  here  to  express  a  hope  that  in  the  bestowal  of 
iny  increase  in  the  income  of  the  school,  the  foundation  of  scholar- 
ships tenable  at  the  school,,  and  an  addition  to  the  number,  if  not 
;o  the  value,  of  the  exhibitions,   will  hold  a  considerable  place. 


'  usher,  and  assistant  and  other  masters,  and  the  mode  of  education  of  the  scholars 
■-  of  the  school,  and  of  the  exhibitions  hereby  directed  to  be  established."  This,  I 
uppose,  is  not  to  be  understood  as  giving  them  power  to  piodify  the  rule  with  regard 
0  exhibitions  established  by  the  same  scheme. 

*  The  only  rewards  which  a  mathematician  in  the  classical  school  has  to  look  to 
re,  (1)  a  yearly  prize,  called  "  The  Albert,"  and  (2)  Lench's  scholarship,  consisting 
if  the  income  of  500Z.  for  four  years.  This  being  of  such  small  value,  so  seldom 
■acant,  and  requiring  the  holder  to  go  to  Oxford,  is  not  of  much  use.  No  minimum 
if  attainment  is  fixed  as  the  qualification  for  it,  and  the  boy  who  last  got  it  knew  (as 

was  told)  scarcely  enough  mathematics  to  pass  the  little  go  at  Oxford. 

r,t  There  would  be  a.  further  question  as  to  the  desirability  of  allowing  physical 

cience  to  count  in  the  examination  for  the  mathematical  exhibition. 

%  Six  hours  a  week  are  given  to  mathematics  in  the  first  class  of  the  classical 
iShool.yet  last  summer,  as  I  understood,  only  four  boys  had  got  as  far  as  trigonome- 
;y.j  Several  pupils  of  the  school,  who  have  done  well  in  mathematics  in  Cambridge^ 
ave  left  it  for  special  mathematical  teaching  before  going  to  Cambridge.  This  has 
ertainly  not  been  due  to  any  want  of  ability  and  diligence  in  the  mathematical 
iaster,'l)ut  to  the  system  of  the  school. 

C..C.3.  M 


liO  Birmingham  Free  School. 

This  is  the  proper  supplement  to  a  general  improvement  in  the 
working  and  standard  of  the  school.  The  number  and  value  of 
scholastic  employments,  to  which  the  University  is  the  introduc- 
tion, is  constantly  increasing,  and  it  may  be  hoped  that^  before 
long  the  expense  of  the  University  career  itself  will  be  diminished. 
This  being  so,  and  considering  the  strong  spirit  of  self-elevation 
that  is  at  work  in  the  lower  stratum  of  the  middle  class  at  Bir- 
mingham, it  is  not  too  much  to  expect  that,  with  a  suflBcient  pecu- 
niary stimulus,  the  number  of  boys  sent  yearly  from  the  Kinc 
Edward's  School  to  the  University  might  shortly  be  doubled. 
There  can  be  no  better  employment  of  educational  endowments 
than  as  a  balance,  in  the  interest  of  learning,  to  the  attractions  of 
money-making. 
Proposed  Although  it  would  be  possible  to  make  the  transition  from  one 

remodell^  of  department  to  the  other  more  regular  and  easy  by  the  means  above 
system.  indicated,  the  separation  of  the  two  departments,  as  it  at  present 

stands,  must  continue,  I  venture  to  think,  a  wasteful  and  incon- 
venient one.  As  I  have  pointed  out,  there  are  many  boys  in  ths 
classical  department  who,  looking  to  their  future  course  of  life, 
should  rather  be  in  the  English ;  while  on  the  other  hand  there  jsf 
and  under  any  modification  of  the  present  system  must  remain,  in 
the  English  department,  a  good  deal  of  talent  that  might  have  been 
more  adequately  developed  in  the  classical.  At  the  same  time  there 
are  a  certain  number  of  boys  who  want  an  education  less  purely 
adapted  for  Oxford  and  Cambridge  than  that  given  in  the  classical 
department,  but  which  yet  should  go  further  and  have  a  more 
special  object  than  that  given  in  the  English  department.  This 
want  of  adaptation,  which  involves  a  waste  of  power,  might  be 
avoided  by  a  scheme  of  the  following  kind.  Let  there  be  a  com- 
mon preparatory  department,  containing  about  300  boys,  and  two 
special  departments  containing  about  200  between  them.  The  pre- 
paratory department  should  give  the  necessary  "English  educatio^^ 
and  teach  also  Latin,  French,  and  elementary  mathematics.  Of  the 
special  departments  one  should  set  itself  to  prepare  for  the  Univer- 
sities ;  the  other,  while  keeping  up  Latin,  should  attend  specially  to 
mathematics,  physical  science,  and  modern  languages  and  litera- 
ture. For  each  of  these  departments  there  should  be  an  entrance 
examination,  open  to  boys  of  the  preparatory  department  or  of 
any  schools  in  the  district,  and  one  or  two  of  the  boys  who  did  best 
in  this  should  be  rewarded  with  a  scholarship  tenable  in  the  special 
department.  The  standard  of  this  examination  should  be  so  fixed 
that  the  cleverest  of  the  boys  from  the  preparatory  department 
should  be  able  to  pass  it  soon  after  the  age  of  13,  the  average 
diligent  boy  not  later  than  15.  For  the  university  department  it 
should  turn  principally  on  Latin,  with  mathematics  and  Greek  in- 
subordination ;  for  the  other,  or  "  modern  "  department,  mainly  on 
mathematics,  with  Latin  and  French  in  subordination.  «  EngM* 
subjects  might  count  in  both.  In  order  to  prepare  for  it,  boys  in 
the  lower  department,  on  reaching  the  higher  classes,  should  be 
allowed  to  learn  Greek  as  a  substitute  for  French. 

This  scheme  would  suppose  that  a  good  many  bovs,  who  now 


Mr.  GreerCs  Report.  141 

enter  the  grammar  school,  should  finish  their  education  in  the  im- 
proved and  extended  elementary  schools.  Of  those  who  entered 
the  preparatory  department  a  good  many  would  not  pass  beyond 
it,  but  would  leave  it  for  business  at  15  or  16,  having  acquired  in 
it  all  the  elementary  knowledge  necessary  for  their  after  life.  Only 
the  better  boys  would  emerge  into  the  special  departments,  which 
thus  might  be  able  to  keep  up  a  really  high  standard.  The  ad-  Advantages  of 
vantages  of  such  a  scheme  would  be,  (i),  that  it  would  enable  *'"^' 
the  head-master  to  secure  for  his  University  department  all  the 
boys  likely  to  turn  its  education  to  account :  (2),  that  in  the 
special  modern  department  it  would  ;meet  the  wants  at  once  of  the 
boys  meant  for  business  in  the  town,  but  whose  parents  are  willing 
to  leave  them  at  school  beyond  the  usual  age,  and  of  those  who 
seek  appointments  at  "Woolwich  or  as  civil  engineers;  and,  (3), 
that  it  would  enable  the  school,  through  its  special  departments, 
to  act  itself  as  a  local  university  to  the  whole  district  for  which  it 
would  be  available  as  a  day-school,  which,  probably,  contains  a 
population  of  at  least  800,000.  Its  difficulties  would  consist  (1)  Difficulties. 
in  the  mixture  in  the  lower  department  of  boys  more  and  less 
genteel,  and  ;^2)  in  the  postponement  of  Greek.  As  to  the  first, 
it  must  be  remembered  that  the  scheme  presupposes  the  absorption 
by  the  elementary  schools  of  the  rougher  element  now  found  in 
the  English,  and  the  lower  region  of  the  classical,  school.  As  to 
the  second,  it  must  be  remembered  that  though  the  boys  passed 
up  from  the  preparatory  to  the  special  University  depart.nent 
would  begin  Greek  later  than  most  boys  do  at  Rugby  or  Win- 
chester, they  would  presumably  have  had  a  more  thorough  elemen- 
tary training,  and  would  be,  according  to  general  testimony,  more 
capable  of  hard  work.  Such  an  arrangement  is,  probably,  too  re- 
mote from  the  present  one  to  meet  with  general  acceptance,  but  it 
was  commended  to  my  attention  by  men  versed  in  education, 
whose  opinion  is  at  least  worth  recording. 

As  to  the  "  moral  tone  "  of  the  school  it  is  in  the  nature  of  the  Moral  tone. 
case  impossible  to  furnish  precise  information.     I  heard  nothing 
that  led  me  to  suppose  that  there  was  anything  serious  to  com- 
plain of  in  the  moral  state  of  the  boj'S.     Among  some  of  them, 
however,  there  is  no  doubt  a  good  deal  of  roughness  of  language 
and  manner,  and  cases  of  pilfering  sometimes  occur,  but  I  found 
that  professional  men  of  the  town  who  would  be  particular  in  such 
matters   sent   their  sons  to  the  school  with  perfect  confidence, 
trusting  to  instinct  to  keep  them  from  mixing  with  unmannerly 
boys,  and  instructing  them  not  to  loiter  in  the  streets  on  their 
way  home.     Such  faults  as  there  are  in  the  moral  state  of  the 
school  are  clearly  due  in  great  measure  to  its  situation  in  the 
middle  of  a  great  town,  on  the  streets  of  which  the  boys  are 
turned  directly  they  escape  from  their  lessons.     It  would  be  a  Means  of 
great  advantage  in  this   respect  if  a  common  dining  hall  were  '^P^'o^^S 
established  for  tlie  use  of  such  boys  as  live  too  far  from  the  school 
to  go  home  between  morning  and  afternoon  lessons.     Such  boys  Dining  hall. 
are  numerous,  and  either  they  must  get  their  dinner  at  taverns 
aUd  cookshops  to  the  detriment  alike  of  their  manners  and  diges- 

M  2 


142 


Birmingham  Free  School. 


Library. 


Playground. 


Situation  of 
school. 


Its  evils. 


tions,  or  their  parents  must  at  some  expense  and  inconvenience; 
engage  a  room  for  them  in  the  town  to  which  they  may  resort  at- 
midrday.  This  is  done  to  my  knowledge  by  careful  parentst 
having  several  sons  at  the  school,  but  it  is  difficult  to  manage  'in . 
the  case  of  a  single  boy,  and  many  are  probably  on  this  ground 
sent  to  boarding  schools  in  preference  to  the  grammar  school.        h- 

Another  beneficent  institution  on  moral,  no  less  than  on  intel-' 
lectual  grounds,  would  be  the  establishment  of  a  good  readings 
room  and  library  in  the  precincts  of  the  school.  According  to  m- 
ordinance  of  the  year  1838,  the  governors  resolved  to  "appro-' 
"  priate  annually  a  sum  not  exceeding  200Z.  towards  the  purchase 
"  of  books  for  a  school  library."  This  resolution,  ho-wever,'doe8i 
not  seem  ever  to  have  been  acted  upon.  At  present  there  iS  a 
small  library  kept  up  by  subscription,  managed  and  mainly  used 
by  the  upper  boys  of  the  classical  school,  but  it  is  not  calculated, 
to  be  of  much  use  to  the  school  generally.  Many  of  the  boys  it 
must  be  remembered  have  not  only  no  access  to  books,  but  very- 
little  opportunity  for  private  reading,  at  home.  By  taking  the 
necessary  steps  they  can,  it  is  true,  obtain  books  from  the  libraries- 
in  the  town,  which  are  very  good,  but  this  implies  a  certain 
amount  of  forethought  which  is  not  always  to  be  expected  from 
a  boy.  What  is  wanted  is  a  large  room  contiguous  to  the  school 
well  supplied .  with  books  of  reference  and  illustration,  where  the 
boys  might  be  allowed,  under  conditions,  to  sit  as  much  as  they 
liked,  and  whence  they  might  take  books  home  in  the  evening,-: 
Such  an  institution  would  do  a  great  deal  both  to  keep  the  boyw 
from  loitering  in  the  streets,  and  to  give  them  a  taste  for  reading. 
It  might  in  time  also  become  a  centre  for  literary  or  debating 
societies  among'  past  or  present  pupils  of  the  school. 

So  long  as  the  school  remains  where  it  is,  the  want  of  an 
adjacent  playground  must  always  be  a  serious  one.  As  it  isj 
there  is  a  large  open  yard  at  the  back  of  the  school  in  which' 
the  boys  can  knock  about  during  any  break  in  the  lessons,  but 
the  field,  which  is  rented  by  the  governors  for  cricket  and  other 
games,  is  three  miles  off,  and  the  majority  of  the  boys  make  no 
use  of  it.  It  is  in  fact  only  available  for  those  boys  who  live  on 
the  side  of  the  town  where  it  is  situate.  The  cricket  club  is  now 
less  exclusive  than  formerly,  and  includes  100  boys,  mostly  of  the 
classical  department.  There  is  also  a  rifle  corps  of  80.  Manf 
of  the  boys,  however,  get  little  exercise  during  the  greater  part 
of  the  year,  except  by  walking  between  school  and  home,  and  un- 
doubtedly suffer  in  consequence ;  as  some  of  them  told  me,  they 
had  tried  going  to  the  cricket  ground,  but  found  themselves  tired 
before  getting  there. 

Another  result,  evil  or  otherwise,  of  the  situation  of  the  school- 
is  the  difficulty  which  is  becoming  an  impossibility  of  attracting* 
boarders  to  it.  According  to  the  scheme,  the  head-master  is; 
entitled  to  take  18  boarders,  the  second  master  12,  On  Mr, 
Hutchinson's  resignation  of  the  second  mastership,  as  has  beea 
already  stated,  the  second  master's  house,  which  there  was  little 
prospect  henceforth  of  filling  with   boarders,  was  converted  to 


Mr.  Green's  Beport.  143 

school  uses,  r  The  head-master  last  summer  had  still  10  boarders, 
but  these  were  only  the  remains  of  the  lot  which  he  brought  with 
him  on  his  appointment.  He  did  not  expect  to  replace  them,  and 
,  as  sanitary  reasons  have  compelled  him  to  transfer  his  wife  and 
•  family  to  a  country  house,  where  he   himself  generally  sleeps, 

■  it  is  not  likely  that  he  will. 

i,e  The  absence  of  boarders  is  regarded  with  different  feelings  by 
different  people.     By  some  their  presence  was  always  regarded 

■  Wth  jealousy;  by  others,  and  those,  I  think,  more  intimately 
acquainted  with  the  school,  they  were  reckoned  a  very  valuable 
ielement.  I  could  not  asceirtain  that  there  had  generally  been 
■ill-feeling;  between  them  and  the  other  boys,  and  they  have  been 
'.useful  as  taking  the  lead  in  the  establishment  of  common  games, 
and  as. forming  a  means  of  communication  on  minor  matters 
between  the  master  and  the  school  If  they  are  still  to  be  retained, 
supposing  the; school  to  cohtioiue  in  the  middle  of  the  town,  either 
the  head-master  with  his  family  must  reside  there  too,*  which  I 
have  good  medical  authority  for  pronouncing  most  undesirable,  or 
they  must  live  with  the  head-master  in  the  suburbsj  and  come  in 
with  him  to  school,  which  is  a  very  awkward  arrangement.-  Either 
•way,  as  they  are  ineUgible  for  exhibitions,  there  would  in  these  ' 
days  be  very  little  attraction, for  them.  Unless  the  terms  charged 
for  them  were  rather  high  they  would  not  under  the  circumstances 
.be  remunerative.  If  the  prospect  of  obtaining  them  were  defi- 
nitely abandoned,  the  accommodation  now  provided  for  them  in 
the  head-master'^s  house  might  be  made  available  for  additional 
plass-rooms,  which  are  much  required,  or  for.  lodgings  for  some 

of  the  under  masters.  The  above  evils,  resulting  from  the 
present  situation  of  the ,  school,  have  led  several  persons  of  judg- 
ment to  desire  its  removal.  The  present  building  they  would 
.either,  sell,  and  it  might  be  sold  at  an  immense  price,  or  give  up  to 
;the  English  department,  according  to  the  original  scheme  of  1829. 
,The  higher  department  they  would  transfer  to  the  suburbs.  Such  Its  advantages, 
a, transfer  would  doubtless  have  many  advantages,  but  it  would  be 
regarded,  I  think,  with  jealousy  in  the  town,  and  would  very 
likely  provoke  opposition  to  the  measures  which  1  have  spoken  of 
as  desirable  for  the  purpose  of  raising  the  standard,  of  the  school, 
especially  to  the  exaction  of  fees.  Its  advantages  would  be  dearly 
purchased  at  the  loss  of  that  universal  availability  which  belongs 
to  the  school  as  it  now  stands.  No  other  situation  could  be  any 
thing  like  so  central,  or  so  accessible  by  railway.  Already  a  large 
number  of  boys  come  in  by  rail  every  morning,  and  if  the  school 
•came  to  draw  on  a  larger  district  in  the  way  previously  suggested, 
its  neighbourhood  to  .the  central  station  would  become  of  still 
greater  importance. 

The   character  of  the  present  building  is  too  well  known  to 
require  description  or  criticism.     Though  excellent  of  its  kind,  it 

,  *  A  master  living  at  the  school  -would  have  to  send  his  children  two  mUes  in  a 
carriage  or  cab  before  they  could  reach  a  place  fit  for  them  to  walk  in.  The  atmo- 
sphere about  the  school  is  charged  ■with  smoke  to  a  degree  very  trying  to  certain 
constitutions. 


144 


Birmingham  Free  School. 


Good  state  of 
the  school  in 
classics. 


It  does  not 
send  in  for 
"middle  class 
examinations.' 


is  not  sufficient  for  present  purposes,  on  the  grounds  already 
mentioned. 

Having  Lad  occasion  to  notice  certain  shortcomings  in  the 
operation  of  the  school,  the  result  not  at  all  of  individual  neglect, 
but  of  a  system  inadequate  in  some  respects  to  present  require- 
ments, I  am  glad  to  remark  finally  on  the  excellence  of  the 
general  teaching  as  evinced  by  the  examination  in  which  I  took 
part  last  midsummer.  On  this  in  other  branches  I  have  already 
spoken,  but  the  state  of  the  classical  teaching  in  the  upper  classes 
has  yet  to  be  noticed.  There  was  unmlstakeable  evidence  that 
this  had  been  most  careful  and  eifective,  and  there  was  promise  of 
its  bearing  fruit  in  the  good  scholarship  of  the  exhibitioners  for 
two  or  three  years  to  come.  The  candidates  for  exhibitions  for 
1865  were  a  very  fair  set,  and  very  well  up  in  their  work.  Three 
of  them  at  least  might  have  a  good  chance  of  a  first  class  at 
Oxford,  if  they  went  there,  but  several  of  those  who  meant  to  stay 
another  year  at  school  were  distinctly  better,  and  there  were 
some,  not  more  than  16  years  old,  who  showed  great  promise.* 

Some  remark  has  been  occasioned  by  the  very  small  show 
which  Birmingham  makes  in  the  Oxford  local  examination  lists, 
and  which  is  due  no  doubt  to  the  abstention  from  the  examination 
of  the  boys  in  the  grammar  school.  The  head-master  puts  no 
impediment  in  the  way  of  their  going  in,  but  he  does  not  encou- 
rage it,  and  in  consequence  both  boys  and  parents  think  the  school 
examinations  enough.  In  1865  not  a  single  boy  from  the  gram- 
mar school  entered  the  "  local  examination."  The  reason  urged 
for  this  abstention  is  that  on  the  one  hand  the  school  can  supply 
competition  enough  within  its  own  limits,  so  that  there  is  no 
object  in  seeking  it  outside ;  and  that,  on  the  other  hand,  it  is 
undesirable  to  conform  the  course  of  instruction  given  in  the 
school  to  that  virtually  prescribed  by  the  Oxford  examination, 
while  without  such  conformity  success  adequate  to  the  position 
of  the  school  cannot  be  obtained.  The  examination  for  juniors 
it  is  said,  is  adapted  to  the  case  of  boys  v\rho  leave  school  at  the 
age  of  15,  while  the  course  of  instruction  in  the  English  depart- 
ment is  meant  for  boys  who  stay  (as  only  a  minority  do  stay)  to 
the  age  of  16.  The  preparation  for  the  examination,  moreover, 
would  involve  the  special  "  cramming "  in  certain  subjects  of 
certain  boys,  which  would  interfere  with  the  general  working  of 
the  school.  How  far  these  reasons  ought  to  weigh  against  the 
desirability  of  maintaining  the  chai-acter  of  the  local  examinations, 
and  of  affording  the  public  some  recognized  and  independent  test 
of  the  result  of  education  in  the  grammar  school,  it  is  not  for 
me  to  decide. 

In  conclusion  I  must  express  my  obligations  to  all  connected 
with  the  grammar  school,  and  to  all  with  whom  I  came  in  contact 
in  the  town,  for  the  readiness  with  which  they  have  facilitated  my 


*  I  am  glad  to  find  this  observation,  made  in  1865,  confirmed  hy  the  number  of 
open  scholarships— four,  I  think,  at  Oxford  alone— ^vhioh  have  been  o-ot  by  boys 
from  Kmg  I'.dward  s  School  during  the  spring  and  summer  of  1867 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  145 

inquiries.  It  was  a  great  advantage  to  me  to  meet  with  so  much 
intelligent  opinion  on  education,  as  I  found  at  Birmingham. 
Among  all  classes  there  is  a  general  pride  in  the  school,  a  general 
admission  of  the  benefits  which  it  has  conferred  on  the  town,  due 
in  great  measure  to  the  judgment  of  the  governors  in  their 
selection  of  head-masters,  and  a  general  desire  to  maintain  or 
elevate  its  character  as  a  place  of  high  education.  As  was  remarked 
to  me  by  one  of  the  leading  "  school  reformers,"  before  there  can 
be  any  wide  spread  desire  for  University  education  in  the  Birming- 
ham district,  the  grammar  school  itself  must  act  as  a  university  to 
the  district.  With  its  magnificent  endowment,  this  is  not  at  all 
too  high  a  position  for  its  attainment,  if  it  will  apply  its  wealth 
to  stimulate,  rather  than  to  supersede,  the  educational  effort  of 
others. 


146 


GENERAL  EEEOET. 


Grammar 
schools  fall 
into  two 
groups. 


Income  of 
each. 


Standard  of 
education  in 
the  first. 

I.  Liberal. 


The  grammar  schools  of  Staffordshire  and  Warwickshire  — 
excluding  that  at  Birminghatn,  which,  as  essentially  differen'c'ed 
from  the  rest  by  the  greatness  of  its  endowment  and 'the  populatiofl 
which  it  serves,  has  been  treated  of  in  a  separate  report— fall 
naturally  into  two  groups,  according  as  they  do  or  do  not  profess 
to  give  an  education  definitely  higher  than  that  given  in  elemen- 
tary schools  for  the  poor.  Those  which  do  make  this  profession 
are,  of  course,  generally  to  be  found  in  towns ;  those  which  do 
not,  in  villages.  The' gross  annual  income  from  endowments  of 
schools  of  the  former  class  in  the  two  counties  is  now,  according 
to  the  best  calculation  I  can  make,  8,173Z.,  of  which  4,590l 
belongs  to  schools  (14  in  number)  in  Staffordshire,  3,583/.  to 
schools  (nine  in  number)  in  Warwickshire.  To  this  should  be 
added  a  further  annual  sum  of  460/.  appropriated  to  exhibi- 
tioners at  the  Universities.  This  sum  benefits  the  county  of 
Warwick  alone,  235/.  of  it  belonging  to  the  grammar  school  at 
Coventry,  195/.  to  that  at  Warwick,  30/.  to  that  at  Stratford- 
on-Avon.  Staffordshire  has  no  exhibitions,  except  one  at  Walsall, 
representing  the  interest  on  less  than  700/.,  which  has  not  been 
in  existence  long  enough  to  have  produced  any  effect.  The  gross 
annual  income  from  endowments  of  grammar  schools  of  the  latter 
class  is  now  1,295/.,  of  which  1,123/.  belongs  to  those  (nine  in 
number)  in  Staffordshire,  172/.  to  those  (three  in  number)  in 
Warwickshire.  The  population  of  the  two  counties,  after  sub- 
traction of  those  who  may  be  reckoned  as  served  by  the  gram- 
mar school  at  Birmingham,  is  about  900,000. 

It  will  be  well,  in  the  first  place,  to  state  the  general  result  of 
my  inquiries  as  to  the  existing  standard  of  education  ia  the 
grammar  schools,  which,  in  the  case  of  the  first  of  the  above- 
mentioned  groups,  will  fall  under  two  heads— (I.)  liberal,  (11.) 
commercial,  education.  On  the  necessary  elements  of  a  commer- 
cial, or  clerk's  education— that  sort  of  education  which  is  generally 
requisite  for  one  who  has  to  make  money  by  other  than  manual 
labour-— I  have  spoken  in  my  report  on  the  Birmingham  schools, 
(p.  105).  By  a  liberal  education  I  understand  everything  beyond 
these  necessary  elements,  whether  it  be  sought  for  with  a  view  to 
a  university  career,  or  to  the  "  liberal "  professions,  or  for  its 
own  sake. 

(I.)  The  channels  by  which  this  education  is  imparted  at  the 
grammar  schools  are  still  chiefly  the  Latin  and  Greek  lano-uao-es 


.    '  .      Mr.  GreerCs  Report.  147 

and  mathematics.     There  were  only,  one  or  two  schools  at  which  ■•''■ 

I  found" lessons  given  either  in < English  history  and  literature,  r,.' 

or  in  the  French  language,  or  in  chemistry,  in  such  a  way  as  to  ..•>.-[:■.:' 

have  much  educational  effect.  ■  As  a  general  rule  the  knowledge 

of  Latin- in:  a  grammar  school  is  the  measure  of  attainment  in  all  )'-'■ 

other  subjeotsj     According  to  the  ordinary  classification;  then,  Knowledge  of 

which  is  -determined-  mainly  by  proficiency  in  Latin,  there  were  ff *J,'' V*  ^''^ 

•at  the  time  of  my  inquiry  in  the  several -first,  classes' of  those  classes. 

schools  im  the  two  counties,  at  which  the  teaching  of  Latin  is 

anything  more  than  a  profession,  69  boys.     From  thig  number  I 

-should  strike  oif  1-2  as  obviously  unfit  to  be  classed   along  with 

the  rest;.   On  the  other  hand  about  40- may  be  added  from  classes 

nominally  below  the  fifst  at  certain  schoolsi,  as  on  an  average  up 

to  the  level  of  the  first  groiip^  which  is  thus  raised  to  97  (69 — 12 

+  40).    -These  97  are,  of  course,  of  various  degrees  of  attain-  ■  ■      r 

ment,  but  besides  lihem  I  can  say  with  some  confidence  there 

are  nonein  the  schoo-ls  which  I  examined^  who  with  any  amount 

of  time  allowed  and  with  unlimited  use  of  the  dictionary,  would 

make   out  for  themselves  with   decent  correctness  an  or43inary 

passage  of  Cicero  or  Virgil..    The  power  of  translation  into  Latin 

I  found  almost  universally  below  that  of  translation  from  it,  and 

the  knowledge  of  Greek  lower  in  proportion  to  the  Latin  than  it 

would  be  at  an  ordinary  "  public  school." 

This  may  naturally  be  thought  a  poor  result  froqi  cbarita/ble 
endowments,  producing  more  than  8,d00L  a  year,  which  were  given 
for,  and  are  still  professedly  applied  to  the  purpose  of  teaching 
Latin.  Nor  will  such  an  impression  be  lessened  by  the  considera- 
tion that,- small  as  is  the  number  of  those  who  attain  the  general 
standard  specified  above,- hardly  any  either  go  beyond  it  at  present,  ' 

or  are  likely  to  do  so  in  the  future.  Of  the  whole  number  not  Comparison''  ' 
more  than  four  would-be  qualified  in  knowledge  of  Latin  for  the  "withKugby. 
6th form  at  Rugby.  Another  12  might  by  the  same  test  befitted 
for  the  upper  or  lower  5th  in  that  school.  The  rest  would  range 
from  the  "  upper  middle  "to  the  "  shell, "  i.e.  they  would  in  no 
case  have  less  than  five  forms  and  200  boys  above  them.  Again, 
it  was  quite  the  exception  to  hear  of  boys  near  the  top  of  their 
respective  schools  who  were  likely  either  to  stay  much  longer 
where  they  were  or  to  seek  higher  education  elsewhere.  At  "^^y  ^°y^ 
Warwick  (which  has  exhibitions)  there  was  one  boy  intending  to  ^°™^  ^°^ 
go  to  the  University.  At  Coventry,  which  is  similarly  provided, 
there  were  two  such ;  and  another,  the  most  promising  in  the  school, 
who  was  only  prevented  from  aiming  at  the  University  by  the  cir- 
cumstance of  his  being  a  Dissenter.  Of  the  upper  boys  at  Bre- 
wood  there  were  some  six,  and  a  like  number  at  Atherstone  and 
Wolverhampton  respectively,  who  might  be  expected  to  stay  lono- 
enough  at  school  to  become  fair  scholars.  The  same  might  be  said 
of  one  boy  at  Stratford,  and  another  at  Sutton- Coldfield.  At 
Lichfield  were  two  or  three  promising  boys,  likely  to  go  on  to 
other  schools.  Probably  Stafford  might  furnish  a  few  more  of  the 
same  kind,  but  there  T  had  not  an  ojiportunity  of  gaining  exact 


148 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwicli, 


Most  have 
come  to  the 
end  of  their 
tether. 

Standard  in 
other  things. 

Mathematics. 


Prench. 


English. 


Causes  of  the 
above  short- 
comings. 

What  the 
remedy  is  not. 


Not  the  aban- 
donment of 
Latin. 


Controversy 

"between 

"  words  "  and 

"  things  "  does 

notarise  till 

later. 


information.*  Altogether  not  more  than  30  of  the  97  could  be 
expected  to  rise  considerably  beyond  their  present  standard  of 
attainment.  Of  these  30,  again,  not  more  than  half  would  be  likely 
to  find  their  way  to  any  university. 

The  amount  of  "liberal"  education  conveyed  through  the 
classics  having  been  thus  roughly  estimated,  the  next  question  is. 
What  is  done  by  other  studies  to  supplement  it?  As  regards 
mathematics,  I  only  found  five  grammar  schools,  viz.,  Stratford, 
Warwick,  Coventry,  Stafford,  and  Brewood,  in  which  any  one  was 
reading  anything  beyond  Euclid  and  elementary  algebra,  and  at 
only  one  of  these — Brewood — is  the  mathematical  standard  rela- 
tively higher  than  the  classical.  The  five  schools  together  would 
not  furnish  more  than  12  boys  who  had  gone  so  far  as  plane 
trigonometry,  and  of  the  rest  of  the  97  but  a  small  minority  had 
been  over  six  books  of  Euclid.  As  to  knowledge  of  French  I 
cannot  speak  precisely,  but  I  set  or  saw  translations  from  French 
into  English  at  all  the  schools  where  I  understood  that  it  was 
made  much  of,  and  if  20  were  taken  as  the  number  of  those  in  all 
the  schools  who  could  translate  a  passage  from  an  ordinary  French 
writer  for  themselves,  so  as  at  all  to  understand  it,  the  allowance 
would  be  a  liberal  one.  At  Brewood  and  Coventry,  and  at  those 
schools  only,  (to  the  best  of  my  knowledge,)  lessons  are  given  in 
history  and  English  literature  of  a  kind  which  can  be  reckoned 
to  contribute  to  liberal  education.  These  schools  together  might 
produce  about  10  boys  having  an  intelligent  interest  in  English 
literature,  and  a  knowledge  of  history  that  would  be  likely  to 
continue  with  them.  Chemistry  is  studied  to  some  purpose  by  a 
few  boys  at  Walsall  and  Stafford. 

In  considering  the  probable  causes  and  possible  remedies  of  the 
short-coming  above  delineated,  it  will  be  best  to  begin  with  a 
process  of  exclusion.  Observation  of  the  present  working  of 
grammar  schools  and  intercourse  with  their  teachers  lead  me 
distinctly  to  the  result  that  a  remedy  is  not  to  be  found  either  in 
a  radical  change  of  the  subjects  of  instruction,  or  in  new  methods 
of  teaching  as  distinct  from  a  greater  general  effectiveness  on  the 
part  of  the  teachers.  u 

The  question  between  classical  and  other  methods  of  education,  |;; 
and  between  the  English  and  continental  systems  of  teaching 
classics,  is  doubtless  of  great  importance  in  its  bearing  on  the 
upper  classes  of  the  great  schools  and  on  the  Universities. 
Through  them  (as  will  afterwards  be  pointed  outf)  it  has  an 
indirect  bearing  on  the  condition  of  grammar  schools.  But  it  is 
most  important  to  notice  that  the  boys  in  the  grammar  schools  of 
which  I  am  speaking — even  the  select  97 — have  not  reached  the 
stage  at  which  the  controversy  of  systems  can  rationally  be  raised,  ; 
When  a  boy  has  got  that  acquaintance  with  gramn\atical  forms, 
without  which  he  cannot  speak  or  write  any  languao-e,  even  his 


"■  The  master  of  the  Stafford  school— not,  I  am  sure,  from  any  fear  of  the 
result,  but  on  prniciple -declined  to  allow  of  my  examining  any  of  his  boys. 
He  sent  me,  ho^^yever  a  budget  of  papers  which  some  of  them  had  done  for  him, 

t  bee  pages  163,  1/2,  and  1/9. 


3Ir.  Greenes  Report.  149 

own,  with  more  than  accidental  correctness ;  when  he  has  learnt 
to  appreciate  other  distinctions  than  those  which  can  be  directly 
seen,  and  smelt,  and  handled;  when  ho  has  become  capable  of 
inference  in  regions  besides  those  of  profit  and  loss ;  when  he  has 
leaj-nt  the  difference  between  the  word  that  first  occurs  to  him  and 
the  right  word ;  then  a  serious  question  arises  as  to  the  parts 
which  the  acquisition  of  positive  knowledge  and  of  skill  in  the  use 
of  words  should  severally  fill  in  his  education.  The  grammar- 
school  boy,  however,  nearly  always  disposes  of  the  qviestion  by 
leaving  school  as  soon  as — often  before — he  has  received  the  pre- 
liminary mental  training  without  which  neither  real  knowledge 
nor  literary  skill  can  be  acquired  at  all. 

The  primary  question,  then,  is,  how  boys  of  the  sort  frequent-  Difficulty  in 
ing  the  lesser  grammar  schools  can  be  brought  in  larger  numbers  grammar 
and  at  an  earlier  age  to  the  level  which  is  now  only  attained  reaching  the 
by  the  highest  class  at  the  best  of  them,  and  at  which  liberal  stage  at  which 
education  can  first  be  said  properly  to  begin.     The  apparently  "'iteral" 
short  cut  to  this  end — of  substituting  modern  languages  for  an  i,e„ins. 
ancient  one,   and  botany  or   chemistry  for  grammar — would  be 
found,  I  think,  a  longer   road.     Setting   aside   for   the    present  This  won't  he 
deficiences  on  the  part  of  the  teacher,  the  real  difficulties  which  reached  sooner 

*■  DV  fflVlDlT  Up 

have  to  be  met  on  the  part  of  the  taught  are  an   absence  of  Latin. 

intellectual  interest,  an  incapacity  for  intellectual  effort,  and  an 

obtuseness   to   distinctions    of    thought.      Either    the    proposed 

"  modern "   curriculum   would   appeal  to   the    same   intellectual 

interest,  and  exact  the  same  effort  and  refinement  of  intellect  as 

the  present  classical  one,  or  it  would  not.     If  it  would,  it  would 

meet  with  the  same  passive  resistance  as  the  present ;  if  it  would 

not,  to  adopt  it  would  be  not  to  overcome  existing  difficulties,  but 

to  acquiesce  in  them.     Whether,  in  any  case,  such  acquiescence  Why  not. 

may  be  necessary,  is  a  further  question ;    but  it  is  inconsistent 

with  the  attainment  of  the  object  here  under  consideration. 

It  will  be  well,  however,  to  consider  more  in  detail  in  what  the 
"  modern  "  education  at  a  grammar  school  might  consist.     The 
study  of  the  English  language,  philologically,  is  clearly  beyond 
the  grammar  school  level.     To  be  pursued  to  any  purpose  it  pre- 
supposes the  possession  of  just  that  intellectual  apparatus  which 
it  is  our  problem  to  supply.     The  study  of  English  literature,  Why  studyof 
again,  though  most  valuable  under  a  good  teacher  to  boys  who  ^"Slisli  ••^orCt 
have  reached  the  stage  at  which  those  in   question  leave  off,  is 
impossible  till  the  power  of  appreciating  language  other  than  that 
of  common  life  has  been  attained.     When  professedly  adopted  in 
"middle   schools,"  it  consists,    so   far   as    I   have  observed,   in 
cramming  "manuals,"  which  dispose  of  Milton   in   a  couple  of 
pages,  with   an   enumeration  of  his  works,    the   dates  of  their 
publication,  and  a  few  stock  criticisms  which  have  no  more  mean- 
ing to  a  boy  than  an  account  of  the  pictures  in  the  Academy  to  one 
who  has  never  seen  a  work  of  art.     History  and  geography,  as  why  that  of 
ordinarily  taught,  by  the  almost  uniform  confession  of  the  teachers  Mstory  and 
serve  merely  to  exercise  the  memory.     Their  educational  value  &^°S^^^^y- 
(and  this  is  itself  a  drawback)  depends  solely  on  the  spirit  with 


ISO 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


Why  that  of 

English 

Grammar. 


Why  that  of 

modern 

languages. 


Why  that  of 

physical 

science. 


which  they  are  taught ;  but  at  best,  studied  as  a  boy  must  study 
them,  they  do  nothing  to  elicit  the  faculties  of  inference  ;  nor 
can  they  take  much  real  hold  on  those  who  are  wholly  witihout 
political  knowledge  or  interest.  English  grammar  is  very  properly 
taught  for  practical  purposes  to  boys  not  habituated  to  speak  and 
read  English  correctly  at  home,  but  as  an  instrument  of  iibferal 
education  it  seems  comparatively  poor.  If  taught  philosopbicaily 
it  at  once  runs  up  into  logic,  out  of  the  reach  of  the  uncultivated 
schoolboy.  As  taught  in  the  ordinary  empirical  way,  it  does  not 
serve  the  purpose  of  Latin.  It  is  the  degree  to  which  the  learning 
of  Latin  requires  a  perception  of  difference  between  words  and 
phrases  apparently  alike,  and  of  equivalence  between  those 
apparently  unlike,  that  gives  it  at  once  its  value  and  its  un- 
pleasantness. English  grammar,  on  the  other  hand,  having  few 
inflections,  and  being  (in  greater  or  less  degree)  native  to  the 
learner;;  does  little  to  stir  the  faculties  of  discrimination  and  com- 
parison out  of  that  "stark  and  dead  eongealment "  which  binds 
the  average  intellect  of  the  ^ grammar  school.  I  cannot  reeaiH  a 
single  instance  of  a  school  where  Latin  grammar  was  well  and 
systematically  taught,  and  English  only  casually,  in  which 
English  grammar  itself  was  not  better  understood  than  in  those 
where  it  was  systematically  taught  and  Latin  grammar  excep- 
tionally.* The  same  remarks  apply  in  a  modified  degree  to 
the  juvenile  study  of  French.  They  are  probably- a  g^od  deal 
•  less  applicable  to  German,  but  just  in  so  far  as  the  learning  of 
German  is  more  difficult  and  less  generally  recognized  as  of 
practical  utility,  the  popular  objection  to  it  will  be  the  greater. 
At  present,  outside  of  Birmingham,  (where  it  is  taught  both  at 
the  .  grammar  school  and  the  proprietary  school,)  German  is  not 
taught  at  any  school  in  the  two  counties,  so  far  as  I  know,  except 
the  Leamington  College,  which  is  frequented  by  boys  of  a  higher 
grade  socially  than  those  who  commonly  go  to  a  grammar  school, 
and  the  Brewood  Gramma,r  School,  where  it  is  not  made  much  of.* 
There  remain  the  physical  sciences.  Of  their  educational  value 
I  speak  with  the  diffidence  proper  to  one  who  has  no  thorough 
-acquaintance  with  them.  This  value,  it  must  be  noticed,  is  only 
in  question  with  regard  to  boys  in  that  state  in  which  to  construe 
a  few  sentences  in  Csssar  and  to  learn  Euclid  is  a  serious  difiiculty. 
I  will  not  dispute  that  even  to  boys  in  this  state  those  less  abstract 
branches  of  physical  science,  siich  as  botany  and  physiologj, 
which  I  presume  can  alone  be  within  their  reach,  may  be  tauglrt 
in  such  a  way  as  to  afford  an  equal  mental  discipline  with  Latin 
grammar  and_  construing.  If  so  taught,  however,  they  will  be 
equally  objectionable.  It  is  only  because,  as  ordinarily  taught, 
they  do  not  require  the  same  effort  of  abstraction  from  sense  as 
the  elements  of  Latin,  only  because  they  appeal  more  directly  to 
eye  and  ear  instead  of  thought,  that  they  are  more  popular  subjects. 


*  It  should  be  remembered,  howevei-,  that  the  boys  in  schools  of  the  former 
kmd,  bemg  mostly  of  a  higher  social  grade  than  those  in  the  latter  were  pre- 
sumably more  accustomed  to  correct  grammatical  speech.  >  . . , 

t  The  merest  beginnings  of  German  grammar  are  taught  at  Wolverhampton. 


Mr.  GreerCs  Report.  1 5 1 

'■'  -TheTinost  sufiicient  gi-ound,  -I  believe,  oa-wluGh  the  substitution 
of  physical  science  or  modern  languages  for  Latin  in  the  grammar 
schools  can  be  urged,  is  as  a  compromise.  Admitting,  it  may  be 
*iid,  that  they  are  an  Inferior  educational  organ,  yet  they  are  more 
popular  with  boys  and  parents',  as  at  once  more  easy  and  more 
available  in  practical  life.  Since  classical  studies  are  confessedly, 
abandoned  by  all  but  a  very  few  in  the  grammar  schools  before 
they  harVe  been  carried  far  enough  to  be  of  much  value  on  their 
own  account,  might  it  not  be  well  to  adopt  other  studies,  which, 
will  attract  a  larger  number,  be  pursued  with  more  zeal,   and  '     ; 

which,  hoWeveri  inferior  in  absolute  value,  a  good  teacher  may  yet 
turti  to  account' as  instruments  of  true  mental  cultivation? 

Thcinotion  tha,t 'parents  of  the' " middle  class  "  have  a  distinct  what  parents 
preference  for  "  modern  "  subjects  as  against  Latin,  is  apt  to  be  think  of  the 
far  too  readily  accepted.    To  most  of  them,  as  has  been  pointed  ^t^^es™" 
out  elsewhere,  the  prospect  of  a  modern,  as  distinct  from  a  mere  jg^  parents 
elerKs,  education  proving  of !  practical  value  is  far  too  remote  to  of  higher 
haV-e  much  influeiiice.     In  the  iron  and  pottery  districts,  I  heard  of  '^°°?™^''''*^^ 
3*:  few  fboys   for   whom  a  knowledge   of  modem  languages   was 
necessary,  and  who  went  abroad— generally  either  to  Switzerland 
or  Germany — at  considerable  expense  to  obtain  it.     These  would 
be  boys  who  were  expected  to  become  the  managing  men  in  large 
establishments.     As  such,  they  were  presumably  born   in  wealth,  -   --o 

and  therefore   of  a  class   which,  as  things  go,  prefers  a- distant  ■' 

hoarding  school  to  a  local  grammar  scliool.  At  any.  rate  their 
parents  were  of  a  kind  who  could  so  well  afford  to  leave  them  at 
school  for  a  year  or  two  after  they  were  15,.  in  ■  order  to  learn 
modern  languages,  that  they  could  supply  no  argument  for 
changing  the  system  of  education  for  boys  under  15.  Their  case 
would  be  met  by  a  system  of  bi-furcation  after  that  stage  had  been 
reached,  to  which  the  shortest  way  is  now  being  considered.'  The 
notion,  however,  of  a  possible  utility  of  an  acquaintance  with 
French  and  German  is  no  doubt  beginning  to  reach  a  less  wealthy 
class.  In  the  iron  district,  particularly,  enough  instances  occur  of 
such  an  acquaintance  being  turned  to  account,  or  the  want  of  it 
being  felt,  to  make  the  smaller  manufacturers  alive  to  its  impor- 
tance. Since  the  conclusion  of  the  commerciak treaty  with  France, 
I'was  told,  French  teaching  was  sensibly  in  more  demand. 

How  this  demand  is  to  be  met  I  shall  consider  more  in  detail 
under  the  head  of  Commercial  Education.*  If  a  parent,  howevei-, 
found  that  a  boy  who  learnt  French  on  a  basis  of  Latin  knew  as 
much  of  it  at  the  age  of  15  as  one,  who  learnt  French  only,  knew  at 
14,  he  would  generally  have  enough  vague  reverence  for  the  classics 
about  him  to  prefer  the  former  result  to  the  latter.  The  former  is 
one  whitih  a  well-managed  grammar  school  may  certainly  secure ; 
nor  if  it  turns  fairly  to  account  the  advantages  which  an  endow- 
ment gives  it,  need  it  ever  lose  a  boy  worth  having  to  the 
private  academy  on  the  ground  of  its  insisting  on  Latin  as  pre- 
liminary to  modern  languages.    Those'  only  will. be  lost  to*  whom 

*  See  pacre  191. 


132 


Counties  of  Staffqrd  and  Warwick. 


2ndly,  parents 
of  lower 
commercial 
rank. 


Latin  not 
necessarily 
an  offence 
to  them. 

Instance  from 
Handswortli. 


Causes  of 
popularity 
of  this 
school. 


the  knowledge  of  a  modern  language  happens  to  be  necessary,  and 
whose  early  education  has  been  so  neglected  as  to  make  _  the 
shortest  road  to  it  the  only  practicable  one.  Towards  chemistry 
the  ordinary  parental  feeling  is  much  the  same  as  towards  French 
or  German,  only  that  the  cases  where  a  school  knowledge  of  it  is 
of  direct  utility  in  business  are  more  exceptional,  while  a  practical 
acquaintance  with  it  is  more  easily  acquired  in  the  shop. 

It  cannot  be  too  strongly  insisted  on,  however,  that  to  that  class 
of  parents  which  forms  the  main  constituency  of  the  grammar 
school,  the  shopkeepers  and  small  manufacturers,  the  "  modern" 
subjects  are  matter  of  equal  indifference  with  the  classical.  What 
they  want  for  their  sons  is  an  education  which  will  qualify  them 
for  business,  i.e.,  which  will  enable  them  to  read,  write,  do  accounts, 
and  compose  an  ordinary  letter — in  the  most  compendious  possible 
way.  It  is  for  this  they  send  them  to  private  commercial  schools 
at  4Z.  or  Ql.  a  year.  The  aversion  to  the  grammar  school  has 
arisen  not  from  its  teaching  Latin,  but  from  its  failing  to  teach 
writing  and  arithmetic,  or  at  any  rate  to  teach  them  expeditiously. 
Let  these  be  properly  attended  to,  and  the  commercial  parent, 
though  he  may  object  to  the  addition  of  anything  else  as  loss  of 
time,  had  as  lief  the  addition  be  of  Latin  as  of  French  or  chemistry. 

That  to  require  the  learning  of  Latin  is  not  to  alienate  parents  of 
the  trading  class  is  shown  by  the  success  of  the  "Bridge-Trust'' 
school  at  Handsworth.  This  was  started  about  three  years  ago 
for  the  benefit  of  the  shopkeepers  and  lesser  iron-masters  of  the 
neighbourhood,  and  on  this  class  it  has  continued  almost  solely 
to  draw.  Greek  is  not  attempted  in  it,  but  Latin  is  part  of  its 
regular  system,  and  has  a  good  deal  of  time  given  to  it  by  all  the 
boys  above  the  one  or  two  lower  classes.  French  is  taught  also, 
but  is  quite  secondary,  the  master  considering  it  his  first  business 
to  make  the  Latin  standard  decently  high.  When  I  was  there, 
the  knowledge  of  Latin  was  relatively  higher  than  that  of  French, 
which  even  the  upper  boys  had  only  learnt  for  a  short  time.  Yet 
this  school  got  nearly  150  boys  within  a  year  of  its  foundation 
and  could  get  many  more  if  it  had  room.  Charging  4Z.  a  year,  it 
is  hardly  at  all  cheaper  than  the  private  schools  to  which  the  boys 
whom  it  attracts  would  otherwise  go ;  yet  it  has  driven  aU  the 
private  schoolmasters  of  the  neighbourhood  from  the  field.  This 
success  I  believe,  apart  from  the  great  merits  and  popular  qualities 
of  its  master,  it  owes  to  two  causes.  It  has  what  almost  every 
town  grammar  school  with  proper  management  might  have — a 
good  building  and  playground ;  and  it  provides  adequately  for 
what  the  parents  really  want  and  understand — good  writing, 
arithmetic,  and  drawing.  One  or  two  parents,  having  sons  there, 
expressed  to  me  a  hesitating  desire  for  rather  more  French  and 
less  Latin  ;  but  this  objection  did  not  interfere  with  their  general 
satisfaction,  and  will  probably  vanish,  if  they  find,  as  they  will 
when  the  school  has  had  time  to  develope  its  system,  that  their 
sons  know  French  as  well  in  the  long  run  as  if  they  learnt  it  at  a 
"  modern"  forcing  establishment,  though  at  the  cost  of  waiting 
rather  longer  for  it. 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  153 

Finally,  on  the  parental  side  of  the  question  it  is  to  be  remarked,  Parents  who 
that  there  are  certain  persons — few  in  number  but  the  salt  of  their  really  thirst 
class — to  whom  a  local  grammar  school  in  which  classics  and 
mathematics  are  taught  affords  the  sole  means  of  obtaining  that  '^^^"^  '^^  "®" 
education  for  their  sons,  which  they  definitely  desire.  Such  are 
the  poorer  clergy,  dissenting  ministers,  and  the  better  sort  of  pri- 
vate and  Government  schoolmasters.  Even  a  small  country  town 
is  seldom  without  them.  They  are  the  hills  and  trees  which  break 
the  monotonous  level  of  commercial  intelligence.  Several  such 
men  are  definitely  before  my  mind  when  I  say  that  they  desire 
rather  more  than  less  of  the  classical  element  in  the  grammar 
school  education,  by  which  alone  they  can  hope  to  push  their  sons 
a  little  higher  up  the  intellectual  ladder,  of  which  they  have 
themselves  mounted  the  first  step.  In  itself,  the  rational  desire 
of  one  such  father  is  surely  more  to  be  esteemed  than  the  utili- 
tarian instinct  of  ninety-and-nine  practical  persons,  who  want  no 
learning. 

As  with  the  parents,  so  with  the  boys.     A  change  of  system  why  boys 
would  be  to  sacrifice  the  few  who  want  to  learn  to  the  many  who  prefer 
don't.     The  modern  languages  and  "  sciences'"  are  doubtless  more  g^^fgcts'^ 
acceptable  to  the  majority  of  boys  than  Latin  and  Greek,  but  for 
the  simple  reason  that  they  are  easier.     To  the  mature  student  of  Evils  of 
physical  science,  who  applies  to  his  subject  the  same  method  and  ^ejding  *" 
intensity  which  the  student  of  language  or  metaphysic  applies  to  fgren,^. 
his,  it  is  of  course  an  equal  discipline,  but  by  the  universal  testi- 
mony of  schoolmasters  it  is  just  because,  as  taught  to  boys,  it  does 
not  exact  the  same  method  and  intensity  that  it  is  preferred  by 
them ;  nor  does  it  imply  any  disrespect  to  the  study  to  suppose 
that  it  would  gain  little  by  the  unreasonable  service  of  those  who 
want  either  the  capacity  or  the  diligence  to  write  a  Latin  exercise 
without  violation  of  .the  concords.     The  substitution  of  it,  no  less  It  means  a 
than  that  of  modern  languages,  for  Latin  would  be  to  acquiesce  in  lower  standard 
a  distinctly  lower  intellectual  standard,  and  that  not  for  the  majority 
of  boys  only,  but  for  all.     A  small  grammar  school  cannot  work  Why  for  all. 
effectively  a  system  of  alternative  studies,  save  within  very  narrow 
limits.     It  has  not  the  necessary  staff  for  the  purpose,  and  the 
exceptional  study  is  sure  to  be  neglected.     Thus  the  abandonment 
of  Latin   for  the  majority  would  ultimately  involve  its  virtual 
abandonment  for  the  few.     This,   I  believe,  for   reasons    above 
indicated,  would  be  a  definite  loss  to  the  best  boys,  and  would  be 
no  equivalent  gain  to  the  ordinary  run,  who  would  get  no  more 
real  culture  out  of  the  new  studies  than  out  of  the  old,  and  would  It  would  seal 
lose  that  beneficial  consciousness  of  their  own  inferiority  which  is  ^i''°''<!6  of 
induced  by  contact  with  a  study,  to  them  disagreeably  difficult.  fchoTfrom 
It  woiild  also  finally  seal  the  divorce  of  the  grammar  school  from  university. 
the  University.     It  would  do  this  in  two  ways,  by  its  action  both 
on  masters  and  on  boys.     The  present  head-masters  of  grammar 
schools  in  the  towns  are  almost  always  graduates  of  Oxford  or 
Cambridge,  and  on  the  present  system  rationally  so.     If  active  and 
interested  in  their  work,  as  they  always  Avould  be  if  the  system  of 
paying  them  were  put  on  a  better  footing,  they  teach  elementary 


154- 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


Evils  of  this 
result  in 
regard  (1)  to 
masters,  (2) 
to  boys. 


Keal  reasons 
of  defects  of 
grammar 
schools. 

Why  don't 
more  go  to 
them. 
Position  of 
masters. 


No  pecuniary 
stimulus  to 
popularity. 


Former 
reasons  for 
snuhhing 
town-boys. 


classics  and  mathematics  better  than  any  one  else  would,  and 
better  than  they  would  themselves  teach  anything  else.  What 
they  have  themselves  learnt  as  boys,  they  can  teach  to  boys,  .  But 
on  the  ':'  modern  "  system,  unless  the  old  universities,  with  the, 
schools  which  mainly  feed  them,  also  modernize  themselves,  their, 
<rraduates  will  be  out  of  place  in  the  provincial  grammar  schooL 
Their  best  men,  indeed,  if  they  applied  themselves  to  the  "  modjern  " 
subjects,  might  perhaps  teach  them  better  than  any  one  else,  but: 
it  is  only  graduates  of  the  second  rank  that  the  provincial  grammar, 
schools  can  command.  Such  men  in  teaching  the  modern  subjects, 
having  no  longeJJ  the  advantage  of  teaching  what  they  have  them- 
selves been  drilled  in  from  boyhood,  would  probably  do  their  •work. 
t)ut  poorly,  and  would  gradually  be  superseded  by  men  trained  to 
the  business,  of  the  stamp  of  the  better  kind  of  certificated  masters. 
This  change  would  probably  be  in  itself  an,  evil,  for,  so  far  as 
my  observation  goes,  the  existing  graduate  master,  with  all  the,. 
Inactivity  which  the  possession  of  an  income  independent  pt.^s^ 
schplastlc  exertions  is  apt  to  engender,  is  yet  a  better  source  of  local 
civilization  than  his  supposed  successor  would  be.  At, any  rate  it- 
would  cut  off  one  of  the  main  channels,  far  too  few  already,  by 
which  the  possibility  of  a  university  career  is  brought  home  to  the 
imagination  of  the  commercial  class.  The  tendency  of  the  modem 
system  with  the  boys  themselves  would  be  of  the  same. kind.  It 
would  extinguish  every  spark  of  aspiration  towards  the  University." 
The  great  check  on  such  aspiration  at  present  is  the  prevalent  no- 
tion that  education  should  be  an  easy  and  agreeable  process,  which 
will  qualify  the  recipient  for  making  money  at  15.  This  notion 
the  adoption  of  the  "  modern  "  system  would  sanction  and  enthrone. 
No  recognition  of  the  modern  studies  in  their  higher  branches  by 
the  Universities  could  mitigate  this  evil,  for  it  would  not  be  the 
vsrant  of  reward  for  their  thorough  prosecution  that  would  be  at 
fault,  but  the  absence  of  any  spirit  for  carrying  any  study  into, its 
more  difficult  theoretical  stages. 

The  real  reasons  why  the  grammar  schools  are  doing  so  little, 
for  liberal  education  are  to  be  found,  I  believe,  mainly  outside  the, 
actual  system  of  instruction  pursued  in  the  schools  themselves.; 
They  maybe  conveniently  summed  up  under  two  heads;  (a), 
reasons  why  more  boys  don't  come  to  them;  and  ,(5),  reasons  why 
those  who  do  come  fail  to  reach  a  higher  standard  of  learning. 

Under  («),  the  reason  (1)  which  should  be  put  first  as  bearing- 
more  or  less  on  all  that  follow,  is  the  position  of  the  head-masters 
of  these  schools.  Till  within  a  very  recent  period  this  was  in  all 
cases  of  a  kind  wliich  gave  them  no  pecuniary  stimulus  to  make 
their  several  schools  useful  to  the  immediate  neighbourhood.  No 
fees  could  be  charged  for  day-boys,  and  from  the  endowment  the 
master  derived  an  income  of  which  he  could  only  be  deprived  on 
the  ground  of  scandalous  misconduct,  and  even  so  not  without  an 
expensive  chancery  suit.  This  income  he  generally  increased  by 
taking  as  boarders  the  sons  of  the  professional  men  and  lessep 
gentry  from  the  country  round ;  but  though  this  was  a  motive  for? 
making  the  school  acceptable  to  one  class  of  society,  it  was  equally. 


Mr.  GreerCs  Report.  155 

so  for  making  it  unacceptable  to  another.     Tiie  town  boys,  who 
would  have    been   unsuitable   company   for   the   more    genteel 
boarders,  were  often  frightened  away  by  the  terrors  either  of  the 
cane  or  of  the  "  classics."    If  they  came,  they  either  failed  to  get 
the  education  for  business  which  they  wanted,  or  were  relegated 
to  a  "  writing  school,"  which  gave  them  no  chance  of  rising  to 
such  higher  education  as  the  school  might  afford.    I  came  quite  to 
expect,  on  inquiring  into  the  past  history  of  schools  now  depen- 
dent almost  wholly  on  day  boys,  to  hear  of  a  time,  30  or  40  years 
back,  when  they  flourished  as  boarding  schools,  and  educated  many 
gentlemen  of  the  neighbourhood  who  would  not  think  of  sending 
their  sons  to  them  in  their  present  state.     Success  of  this  kind 
seemed  generally  to  have  been  attended  by  corresponding  inatten- 
tion to  the  ordinary  town  boys.    With  the  increase  in  facilities 
of  travelling,  and  the  multiplication  of  large,  attractive  boarding 
schools,  the  day  of  such  success  is  finally  over,  but  the  impression 
made  by  the  old  state  of  things  on  the  mind  of  the  commercial 
class  is  by   no  means  effaced,  nor  has   sufficient  security  been 
generally  taken  that  the  grammar-school  master,  having  lost  his 
old  function,  should  vigorously  adopt  a  new  one.     Many  of  the  I^  ™^°y 
'        schools  in  the  two  counties  have  been  put  under  new  schemes  g^muhirt"" 
within  the  last  10  years  or  so,  and  in  these  cases  provision  has  attract  day- 
been  almost  always  made  for  the  payment  of  a  yearly  fee  by  ^°7^- 
the  boys  of  sufficient  amount  to  give  the  master  some  interest 
in  getting  them.     In  no  case,  however,  except  Birmingham,  is  the  Nowhere 
payment  of  the  master  out  of  the  endowment  made  to  depend  gj;^i„„ 
'       largely  on  the  number  of  boys  in  the  school ;  and  of  the  schools 
"       professing  to  teach  Latin  there  are  still  seven,  representing  a  gross 
5'        annual  income  from  endowment  of  nearly  4000Z.  where  no  fee  at 
*■'        all,  or  none  remunerative,  is  charged  on  the  ordinary  boys.* 
k            I  do  not  at  all  mean  to  imply  that  in  these   cases  or  in  others 
ti        want  of  pecuniary  stimulus  leads  to  positive  neglect  of  duty.     I 
am  glad  to  sa,y  that  I  did  not  in  the  two  counties  come  across 
-       a  single  case  of  such  neglect.     But  between  neglect  of  a  school, 
ill       and  the  effort  to  make  it  as  attractive  as  it  might  be,  there  is  a 
V       wide  interval.     A  private    schoolmaster  resorts  to  all  kinds  of  Contrast  with 
devices    to   push   his    school,    and    without    adopting   these   the  P"vate  school- 
it       endowed  master  might  yet  with  advantage  take  a  leaf  out  of  his  ™^  * 
J,        book.     He  touts  for  boys  as  a  commercial  traveller  for  orders.    If 
sj       his  connexion  lies  with  the  farmers,  he  commonly  goes  round  in 
g       a  gig  on  a  holiday  afternoon,  calls  at  the  houses  of  parents  who 
ill       have  sent  him  boys  already,  and  gets  leave  to  carry  off  any  stray 
H        son  that  he  finds  hanging  about  at  home,  whose  clothes  are  sent 
!       after  him  on  the  following  market-day.    He  promises  to  give  each 
I)       boy  a  "  practical  education  "  of  the  exact  kind  he  wants,  makes 
j|i       a  great  fuss  about  "individual  attention,"  and  has  to  pay  for 
ill       

''  *  At  Walsall,  Rugeley,  Nuneaton,  and  Coleshillno  yearly  fees  at  all  are  paid. 

I<  At  Brewood  and  Coventry  (by  sons  of  freemen),  30s.  a  year  is  paid.  At 
li  Stratford  boys  living  inside  the  borough  pay  nothing,  and  that  which  is  paid 
J         by  others  does  not  go  to  the  master  but  accumulates.     At  Audley  only  weekly 

pence  are  paid,  but  as  this  is  virtually  a  village  school,  though  professing 

Latin  I  have  not  reckoned  it  here. 


156 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


Master  of 
grammar 
school  does 
not  look  out 
for  boys. 


Snubs  com- 
mercial 


These  not 
really  difficult 
to  manage. 


his  professions  by  submission  to  irritating  interference  from  the 
parents,  not  so  much  in  the  way  of  regulating  the  boy's  studies, 
for  which  they  are  generally  too  ignorant,  as  of  withdrawing  him 
fitfully  from  instruction  altogether.  No  one  who  has  observed 
the  difficulties,  in  which  the  private  commercial  schoolmaster  is 
placed  from  inability  to  hold  his  own  against  parents  and  pupils, 
can  doubt  the  possible  utility  of  endowments  in  face  of  the  present 
standard  of  intelligence  on  educational  matters  among  the  people 
on  whom  such  a  master  depends.  But  the  present  effect  of  the 
endowment  is  often  to  prevent  the  master  from  making  the 
grammar  school  as  popular  as  it  might  be  made  without  any 
sacrifice  of  principle.  This  appears  in  a  multitude  of  details, 
which  it  is  impossible  to  particularize.  One  or  two  points,  how- 
ever, which  specially  struck  me,  may  be  mentioned. 

The  master  of  a  grammar  school  is  apt  not  to  look  out  pro- 
perly for  eligible  boys.  Not  associating  personally  with  the  class 
of  parents  most  likely  to  use  his  school,  he  scarcely  knows  what 
boys  in  the  neighbourhood  are  to  be  had.  Hence.  I  believe,  he 
loses  a  good  many  to  the  private  academies,  especially  from  out- 
lying places,  whom  a  little  notice  from  him  might  attract,  and  he 
misses  certain  boys,  to  be  found  in  the  upper  classes  of  the  better 
schools  under  the  Privy  Council,  who  are  capable  of  higher  edu- 
cation. As  I  shall  have  to  speak  of  both  these  kind  of  boys  in 
another  connexion,  I  will  say  no  more  of  them  here.*  Further, 
the  endowed  master  is  apt  needlessly  to  trample  on  the  notions  of 
education  current  among  the  commercial  class.  That  education 
should  be  "  general,"  not  "  special,"  and  that  classics  and  mathe- 
matics are  the  best  instruments  of  general  education,  are  pro- 
positions which  certainly  will  not  be  disputed  in  this  report ;  but 
there  is  no  reason  why  they  should  be  obtruded  on  parents  who 
do  not  understand  them,  but  suppose  them — not  without  justifica- 
tion in  the  experience  of  the  past — to  mean  that  a  boy  subjected  to 
the  "  general "  education  of  the  grammar  school  wiU  be  of  no  use 
in  business  at  the  age  of  16.  A  late  master  of  a  grammar  school 
with  whom  I  conversed  on  the  subject  expressed  a  conviction 
that  any  apparent  compromise  with  commercial  ideas  in  educa- 
tion was  as  bad  policy  as  compromise  with  Dissenters  on  the 
questions  agitated  by  the  Liberation  Society.  This  conviction, 
to  which  the  practice  of  certain  grammar  schools,  though  of  far 
fev/er  than  formerly,  still  corresponds,  I  believe  to  be  utterly 
erroneous.  So  far  as  1  could  see  and  hear,  when  once  a  master 
has  got  hold  of  a  decently  promising  boy,  he  may  with  good 
management  teach  him  almost  what  he  likes.  As  it  is,  parents 
are  often  alienated  at  the  outset  by  an  expressed  contempt  for 
practical  education.  If  on  the  other  hand  the  master  would  pro 
mise  them  adequate  attention  to  writing  and  arithmetic,  and  so 
much  to  English  grammar  as  is  necessary  to  make  the  son  of 
uneducated  parents  write  a  correct  letter,  he  might  add  anything 
else  at  his  pleasure. 

It  is  to  be  remembered,  also,  that  the  master  of  a  grammar 
school  often  obtains  his  position  without  any   special  interest  in 

*  See  pages  196  and  212. 


Mr.  Green's  Report,  151 

the  work  that  lies  really  before  him.     I  should  suppose,  from 

what  I  heard  of  the  past,  that  trustees  were  generally  much  more  Master  of 

alive  now,  than  they  were  (say)  30  years   ago,   to  the  duty  of  g''ammar 

appointing  the  best  man.     When  testimonials,  however,  to  oha-  „qj.  interested 

racter,  ability,  and  knowledge  are  good,  they  cannot  be  expected  in  his  worlc 

to  look  much  further.     Hence  the  mastership  often  falls  to  a 

respectable  clergymanj  of  some  accomplishments,  who  is  on  the 

lookout  for  some  quiet  way  of  earning  money  to  support  a  family, 

but  who  has  little  heart  for  his  work  to  begin  with,  and  soon  loses 

what  he  has.     The  evil  is  aggravated  by  the  fact  that  a  man,  once 

appointed  to  a  grammar  school,  seSms  generally  to  stay  there  till  he 

dies,  or  is  pensioned  out  in  extreme  old  age,  and  that  in  most  cases 

there  is  nothing  to  prevent  his  holding  other  clerical  appointments. 

Excluding  chaplaincies  of  unions,  which  seem  generally  to  be  filled 

by  masters  of  grammar  schools,  there  are  eight  schools  in  the  two  Often  has 

counties  of  which  the  masters  hold  other  appointments.     In  one  of  °*®'  ^°*' 

these  cases — that  of  Walsall — the  master  is  necessarily  under  the  Instances. 

scheme  (of  1797)  minister  of  a  chapel  of  ease,  which  involves  his  "'^^^  ' 

preaching  two   sermons    on  Sunday.     Owing  to  the  size  of  the 

place  and  school,  this  is  a  most  mischievous  arrangement,  and  is 

felt  as  such  by  the  master.     The  master  at  Stratford  is  in  a  pre-  Stratford, 

cisely  similar  position.     At  Newcastle,  again,  the  master  of  the  Newcastle, 

grammar  school  has  the  care  of  a  large  parish  in  the  town,  and 

has  his  attention  diverted  from  the  school  to  a  most  unfortunate 

extent.     At  Eanver  the  master  of  the  grammar  school  is  also  Kinver. 

vicar  of  the  parish,  and  has  till  lately  given  up  the  care  of  the 

school  almost  wholly  to  a  deputy.     In  the  other  cases  the  clerical 

work  is  of  a  less  absorbing  kind,  but  in  all,  I  think,  it  tends  to 

divert  the  master's  interest  in  greater  or  less  degree  from  the 

school.     In  two  of  them  the  master  avowed  to  me  his  desire  to  be 

rid  of  his  scholastic  work  altogether.     In  three  other  cases,  where 

no  clerical  appointment  was  held,  a  similar  desire  was   either 

expressed  or  was  obviously  operative. 

(2.)  The  next  general  cause  to  be  noticed,  as  lowering  the  Bad  tnildiugs 
number  of  boys  in  attendance  at  grammar  schools,  is  to  be  found  *"^  eituation. 
in  their  frequently  unattractive  externals.     As  a  rule,  according 
to  my  experience,  the  grammar  school  of  a  town  is  in  a  far  worse 
situation,  has  a  far  worse  building,  and  is  far  worse  supplied  with 
educational  appliances  than  the  schools  for  the  poor.     It  is,  in 
fact,  generally  the  worst  public  building  in  the  place.     For  details 
on  this  head  I  must  refer  to  my  reports  on  individual  schools. 
At  10  of  the  schools,  professing  to  be  classical,  that  I  visited, 
there  is  nothing  worthy  to  be  called  a  play-ground  at  all,  and  at 
only  four  in  all  is  there  anything  more  than  a  large  yard,  without 
grass.      The  schools  at  Wolverhampton  and  Coventry  call  for  Instances : 
special  notice  in  this  respect,  on  account  of  the  size  of  their  ^°^^Q^^atir 
endowments,  the  former  having  a  gross  income  of  1,187Z.,  the  Newcastle,     ' 
latter  of  1,066J.    The  Wolverhampton  school  stands  in  that  street  Burton, 
of  the  town  which  is  or  was  the  worst,  both  on  moral  and  sanitary  '^^^^''^■ 
grounds.    The  Coventry  school  is  taught  in  a  building,  interesting 
to  the  architect  or  antiquarian,  but  inconvenient  for  the  purpose, 

N  2 


158 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  WarioicJt. 


Contrast,  in 
illustration  of 


schools  at 
Atherstone  and  two 
Nuneaton. 


in  the  worst  part  of  the  town,  and  close  to  a  polluted  stream. 
Neither  has  a  playground.  At  Newcastle,  Burton,  and  Warwick 
an  impression  that  the  school  is  unwholesome  has  definitely  pre- 
vented boys  from  being  sent  to  it.  Such  drawbacks  are  the  more 
considerable  in  presence  of  the  growing  preference  for  boarding 
schools  as  against  day  schools,  and  of  the  growing  reluctance  of 
professional  men,  on  social  grounds,  to  u%e  the  town  school  for 
their  sons. 

The  operation  of  the  general  causes  (1)  and  (2)  above  men- 
tioned may  be  illustrated  by  the  contrast  between  the  manage- 
h^-men^^^  "'  ^^^^"*  ^"^  condition  of  two  neighbouring  schools  in  Warwickshire, 
Atherstone,  and  Nuneaton.     The  income  from  endowment  of  the 
schools  is  nearly  the  same.     The  population  which   could 
conveniently  send  day  boys  to  Nuneaton  is  nearly  double  of  that 
which  could  so  send  them  to  Atherstone ;  nor  am  I  aware  of  any 
essential  difference  between  the  circumstances  of  the  two  popula- 
tions.    At  Nuneaton  the  building  is  bad  and  badly  situate,  nor  is 
there  any  playground.     No  fees  are  charged.     The  master  is  vicar 
of  a  neighbouring  parish  (population  only   199),    and,   though 
thoroughly  competent  to  teach,  does  not  possess  much  interest  in 
his  scholastic   work.     At  Atherstone   the  building  is   excellent, 
there  is   an  acre  of  playground,   and  a  fee  of  4?.  4*.  a  year  is 
charged  on  the  ordinary  day-boys.     The  late  master,  moreover, 
who  had  left  rather  less  than  a  year  before  my  visit,  and  to  whom 
the  credit  of  raising  the  school  was  mainly  due,  was  according  to 
all  accounts  a  most  energetic  man,  who  laid  hands  on  every  boy 
of  every  class  who  could  be  got  into  the  school.     The  results  are 
these.     At  Atherstone  in  October  1865  there  were  80  boys,  60 
being  day-scholars.     There  were  nine  boys  in  the  first  class,  12  in 
the  second.     The  first  class  was  reading  the  Apology  in  Greek, 
Xiivy  in  Latin.     The  second  was  doing  SaJlust  (their  Greek  I  did 
not  hear).     Each  class  was  well  up  to  its  work,  and  some  of  the 
boys  I  thought  of  considerable  promise,  such  as,  considering  their 
age  (for  none  were  over  16),  might  have  a  fair  chance  of  scholar- 
ships at  the  University.     Two  boys  from  the  school,  indeed,  now 
hold  scholarships  at  St.  John's,  Cambridge.     The  best  boy  in  the 
school  was  a  day  scholar  of  humble  birth,  and  altogether  only 
about  half  the  boys  in  the  two  highest  classes  were    boarders. 
Here,  then,  was  a  school  in  a  small  and   sleepy  country  town, 
which  had  got  60  boys  of  the  town  into  its  net,  giving  all  a  chance 
of  reaching  the  "  higher  learning,"  and  of  this  chance  several  had 
availed  themselves  to  a  degree  which,  even  if  it  were  carried  no 
further,  must  leave  a  permanent  impression.     At   Nuneaton,  in 
the    same  month,  there  were    only  25  boys,   divided   into   two 
departments,  only  six  being  under  the  head  master.     Of  these  six 
only  one  was  up  to  the  mark  of  the  second  class  at  Atherstone. 
Of  the  19  in   the  lower  department  only  one  or  two  were  likely 
ever  to  pass  in  the  upper,  and  to  the  rest  the  "  higher  learning  " 
could  not  be  said  to  be  within  reach.     The  superiority  of  Ather- 
stone in  numbers  is  certainly  not  due  to  its  "  modernizing  "  the 
style  of  education,  for  this  would  be  inconsistent  with  its  superiority 


Causes  of 
success  of 
Atherstone. 


Mr.  Greenes  Report.  159 

in  quality,  and  as  will  be  noticed  elsewhere,*  English  subjects  are 
perhaps  unduly  neglected  there,  nor,  though  it  so  happens  that  an 
unusual  proportion  of  the  middling  families  of  the  town  have  sons 
of  an  age  to  go  to  school,  will  this  really  explain  the  difference 
in  the  face  of  Nuneaton's  larger  population.  The  true  account  of 
its  excellence  is  to  be  found  in  the  spirit  shown  by  the  trustees  in 
building,  in  the  active  encouragement  which,  being  residents  in 
the  town,  they  have  given  to  the  school,  and  especially  in  the 
energy  of  the  late  master  in  getting  hold  of  and  pushing  forward 
boys.  As  good  as  Atherstone  is,  every  grammar  school  in  a 
country  town,  having  an  equal  endowment,  might  with  energetic 
management  become. 

(3.)  The  next  general  causes  to  be  reckoned  under  (a)  are  the 
general  preference  of  boarding  schools  to  day  schools,  and  the 
unwillingness  of  professional  and  commercial  parents  generally  to 
use  the  town  grammar  school.  The  first  of  these  causes  depends 
greatly  on  the  second,  but  so  far  as  it  rests  on  other  grounds  it 
may  be  considered  separately. 

The  preference   for  large  boarding   schools   is  partly  simple  Preference  of 
fashion.     It  goes  along  with  that  reverence  for  the  conventional  gg^o™^ 
character  of  the  English  gentleman,  which  is  obtruded  on  us  in  Reasons  of 
all  the  literature  of  the  day,  and  which  in  various  graduations  of  tl»is. 
form  has  worked  itself  down  through  all  classes  of  society  above  Pashion. 
the  shopkeeper.     This  character  large  boarding  schools  are  rightly 
thought  to  have  special  means  of  generating.     They  foster  an 
early  susceptibility  to  the  club-law  of  honour  ;  form  habits  of  ready 
address  towards  equals  and  of  contempt  towards  "  those  that  are 
without ;"   lead  to  the  concealment,  if  not  to  the  suppression,  of 
egotism  and  self-conceit  in  ordinary  companionship ;  and  by  their 
organization  of  games   develope  a  muscular  bearing  suitable  to 
such  a  temper.     This  being  a  result  now  recognized  as  valuable, 
each  class  seeks  after  it  according  to  its  means  and  standard,  and 
in  the  circulars  of  private  schools  one  finds  its  production  adver- 
tized   at   a   surprisingly  low  figure.     There   are   more   tangible  Boarding 
reasons,  however,  for  the  popularity  of  boarding  schools,  which  school  saves 
were  frequently  brought  under  my  notice,  and  are  connected  with  r^^°*^ "'°"  ^■ 
the  stress  of  occupation   among  men  of  business.     Outside  the 
homes  of  the  less  distracted  ministers  of  religion,  there  is  scarcely 
a  father  to  be  found  who  knows  anything  about  or  takes  any  prac- 
tical interest  in  the  education  of  his  sons.     The  man  of  business 
leaves  home  after  breakfast,  and  when  he  returns  for  a  late  dinner 
or  tea,  he  likes  his  son  to  be  jocose  and  companionable,  but  not 
to  bother  him  about  lessons.     The  mother  and  sisters,  however 
desirous  they  may  be  for  the  boy's  intellectual  distinction  in  the 
abstract,  have  seldom  strength  of  mind  to  check  his  readiness  to 
take  part  in  any  social  amusement  that  may  be  going  on.     The 
consequence  is  that  he  does  next  to  nothing  at  home,  and  there  is 
not  enough  competition  to  stimulate  him  much  in  the  local  day- 
school.     Meanwhile  he  is  very  likely  forming  acquaintances  in  the 

'*  See  page  187. 


160 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


Beasons  why 

professional 

men  don't  use 

grammar 

school. 

Gratuitous 

entry. 

Instances. 
Coventry. 


WalsaU. 


Nuneaton, 

Charging  fees 
does  not  set 
things  right. 
Instances. 
Burton. 


Newcastle. 
Warwick. 


neighbourhood  which  his  parents  think  socially  and  morally  ob- 
jectionable, and  becoming  rather  disagreeable  in  his  domestic 
relations.  A  sovereign  remedy  for  this  mischief  is  thought  to 
be  his  migration  to  a  boarding  schooL  Here  greater  competition 
and  the  supervision  of  the  master  in  the  evenings  may  make  him 
more  studious,  though  I  doubt  whether  they  generally  do  so.  At 
any  rate,  disagreeable  connexions  are  broken,  the  family  is  free 
from  responsibility,  and  the  boy  is  more  acceptable  to  his  home, 
and  his  home  to  the  boy,  when  he  returns  to  it  for  the  holidays. 
No  better  than  these  are  the  general  grounds '  for  preferring  a 
boarding  school,  as  such.  Both  professional  and  commercial 
parents,  however,  often  choose  it  because  it  supplies  something 
which  they  want,  and  which  cannot  be  supplied  at  the  grammar 
school. 

(4.)  At  most  of  the  schools  that  I  visited  the  absence  of  sons  of 
professional  men  was  very,  remarkable.  On  the  whole,  it  was 
most  conspicuous  in  those  schools  where  no  fees  are  charged,  and 
which  consequently  are  apt  to  have  their  lower  classes  filled  with 
boys  who,  in  respect  both  of  birth  and  of  capacity  for  learning, 
had  better  be  in  a  national  school.  At  the  Coventry  school  (serving 
a  population  of  40,000),  which  has  the  attraction  of  good  exhibi- 
tions (though  awkwardly  limited  *),  and  a  master  well  able  to  give 
the  highest  education,  there  was  scarcely  a  single  son  of  a  pro- 
fessional man  in  the  upper  classes.  Here  the  almost  gratuitous 
admission  of  sons  of  freemen — they  pay  SO*,  a  year — and  the 
unsuitable  situation  of  the  school,  must  be  borne  in  mind.  At 
Walsall  school,f  where  admission  is  wholly  gratuitous,  and  where 
the  boys  of  the  lower  department,  who  learn  neither  Latin  nor 
Euclid,  partly  use  the  same  school-room,  though  not  the  same 
playground,  as  the  rest,  there  were  only  two  or  three  sons  of  pro- 
fessional men  out  of  more  than  100,  and  I  ascertained  that  parents 
of  this  sort  generally  objected  to  use  the  school  on  account  of  the 
company.  The  objection,  I  understood,  had  not  been  so  strong 
some  years  ago,  when  the  two  departments  were  taught  in  separate 
parts  of  the  town.  At  Nuneaton  school,  where  there  are  no  fees, 
was  only  one  son  of  a  professional  man,  and  he,  I  was  told,  was 
the  first  who  had  been  there  for  years.  "Where  fees  are  charged, 
however,  the  evil  continues,  though  not  quite  to  the  same  extent. 
At  Burton  a  division  of  departments  has  been  introduced,  for  the 
first  of  which  7Z.  a  year  is  charged,  yet  the  professional  class  was 
represented  in  it  by  the  sons  of  a  single  family.  Here  the  entire 
want  of  playground,  and  the  supposed  unhealthiness  of  situation, 
are  drawbacks.  At  Newcastle,  where  there  are  similar  objections 
in  aggravated  degree,  the  professional  men  seemed  to  have  quite 
given  up  using  the  grammar  school.  At  the  Warwick  school  fees 
are  charged,  the  master  is  thoroughly  able  to  give  the  best  educa- 
tion for  the  Universities,  and  there  are  three  exhibitions  of  65/. 


*  See  page  173. 

t  The  endowment  is  1,000Z.  a  year  gross. 


The  population  39,000. 


Mr.  Greeds  Report.  161 

a  year  eaqh.*     The  school,  moreover,  is  accessible  as  a  day-school 
not  merely  to  the  covmty  town,  but  to  the  whole  of  Leamington. 
It  has  more  sons  of  professional  parents  relatively  to  its  whole 
number   (44)   than  the  schools  previously  mentioned,   but   still 
a  very  scant  supply  considering  how  many  might  come,  and  that 
the  course  of  instruction  is  more  adapted  for  them  than  it  is  in 
most  grammar  schools.     Here  again  want  of  playground  and  bad  Four  schools 
situation  are  to  be  noticed.    Only  at  four  schools  of  those  I  visited,  po^^on^of  sons 
viz.,  Lichfield,  Brewood,  Atherstone,  and   Sutton-Coldfield,  did  of  professiooai 
the  professional  class  seem  adequately  represented.     At  Lichfield,  gentlemen, 
the  endowment  being  scanty,  the  fee   charged  on  the   ordinary 
scholars  is  high  enough  to  exclude  the  lower  rank  of  commercial 
hoys,  who  resort  either  to  a  private,  or  to  a  very  good  endowed 
elementary  school,   in  the  city.     Brewood  and   Sutton-Coldfield 
have  both  considerable  attractions  in  the  way  of  building  and  play-  Reasons  in 
ground,  and  both  are  in  repute  as  boarding  schools.     At  Brewood  each  case, 
the  boarders  form  two-thirds,  at  Sutton-Coldfield  one-third,  of  the 
entire  school.     At  the  former,  "  English  "  subjects  certainly  re- 
ceive a  full  share  of  attention ;  at  the  latter,  though  I  do  not 
mean  to  imply  that  they  are  neglected,  yet  the   system  of  the 
school  is  rather  laid  out  with  reference  to  the  wants  of  professional 
men,  and  there  is  a  private  commercial  academy  in  the  town 
which  seems  to  flourish  in  numbers.     At  Atherstone,  as  I  have 
said  before,  every  boy  of  every  class  that  can  in  any  sense  be 
reckoned  fit  for  the  grammar  school  goes  to  it.     Almost  the  best 
hoys  in  the  school  last  year  were  severally  sons  of  an  exciseman  and 
a  gardener,  while  all  the  sons  of  professional  men  in  the  town,  who 
were  of  fit  age,  were  in  attendance.     I  thought  here,  however, 
that,  though  the  general  standard   of  the  school  was   excellent, 
arithmetic  and  writing  had  been  somewhat  neglected,  and  there  is 
an  impression  to  that  effect  among  the  tradesmen  of  the  town. 

The  general  objection  of  professional  men  to  using  the  local  Permanent 

fframmar  school,  so  far  as  it  is  independent  of  such  remediable  grounds  for 
&  .,  ,    _  .       ,  ,  ,     .-,\.         ,  ,        f.  ,  J  ahstention  ot 

evils  as  defects  in  the  master  and  buildmg,  has  a  tworolo  source —  professional 

dislike  of  mixture  between  their  sons  and  those  of  tradesmen,  and  men. 

an  opinion  that  the  small  grammar  school  cannot  give  adequate 

preparation  for  the  large  "  public  school,"  at  which,  if  prosperous, 

they  generally  propose  ultimately  to  place  them.     The  dislike  of 

mixture  with  inferior  boys  is  so  closely  bound  up  with  prevalent 

and  well-understood  feelings  of  English  society,  that  little  need  be 

said  about  it.      So  far  as  it  can  be  said  to  rest  on  moral  grounds.  Mixture  of 

these  are  to  be  found  in  the  facts  that  the  code  of  honour  is  apt  to  classes. 

be  less  strict  among  the  sons  of  tradesmen,  that  their  language  is 

more  frequently  coarse,  and  that  they  are  receptacles  for  all  local 

scandals.     It  is  generally  stronger  in  small  towns  than  in  larger 

ones.   In  the  small  town  every  one  knows  and  talks  about  every  one 

else,  and  an  acquaintance  between  the  boys  of  two  families  leads  to 

each  family  becoming  acquainted  with  the  domestic  affairs  of  the 

■^  In  two  instances  during  the  last  few  years  the  holders  of  these  have  been 
placed  in  the  first  class  at  Oxford. 


162 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


Modes  of  quali- 
fying this 
objection. 


Instance  from 
,  Handsworth. 


Professional 
man  wants 
education 
for  his  sons 
other  than  the 
grammar 
school  can  irell 
give. 


other.  So  long  as  the  tradesmen  of  country  towns  continue  their 
habit  of  spending  the  evening  in  the  bar-rooms  of  inns,  a  sensitive 
father  may  be  excused  for  wishing  to  have  as  little  connexion  as 
possible  between  his  family  and  theirs.  The  difficulties  of  social 
mixture  in  a  grammar  school,  however,  seem  to  be  greatly  lessened 
by  the  influence  of  the  master  on  the  manners  of  the  boy,  and  by 
the  possession  of  a  good  playground.  "Where,  as  is  most  commonly 
the  case,  the  grammar  school  has  no  playground,  or  only  a  yard, 
the  day  boys  after  lessons  are  turned  directly  on  the  street.  This 
affects  the  mixture  of  classes  in  two  ways.  It  is  companionship 
with  under-bred  boys  in  fite  street  which  the  more  refined  parent 
specially  fears  for  his  son ;  and,  on  the  other  hand,  it  is  by  inter- 
course with  his  boys  in  the  precincts  of  the  school  and  in  the 
playground  that  the  master  may  best  succeed  in  softening  the 
manners  of  the  rougher  ones,  and  giving  a  common  tone  of  honour 
and  gentleness  to  all.  Of  what  may  be  done  in  this  way,  the 
Bridge  Trust  School  at  Handsworth  affords  a  good  instance.  The 
boys  there  are  almost  all  of  the  trading  class,  which  is  very 
numerous  thereabouts.  Having  spent  four  days  in  and  about  the 
school,  I  had  good  opportunity  of  observing  their  outward  be- 
haviour, and  this  seemed  to  me  as  good  as  any  one  could  wish — a 
good  deal  better  than  that  of  the  same  class  at  Kong  Edward's 
School,  Birmingham.  At  Handsworth  a  good  playground  adjoins 
the  school,  and  the  head-master,  mainly  by  this  means,  sees  a  good 
deal  of  all  the  elder  boys  out  of  school  hours.  At  Birmingham 
the  rank  and  file  of  the  boys  emerge  immediately  on  the  street, 
and  the  masters  can  see  nothing  of  them  when  lessons  are  over. 
If  there  were  many  professional  men  about  Handsworth,  which 
there  are  not,  there  could  be  no  reason  against  their  sending  their 
sons  to  the  school,  except  that  the  education  given  in  it  might  not 
be  sufficiently  classical.*  This  brings  me  to  the  second  obstacle  to 
the  availability  of  grammar  schools  for  the  professional  class. 

Those  members  of  this  class  who  have  been  themselves,  so  to 
speak,  born  to  education,  are  the  people  whose  sons  the  master  of 
a  grammar  school  naturally  looks  for  as  his  best  material.  In 
the  present  state  of  things,  however,  it  would  be  difficult  with  a 
good  conscience  to  recommend  them  to  use  an  ordinary  grammai' 
school,  even  though  it  be  well  conducted.  They  naturally  desire 
their  sons  to  have  a  chance  of  a  university  career,  if  they  should 
show  a  desire  for  it,  and  of  turning  such  a  career  to  the  best 
account.  Short  of  this,  they  desire  them,  before  taking  to  a 
business  or  profession,  to  have  such  an  education  as  is  given  in 
the  higher  classes  of  the  public  schools.  Neither  desire  is  likely 
to  be  well  satisfied  by  the  provincial  grammar  school.  A  boy  who 
stays  on  at  the  grammar  school  till  he  goes  to  the  University  no 
doubt  eases  his  father's  pocket  as  much  as  he  would  do  by  getting 
an  exhibition  from  a  boarding  school,  but  for  his  last  three  or  four 

*  The  best  instance  of  an  amalgamation  of  classes  that  I  have  met  with— 
clue  in  large  measure,  I  believe,  to  excellence  of  building,  situation  and  play- 
ground— is  the  Loughborough  grammiu-  school.  This  not  being  \vithin  the 
district  dealt  with  by  the  present  report,  I  have  not  referred  to  it  in  the  text. 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  163 

years  at  school  he  will  have  to  be  taught  alone.     Thus  he  will  why  it  can't 
lose  the  stimulus  of  competition,  and  not  knowing  how  to  measure  gi'^^  it. 
himself,  will  probably  acquiesce  in   too  low  a   standard.      His  Want  of 
master  may  give  him  as  much  attention  as  he  would  receive  at  a  competition, 
public  school,  or  more;  but  the  master  who  spends  three-quarters  of  leisure  for 
of  his  time  in  drivmg  the  "syntaxis  minor"  into  boys  of  14,  higher  studies 
cannot  keep  his  scholarship  up  to  the  level  which  is  maintained  by  "n  the  part  of 
the  higher  masters  at  liugby  and  Winchester.     The  difficulty  is  ^^^  "*^'®''- 
probably  greater  in  regard  to  classical  than  to  mathematical  study 
(which  may  perhaps  account  for  the  fact  that  boys  from  the  small 
grammar  schools  achieve  comparative  success  at  Cambridge),  and 
in  the  case  of  the  former  is  aggravated  by  the  importance  attached 
to  composition  in  English  classical  scholarship.      In  greater  or 
less  degree,  however,  it  must  be  felt  in  all  branches  of  the  higher 
education.     Nor  is  it  easy  for  the  grammar  school  to  fulfil  well 
the  subordinate  function  of  educating  boys  up  to  the  age  and 
standard  at  which  they  may  with  advantage  be  transferred  to  one 
of  the  great  public  schools.     On  this  point  I  found  the  testimony 
of  the  best  masters  of  grammar  schools  concurrent.     If  the  town  System 
grammar  school  is  to  do  its  duty  by  the  ordinary  boys,  it  must  requisite  for 
adapt  its  system  to  a  far  greater  want  of  home  cultivation,  and  an  not  test  suited 
earlier  need  of  bringing  arithmetic  and  writing  to  perfection,  than  to  sons  of 
are  supposed  in  those  for  whom  the  course  of  instruction  at  the  educated  men. 
great  schools  is  adapted.     It  ought  in  the  first  place  to  take  care  The  former 
that  all  its  scholars,  except  the  stupid  or  neglected,  be  accomplished  want  too  much 
in  all  ordinary  arithmetic,  and  able  to  write  a  good  clerk's  hand  ^"   "^  '°' 
by  the  time  they  are  12  years  old.     It  is  better  on  aU  grounds  to 
get  this  necessary  part  of  the  education,  which  in  justice  to  the 
ordinary  boys  must  be  imparted  some  time,  out  of  the  way  at  first. 
It  is  what   the  commercial  parents  value  and  understand,  and  it 
is  what  the  sound  commercial  schools,  by  giving  it  exclusive  at- 
tention, bring  early  to  perfection.     If  neglected  to  begin  with, 
parents  are  dissatisfied,  and  the  more  promising  boys  are  cumbered 
with  it  during  their  last  two  or  three  years  at  school,  when  they 
are  most  capable  of  receiving  some  liberal  cultivation.     Secondly,  Too  much 
for  boys  who  form  the  staple  of  our  provincial  grammar  school,  English 
some  early  teaching  of  English  grammar  is  unquestionably  wanted.  Si'ammar. 
Bred  as  they  are   at  home,  they  are  incapable  without  this  of 
reading  and  writing  correctly,*  and  are  thus  not  only  inadequately 
equipped  for  practical  life,  but  seriously  hampered  in  the  acquisi- 
tion of  any  other  language. 

Now,  for  the  sons  of  educated  professional  men,  who  are 
to  be  sent  ultimately  to  Rugby,  Winchester,  or  Marlborough, 
any  formal  instruction  in  English  grammar  is,  with  a  view 
to  success  at  these  schools,  simply  thrown  away,  nor  does  any 
large  share  of  attention  to  writing  and  arithmetic  "pay."  If, 
then,  they  are  sent  to  a  grammar  school  conducted  on  the  plan 
above  delineated,  they  are  either  not  taught   in  the   best  Avay 

*  Any  one,  who  will  take  the  trouble  to  look  over  the  advertisements  of  inn- 
keepers at  the  end  of  Bradshaw's  Guide,  will  find  that  scarcely  one  is  gram- 
inatioally  correct.  I.  know  of  no  reason  for  supposing  that  innkeepers  are 
worse  educated  than  ordinary  shopkeepers. 


164  Counties  of  Stafford  and  Wamnck. 

for  their  final  destination,  or  they  are  taught  exceptionally,  and 
such  exceptional  teaching  is  always  found  to  be  bad  both  for 
those  in  whose  favour  the  exception  is  made  and  for  the  rest.     I 
have  not  found  a  single  grammar  school  where  a  reconciliation 
between  the  two  kinds  of  want  has  been  achieved  with  perfect 
success,  though  I  have  found  several  where  each  want  was  imper- 
fectly satisfied  from  an  attempt  to   satisfy  the  other.*     As  the 
younger  grammar  schoolmasters  are  becoming  conscious  of  the 
impossibility  of  maintaining  their  hold  on  the  higher  professional 
class,  they  naturally  throw  themselves  more  on  the  commercial. 
In  seeking  to  attract  this   they  meet  with  further  difficulties, 
which  have  next  to  be  considered. 
Objections  of         C^')  ^^^  Statement  of  these  has  been  to  a  great  extent  antici- 
commereial       pated  in  what  has  been  already  said.     So  far  as  they  are  per- 
class  to  gram-   manent  they  arise  mainly  from  the  greater  attraction  which  the 
mar  so  oo  .       private  commercial  school  offers  to  the  parent  who  wishes  his  son 
to  be  qualified  for  business  by  the  shortest  possible  method.    This 
Private  schools  attraction  is  no  doubt  in  many  instances  factitious.    Of  the  private 
thought  to  give  schools  into  which  I  gained  admission,  and  which  were  presumably 
shorter  out  to     q^  ^j^g  whole  the  best  of  their  kind,  there  were  some  in  which  the 
necessary  for     arithmetic  was  worse  than  in  the  worst  grammar  schools.     In 
business.  most,  I  think,  the  knowledge  of  English  grammar  and  the  general 

Do  they  ?  faculty  of  composing  a  correct  English  letter  were  no  greater  than 

Yes,  if  good  of  ^^  *^^®  second-rate  grammar  schools.  At  the  sounder  private 
their  kind.  schools,  however,  charging  from  4Z.  to  6Z.  a  year,  and  making 
little  profession  of  anything  beyond  "  English "  subjects,  the 
writing  and  arithmetic  of  the  boys  at  a  given  age,  say  12,  were, 
if  not  better  in  themselves,  yet  better  for  commercial  purposes 
than  were  those  of  boys  of  the  same  age  at  most  grammar  schools. 
This  is  the  natural  result  of  the  fact  that  they  are  almost  exclu- 
sively attended  to.  There  are  also  certain  commercial  accom- 
plishments, much  thought  of  by  parents  of  the  trading  class,  of 
which  the  private  schools  make  great  parade,  while  the  grammar 
schools  commonly  ignore  them.  Such  are  book-keeping,  com- 
mercial letter-writing,  mechanical  drawing,  &c.  On  the  extent 
to  which  these  may  be  provided  for  by  a  grammar  school  I  shall 
speak  afterwards.  It  is  clear,  however,  that  in  a  school  which 
aims  at  laying  the  foundation  of  a  liberal  education,  they  can 
never  be  treated  as  other  than  supplementary.  Those  parents, 
therefore,  who  wish  them  to  be  primary  will  send  their  sons  to 
schools  where  they  are  treated  as  such.  A  certain  number  also 
will  always  be  alienated  by  the  rigid  system  which  a  grammar 
school,  having  only  two  masters,  must  always  maintain  if  it  is  to 
teach  thoroughly  what  it  professes.  These  will  prefer  the  private 
school,  which  ostensibly  consults  the  several  wishes  and  capacities 
of  individual  parents  and  boys.  More  will  be  said  on  these  points 
under  the  heads  of  "commercial  education"  and  "private 
schools."      The  boys  thus  lost  to  the  grammar  school  on  com- 


*  A  successful  reconciliation  is,  I  think,  more  nearly  approached  at  Loughr 
borough  than  at  any  other  school  that  I  have  aeen. 


Mr.  Greenes  Report,  165 

mercial  grounds  are  on  the  whole  those  who  would  furnish  the 
least  promising  material  for  "  liberal  education."  Such  as  they 
are,  their  loss  might  often  be  avoided  by  a  fuller  recognition  on 
the  part  of  the  grammar-school  m£|,sters  of  their  true  poisition,  but 
so  long  as  the  feeling  of  the  trading  class  on  education  remains 
what  it  is  it  cannot  be  altogether  prevented. 

It  may  be  well  here  to  give  such  informatioii  as  I  have  been  Statistic?  as  to 
able  to  obtain  with  regard  to  the  number  of  day  boys  attending  J^um^'ei"  taught 
grammar  and  commercial  schools  severally  in  given  populations,  and  private 
It  was  only  in  certain  towns  that  I  succeeded  in  learning  enough  schools 
from    the    private    schoolmasters   to    obtain    even    approximate  respectively. 
statistics  on  this  point.     There  is  also  in  all  cases  a  difficulty  as 
to  the  amount  of  population  served  by  the  schools  of  a  country 
town,  according  as  villages  around  do  or  do  not  send  boys  to 
them.     In  the  round  numbers  given  below  I  have  made  rough 
allowance  for  such  villages  according  to  information  obtained  in 
the  several  towns : 

,  Stafford.  Population,  14,000 ;  in  grammar  school,  classical 
department,  37  ;  commercial  department,  35  ;  in  private  schools, 
virtually  not  classical,  60. 

Liclifield.  Population,  7000 ;  grammar  school,  26 ;  private 
schools,  virtually  not  classical,  45  (?) ;  tradesmens'  sons  in  Mynor's 
English  School,  4, 

Atherstone.  Population,  5,500 ;  grammar  school,  60. 

Uttoxeter.  Population,  6,000 ;  grammar  school,  classical  depart- 
ment, 22  ;  English  department,  18  ;  private  school,  not  classical,  28. 

Stratford-on-Avon.  Population,  7,000 ;  grammar  school,  30 ; 
private  school,  classical,  14 ;  ditto,  not  classical,  20. 

Wolverhampton.  Population  (inclusive  of  Bilston),  90,000  ;* 
grammar  school  (about),  105  ;  private  schools,  teaching  Latin, 
62  ;  ditto,  virtually  not  classical  (about),  233. 

Walsall.  Population,  40,000 ;  grammar  school,  115  (classical 
department,  70  ;  English,  45) ;  private  school,  virtually  not  clas- 
sical, 35.     Perhaps  one  or  two  other  very  small  private  schools. 

Those    schools  I   have   described    as   virtually   not   classical, 
where  there  is  a  profession  of  Latin,  but  where  it  is  only  taught 
to  a  sixth  part  of  the  boys,   or  less,  and  to  these   only  with  a 
view   to    employment   as    druggists.      It  will  be  observed  that 
whereas  in  the  country  towns  the  proportion  of  boys  attending  Contract  be- 
middle  schools  of  some  kind  is  nearly   10  to  the  1,000,  at  the  *"^een  country 
manufacturing   towns  of  "Wolverhampton  and  Walsall  it  is  less  mamufacturins 
than  five  to  the  1,000.     The  same  remark  applies  in  yet  stronger  towns. 
degree  to  Birmingham,  and,  I  believe,  to  the  Potteries.f     The 
explanation,  probably,  is  partly  that  in  manufacturing  places  the 
number    of  labourers  is  relatively  greater,   partly  that   in  the 
larger  towns  the  small  shopkeepers  make  more  use  of  schools 
under  the  Privy  Council.     In  all  the  places  mentioned,  except 
perhaps  Stratford,  the  grammar  school  is  as  full  as  it  conveniently 

*  The  Parliamentary  borough  of  Wolverhampton  includes  several  townships 
not  reckoned  here, 
t  See  Report  on  Birmingham,  page  110,  and  below,  page  166. 


166 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


Many  persons 
virtually  out  of 
reacli  of  gram- 
mar schools. 
In  the  pottery 
towns. 


In  the  "  Black 
Country." 


This  sometimes 
due  to  pa- 
rochial limita- 
tions, as  at 
Walsall. 


could  be,  though  on  the  other  hand  I  do  not  know  that  in  any 
of  them  many  are  kept  out  for  want  of  room.  The  figures  in 
other  towns  having  grammar  schools  would,  to  the  best  of  my 
belief,  correspond  on  the  whole  to  those  given. 

(6.)  There  is  a  large  middle  population,  however,  in  the  two  coun- 
ties, rich  as  they  are  in  grammar  schools,  which  is  practically  out  of 
their  reach.  The  most  obvious  instance  of  this  is  in  the  iron  and 
pottery  district  of  North  Staffordshire.  In  the  parishes  of  Wolstan- 
ton,  Burslem,  and  Stoke-on-Trent  is  a  population —  practically  a 
town  population — of  moi-e  than  120,000  without  any  available 
grammar  school  within  reach.  That  at  Newcastle  is  as  full  as  its 
miserable  accommodation  will  allow  without  drawing  on  this  popu- 
lation, and  has  besides  no  attraction  to  offer  them  adequate  to  the 
fee  which  it  charges  for  out-town  boys.  The  iron  district  of  South 
Staffordshire  cannot  be  said  to  be  ill-supplied  with  grammar  schook 
Those  at  Birmingham,  Handsworth,  Walsall,  Wolverhampton,  and 
Dudley  possess  together  a  gross  annual  income  of  about  16,000/. 
and  no  place  in  the  "  Black  country "  is  more  than  four  miles 
from  one  or  other  of  them.  These  schools,  however,  together 
(including  the  elementary  schools  on  King  Edward's  foundation 
at  Birmingham)  are  not  educating  more  than  1,500  boys  out  of 
a  population  of  about  800,000.  If  the  smallness  of  this  number 
were  mainly  due  to  the  inaccessibility  of  grammar  schools,  it 
might  be  expected  to  be  compensated  by  a  large  attendance  at 
private  schools,  yet  I  feel  sure,  though  unable  to  give  exact 
statistics,  that  not  more  than  1,000  are  to  be  found  at  such 
schools  within  the  same  distance.  At  the  same  time,  an  enlarge- 
ment in  the  present  grammar  schools,  a  change  in  their  local 
restrictions,  and  an  establishment  of  some  new  ones  on  the  model 
of  the  Bridge  Trust  School  at  Handsworth  would  bring  many 
more  within  the  range  of  a  "  middle  "  education.  At  Walsall,  for 
instance,  the  freedom  of  education,  which  is  absolute,  is  confined 
to  sons  of  residents  in  the  parish.  Extra  parochial  boys  have  to 
pay  10/.  a  year,  a  higher  fee  than  is  charged  at  any  private 
school  in  the  district,  except  one  on  the  genteel  side  of  Wolver- 
hampton, which  charges  the  same,  and  has  only  25  day  boys.* 
The  result  of  this  system  is  that  the  school  is  filled  with  free 
boys,  one-third  of  whom  might  as  well  be  at  a  national  or  British 
school,  while  the  sons  of  resjiectable  tradesmen  and  others,  living 
in  some  cases  almost  at  the  doors  of  the  school  are  virtually  ex- 
cluded.! I  say  "  excluded,"  for — setting  aside  the  question  of 
room — the  commercial  parent  of  the  district  In  question  will  always 
think  it  a  better  bargain  to  send  his  son  to  a  boarding-school  at 
30Z.  a  year  than  to  a  day  grammar  school  at  10/.  If  the  privilege 
of  the  parish  were  abolished  and  a  fee  of  4/.  a  year  charged  on  all 
day    boys    without    distinction,  or  with  exemption  in  "favour  of 

*  With  this  exception,  and  that  of  another  school  at  Wolverhampton,  which 
charges  11.  a  year,  the  fee  for  day-boys  at  all  the  private  schools  in  the  districts 
that  I  am  acquainted  with,  is  4Z.  to  6/.  according  to  the  subjects  taught. 

t  In  the  same  street  as  the  grammar  school,  a  few  yards  higher  up,  ai'e 
several  ron's  of  respectable  middle-class  houses,  which  are  in  RushaU  parish. 


Mr.  Green  R  He-port.  107 

merit,  on  the  plan  oF  the  Bridge  Trust  School  at  Handsworth, 
boys  would  come  to  it,  as  they  do  to  that,  from  a  distance  of  three 
miles,  and  it  would  thus  become  available  for  Wednesbury  and 
Darlaston,  which  are  within  that  distance,  and  have  a  population 
of  more  than  30,000. 

Supposing  this  change  to  be  made,  I  do  not  see  that  distance 
could  be  urged  by  any  parent  in  the  "  Black  country  "  as  a  reason 
for  not  sending  his  son  to  a  grammar  school.  The  Wolverhampton 
school  is  already  open  at  a  small  fee  and  under  certain  conditions, 
and  a  certain  number  of  boys,  10  or  12,  do  come  to  it  from  Wil- 
lenhall  and  Sedgely — places  distant  three  miles  each.  It  must  be 
remembered,  however,  that  distances  are  longer  to  the  imagination 
of  residents  in  a  town  than  to  that  of  residents  in  a  village.  A  Distance -which 
farmer,  if  he  likes  a  school,  thinks  nothing  of  sending  his  son  six  miles  ahoy  can  be 
to  it  every  day,  and  for  a  school  in  a  country  town,  supplying  pro-  come. 
per  conveniences  for  dinner,  four  miles  may  certainly  be  taken  as 
the  radius  of  its  availability  for  day  boys.  But  it  is  different  with 
a  population  like  that  of  the  "  Black  country  "accustomed  to  have 
all  the  necessities  of  life  brought  to  its  doors.  Those  few  parents 
who  value  an  education  above  that  which  is  necessary  for  busi- 
ness will  send  their  sons  some  miles  to  seek  it,  but  if  the  grammar 
school  wants  to  get  hold  of  the  average  mass  of  commercial  boys 
in  such  a  class  it  must  go  to  seek  them.  Of  the  best  way  of 
doing  this  I  shall  speak  afterwards. 

Another  set  of  boys,  which  may  be  taken  as  to  a  large  extent  How  far  sons 
lost  to  the  grammar  schools  by  difficulty  of  access,  are  the  sons  of  "f  farmers  are 
farmers.     It  is  true  that  farmers  are  in  a  special  way  estranged 
from  the  grammar  school  by  influences  referred  to  before.     On 
the  one  hand  its  system  is  peculiarly  objectionable  to  parents  who 
make  a  practice  of  keeping  their  sons  at  home  and  in  ignorance 
till  they  are  12  or  13,  and  then  want  them  to  learn  to  write  and 
keep  accounts  with  the  least  amount  of  trouble  and  discipline;  on 
the  other,  the  fascinations  of  the  private  schoolmaster  seem  to  take 
a  special  hold  on  the  mind  of  the  farmer.     There  is  a  considerable 
population  of  this  class,  however,  in  the  two  counties  out  of  the 
reach  of  grammar  schools  used  as  such,  even  if  it  desired  to  use  them. 
This  is  the  ease  with  the  whole  district  of  Staffordshire  lying  north  All  in  Northern 
of  a  line  drawn  from  Market  Drayton  to  TJttoxeter.     The  number  P*''*  "f  S*ai'- 
of  farmers  in  this  district,  so  far  as  it  can  be  collected  from  the  census-  reach. ^'^^  °" 
returns  (here  only  partially  available,  in  most  other  cases  utterly 
unavailable  for  my  purposes),  is  2,260.     The  great  mass  of  these, 
however,  are  very  small  holders,  after  the  custom  of  that  region,  for 
whose  sons  the  national  or  British  school  is  perfectly  available.     In 
the  district  of  Staffordshire  south  of  the  above  mentioned  line,  the 
cases  of  farmers  living  more  than  six  miles  from  a  grammar  school 
must  be  quite  exceptional.   In  Warwickshire,  on  the  other  hand,  the  In  parts  of 
census-districts  of  Alcester,  Southam,  and  Kugby  *  must  be  wholly  Warwickshire, 
outside  this  distance,  and  those  of  Solihull,  Stratford,  and  Warwick 

*  Some  villages  in  the  Rugby  district  are  in  Northamptonshire,  but  these 
are  at  least  balanced  by  those  in  the  Shipston  district,  which  are  in  Warwick- 
shire and  which  I  have  not  reckoned. 


168 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


these  cases. 


partly  so.  Taking  the  whole  number  in  the  three  former,  and  half 
the  number  in  the  three  latter,  districts,  returned  as  farmers  above 
the  age  of  20,  we  have  a  total  of  1,567.  These  are  mostly  con- 
siderable holders  (the  average  holding  in  the  Southam  district 
seems  to  be  a  little  over  200  acres),  they  must  be  generally  heads 
of  families,  brothers,  sons  and  grandsons  being  returned  separately, 
and  how  they  get  their  sons  educated  I  am  at  a  loss  to  say.  There 
are  only  12  boarding-schools  mentioned  in  the  Directory  (which 
I  have  generally  found  accurate)  within  the  district,  and  farmers 
do  not  often  use  schools  far  from  home.  From  five  of  these  I  ob- 
tained some  information,  and  taking  them  as  average  specimens, 
the  12  will  not  account  for  the  education  of  more  than  200  sons  of 
farmers  at  the  outside.  I  do  not  know  whether  there  are  any 
statistics  of  authority  on  the  point,  but  I  should  suppose  that  to 
1,500  good-sized  farms  there  would  be  at  least  500  boys  of  an  age 
What  hecomes  to  be  at  school.*  The  300,  who  according  to  this  calculation  ought 
of  the  hoys  in  to  be  at  some  school  and  are  not  at  the  private  schools,  cannot  be 
accounted  for  by  the  supposition  that  they  are  at  national  or 
British  schools,  for  the  farmers  in  this  district  seem  generally  un- 
willing to  use  these.  The  explanation  I  believe  to  be  that  the 
sons  of  farmers  commonly  get  extremely  irregular  schooling. 
They  are  kept  at  home  under  the  nominal  tuition  of  an  elder 
sister,  or  of  a  governess  paid  15?.  a  year,  till  they  are  13  or  14. 
Then  they  are  sent  to  a  boarding-school  for  a  year  or  two,  but  as 
they  generally  stay  at  home  during  the  "  short  quarter,"  and  are 
irregular  at  other  times,  they  do  not  really  get  more  than  a  years 
instruction.  That  this  is  the  general  practice  is  the  uniform  state- 
ment of  schoolmasters  whose  connexion  lies  with  the  farming  class, 
and  is  a  natural  inference  from  what  I  have  seen  of  sons  of  farmers 
at  the  schools  that  I  have  visited.  It  was  always  a  safe  guess  that 
any  unusually  big  and  backward  boy  in  a  private  school  was  the 
son  of  a  farmer,  and  an  inquiry  as  to  the  cause  of  his  backward- 
ness was  always  met  by  the  explanation  that  he  had  not  been  in 
the  school  long  and  had  been  away  half  his  time.  At  Baneton  a 
"  middle  school,''  on  a  small  scale,  but  very  promising,  has  lately 
been  established  for  the  special  benefit  of  the  farming  class  under 
the  auspices  of  Lady  Willoughby  de  Broke.  The  master,  who 
had  only  been  there  about  a  year  at  the  time  of  my  visit,  had  got 
together  a  good  many  boys,  sons  of  farmers,  of  about  the  age  of 
12,  and  with  these  he  told  me  he  had  to  begin  de  novo  in  the  very 
elements  of  education. 

The  practical  disuse  of  grammar  schools  by  farmers  extends  far 
beyond  the  regions  where  they  may  be  considered  inaccessible. 
Farmers  are  great  supporters  of  private  schools  in  country  towns, 
and  I  do  not  recall  a  single  grammar  school,  used  as  such,  in 
which  a  farmer's  son  was  other  than  rather  an  exceptional  pheno- 
menon. How  far  this  material,  unworked  at  present  by  the 
grammar  schools,  can  be  worked  by  them  to  advantage,  will  he 
considered  afterwards.  At  the  best  a  very  scanty  fruit  in  the  way 
of  "  liberal  education"  can  be  expected  from  it  for  some  generations. 

*  It  appears  from  the  census-returns  that  there  is  generally  one  boy  over 
9  and  under  16  years  of  age  to  every  three  houses. 


Farmers  great 
patrons  of 
private  scliools, 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  169 

Enough  having  been  said  of   the  reasons  why   the   grammar -why  the  gram- 
schools  fail  to  attract  more  boys,  it  remains  to  inquire  (6)  the  mar  schools 
reasons  why  they  do  not  make  more  of  those  they  get.  ''°"'*  ™^" 

(1).  In  the  fore-front  of  these  is  to  be  put  the  fact,  already  the  hoys  they 
mentioned,  that  they  have  to  a  great  extent  lost  their  hold  on  the  get. 
professional  class.  The  difference  between  the  educational  standard 
of  the  professional  class  generally  and  the  commercial  class  generally 
forces  itself  strongly  on  any  one  conversant  with  provincial  life.  The 
explanation  of  it  is  to  be  found  in  the  simple  fact  that  while  the  edu-  Uneducated 
cation  of  the  commercial  man  has  stopped  at  the  age  of  15,  that  of  parentage, 
the  professional  men — setting  aside  the  lower  stratum  of  attorneys 
and  apothecaries — was  continued  from  three  to  eight  years  longer. 
The  difference  in  amount  of  education,  which  this  implies,  between 
the  parents  of  the  two  classes,  must  be  conceived  of  as  increasing  in 
geometrical  ratio  if  we  are  to  appreciate  the  difference  of  educational 
impulse  which  they  severally  apply  to  their  children  In  the  one 
case  there  are  no  books  (except  a  few  with  gilt  leaves,  only  moved  to 
be  dusted,)  no  intellectual  traditions,  small  opportunities  of  study  at 
home.  The  father,  probably,  spends  the  evening  with  his  friends  at 
some  place  of  social  resort ;  the  mother  is  tired  with  household  cares, 
and  if  she  had  the  will,  has  not  often  sufficient  elementary  know- 
ledge to  overlook  even  the  studies  of  a  small  boy.*  The  entire 
education  of  the  son,  therefore,  has  to  be  done  in  school.  He  goes 
there  unable  to  read  or  speak  correctly ;  as  he  grows  older,  he  reads 
nothing  for  himself  to  quicken  the  unconscious  perception  of  ana- 
logies on  which  good  scholarship  depends ;  uor  does  any  gentle 
pedagogue  at  home  supply  the  absence  of  the  schoolmaster  in  the 
evening.  There  is  nothing  future  to  stimulate  his  intellectual 
ambition.  The  possibility  of  an  education  at  the  University  never 
entered  the  horizon  of  the  family  imagination,  nor  has  he  ever 
heard  any  one  commended  for  knowledge  or  literary  ability.  The 
son  of  a  professional  man,  on  the  other  hand,  learns  his  own 
language,  it  is  to  be  hoped,  in  the  nursery.  He  is  early  accus- 
tomed to  the  sight  and  use  of  books.  There  are  those  about  him  at 
home  who,  if  they  like,  can  see  that  he  does  at  home  what  his 
master  sets  him,  and  as  he  grows  older,  familiar  example  may 
accustom  him  to  the  notion  of  knowledge  as  a  source  of  utility 
and  estimation. 

Such  general  statements  as  the  above  must  be  taken  with  due  Evidence  of 
abatement  for  individual  exceptions.  They  wbuld  be  accepted  *^^.^^  effects 
by  masters  of  grammar  schools  with  a  readiness  which,  as  these 
gentlemen  are  generally  dissatisfied  with  their  position,  may  be 
thought  somewhat  deceptive.  They  are  confirmed,  howeveir,  by 
my  own  observation  of  the  general  inferiority  of  the  work  done  by 
the  day-boys  of  grammar  schools  at  homef  to  that  done  under  the 
master's  eye;  by  the  increasing  difficulty  of  getting  lessons  learnt  at 

*  As  to  the  bearing  of  this  state  of  things  on  the  qtlestion  between  day 
schools  and  boarding  schools,  see  below,  page  196. 

t  As  a  case  in  which  this  evil  has  been  to  a,  great  extent  remedied  through 
the  pressure  of  the  head-master,  t  may  instance  the  grammar  school  at  Wolver- 
hampton. 


170 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


Where  there 
are  no  fees, 
school  filled 
with  hoys,  who 
learn  nothing 
and  prevent 
others  from 
learning. 


Instances  of 
Walsall  and 
Coventry. 


home  as  the  subjects  become  higher  and  more  remote  from  simple 
writing  or  arithmetic ;  by  the  fact  that  the  use  of  an  expression  or 
illustration  which  would  be  familiar  to  boys  bred  among  books  or 
educated  people,  is  often  received  by  a  grammar  school  class  with  a 
stare ;  by  the  common  inability  of  the  upper  boys  in  these  schools 
to  write  simple  English  correctly ;  and  by  my  general  experience 
(to  which  there  are  some  noticeable  exceptions)  that  the  only  boys 
in  them  who  have  attained  the  elements  of  scholarship  are  the  few 
of  professional  parentage.  They  agree  also  with  the  remark, 
frequently  made  by  the  masters  of  private  schools,  that  as  a  rule 
the  only  parents,  who  desire  much  beyond  the  commercial  routine 
of  education  for  their  sons,  are  either  professional  men,  or  those 
who  through  family  relationship  or  otherwise  have  been  brought 
into  connexion  with  such  men. 

(2.)  Over  and  above  the  general  want  of  a  stimulating  intel- 
lectual atmosphere,  the  effects  of  parentage  appear  specifically  in 
the  elementary  ignorance  of  the  lower  classes  in  a  grammar 
school.  This  arises  partly  from  the  received  view  of  the  grammar 
school  as  a  charitable  institution  which  is  to  remove  the- burden  of 
education  wholly  from  the  shoulders  of  parents,  a  view  which  is 
generally  dominant  where  the  school  has  not  been  put  under  a 
new  scheme,  and  in  other  places  is  only  gradually  disappearing 
before  the  exaction  of  fees  and  of  a  minimum  of  preliminary 
knowledge  as  the  condition  of  entrance.  The  effect  of  free  ad- 
mission 1  always  found  to  be  so  to  lower  the  general  character 
of  the  school  as  to  deprive  promising  boys  of  the  humbler  class  of 
any  real  benefit  they  might  gain  by  entering  it.  It  leads  to  the 
invasion  of  the  school  by  a  "  mixed  multitude "  of  boys  too 
numerous  to  be  absorbed  in  a  higher  element  than  their  own,  who 
get  no  good  from  it  themselves  which  they  might  not  get  else- 
where, and  prevent  its  doing  good  to  others.  I  observed  that  at 
Coventry,  where  a  virtually  gratuitous  education  is  given  to  sons 
of  freemen,  while  others  pay  10/.  10«.  or  61.  6s.  a  year,  according 
as  they  do  or  do  not  learn  Greek,  among  the  nine  head  boys  only 
two  were  sons  of  freemen.  Of  the  rest,  six  were  paying  day-boys 
and  one  a  boarder.  The  sons  of  freemen,  I  was  told,  generally  left 
before  reaching  the  third  class  from  the  top,  in  order  to  avoid  the 
cost  (about  21.  10s.)  of  books  required  for  that  class.  Coventrj' 
school  is  in  fact  only  good  lor  any  thing  in  virtue  of  the  boys  in  it 
who  pay  fees.  Walsall  school  has  not  this  redeeming  element, 
and  with  a  large  endowment  and  most  efficient  master  can  only 
bring  on  an  average  about  two  boys  a  year  out  of  more  than  100  to 
the  level  of  the  third  class  in  the  University  local  examination  for 
juniors.  Though  it  lays  itself  out  specially  for  this  examination, 
the  cases  of  higher  success  are  very  rare.  Where  a  fee  is  charged 
things  are  rather  better,  but  even  here  the  endowment  is  applied, 
not  to  stimulate  or  reward  the  attainment  of  a  higher  kind  of 
knowledge  than  would  otherwise  be  attained,  but  (in  the  case  of 
nine  boys  out  of  10)  to  pay  a  man  300Z.  a  year  for  teaching  what 
might  as  well  be  taught  by  one  receiving  only  100?.  The  entrance 
examination  did  not  at  any  school  that  I  visited,  even  where  it 


Mr.  Green's  Report  171 

was  strictest,  preclude  the  necessity  of  teaching  the  simplest 
spelling  to  the  majority  of  boys  that  entered  it.  At  Handsworth 
free  admission  is  given  annually  to  a  few  boys  who  pass  the  best 
examination  among  the  scholars  of  the  national  and  British 
fichools.  A  similar  arrangement  exists  at  Burton.  With  these  In  other  cases 
exceptions,  I  think  it  may  be  said  that  nothing  is  done  by  the  ^^"'  °f  l'ig'> 
grammar  schools  of  the  two  counties  to  encourage  the  education  e"a^uation. 
of  boys  previously  to  their  admission  to  the  school.  The  result  is  jj^jj  ^^  ^j^j^^ 
that  these  schools  in  their  lower  classes  are  giving  an  education 
the  same  in  kind  as  that  given  in  the  national  schools,  but  under 
a  different  name,  and  (on  the  whole)  to  a  different  grade  of  boys, 
while  in  all  but  their  highest  classes  they  are  giving  the  same 
education  as  the  cheap  private  schools,  and  to  boys  in  the  same 
rank  of  life.  This  state  of  things  is  evil,  negatively  and  positively.  Preliminary 
Negatively,  because  the  grammar  schools,  if  they  would  raise  g^JJJ'u^at^d"*'' 
their  education  throughout  above  that  which  is  to  be  had  else- 
where, and  then  give  admission  to  it,  thus  elevated,  as  the  reward 
of  early  knowledge,  have  the  power  to  advance  the  elementary 
teaching  of  ordinary  boys  by  a  space  of  two  or  three  years,  and 
to  put  the  stamp  of  public  discredit  on  the  inability,  now  very 
common,  of  boys  born  in  competence  to  read  and  spell  at  the  age 
of  12 — a  power  which  by  their  present  system  they  throw  away. 
Positively,  because  not  only  do  the  mass  of  boys,  owing  to  the  Higher  educa- 
waste  of  some  years,  which  might  have  been  given  to  elementary  tion  retarded, 
learning  before  entry  to  the  grammar  school,  lose  all  chance  of 
availing  themselves  of  the  higher  education  which  the  grammar 
school  has  to  give,  but  the  few  of  more  promise  are  kept  back  by 
the  dead  weight  of  ignorance  in  the  lower  classes,  and  by  want  of 
competition  when  they  reach  the  upper.  It  was  my  general 
experience  to  find  in  the  lesser  grammar  schools  one  boy,  in  the 
larger  two  or  three,  so  far  superior  to  the  rest  as  either  to  have  to 
be  taught  separately,  thus  seriously  trenching  on  the  master's 
time,  or  to  be  distinctly  kept  back  by  classification  with  inferior 
boys.  These  inferior  boys,  however,  would  be  themselves  quite 
an  aristocracy  compared  with  those  in  the  region  below  the  two 
first  classes,  a  region  from  which  the  majority  never  emerge. 
Low  as  is  the  level  of  the  first  class  In  a  grammar  school,  it  is 
a  level  which  it  is  quite  the  exception  to  reach.  Generally,  where 
there  are  six  classes,  most  boys  will  leave  in  the  third  from  the 
top.  That  is,  such  is  the  loss  of  time  to  begin  with,  that  the 
average  boy,  when  he  reaches  the  age  at  which  he  is  fit  for 
business,  has  only  learnt  to  read,  write,  and  do  accounts,  with 
enough  Latin  to  make  him  think  it  a  nuisance.  Such  a  boy  can 
have  no  intellectual  interest  to  counterbalance  his  own  desire  to 
be  independent,  and  his  father's  to  have  him  off  his  hands.  He, 
therefore,  leaves  school.  If,  through  better  preliminary  training, 
he  had  had  enough  knowledge,  by  the  time  he  was  fit  for  business, 
to  care  at  all  for  increasing  it,  he  might  have  preferred  additional 
learning  to  making  money,  and  induced  his  father  to  do  the  same. 
The  effect  of  the  present  system  is  thus  to  minimize  the  number 
of  those  who  become  capable  of  "  liberal  education,"  and  when 

a.  c.  3.  O 


172 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


Want  of 
effective  re- 
ward to  higher 
boys, 


Universities 
generally  out 
of reach. 

Reasons  of 
this. 


Special  ob- 
stacles in  the 
way  of  a 
Dissenter. 


they  have  become  capable  of  it  so  to  lower  their  own  standard 
and  their  master's,  through  constant  commerce  with  dunces,  that 
they  pursue  it  under  a  disadvantage  unknown  in  the  higher  forms 
of  the  "  public  schools." 

(3i)  While  the  few  who  reach  the  ordinary  level  of  the  gram-? 
mar  school  are  thus  depressed  through  want  of  effective  emidation, 
there  is  little  to  reinvigorate  them  in  the  way  of  effective  reward. 
As  has  been  explained,  they  are  mostly  of  a  class  to  which  the 
Universities  are  quite  unknown  ground.     Their  parents  are  either 
unable  to  bear  the  expense  of  a  university  course,  or,  if  they  are 
prosperous  men  who  have  risen  from  the  ranks,  generally   un- 
willing.*    The  college  system,  maintained  at  Oxford  and  Camr 
bridge,  by  putting  a  certain  mystery  about  the  University  career^ 
and  raising  its  expense,  increases  the  difficulty.     The  father  of  the 
aspiring   grammar-school  boy  probably    does  not   know  how  to 
communicate  with  the  authorities  of  a  college.    Fees  and  caution- 
money  perplex  him.     He  is  ignorant  as  to  how  scholarships  and 
bible-clerkships  may  be  best  obtained.     It  is  possible  for  him,  of 
course,  to  leave  all  such  matters  in  the  hands  of  the  schoolmaster; 
but  an  arrangement  on  his  son's  behalf,  which  is  wholly  uniiH 
telliglble  to  him  personally,  he  is  sure  to  look  upon  with  a  less 
favourable  eye-     The  difficulty    of  expense,  however,  is    much 
greater.     Witbojit   a  college   scholarship,   or  (at  Cambridge)  a 
sizarship,  boys  of  the  kind  -  under  consideration  cannot  possibly 
compass  a  degree  at  the  old  universities.     A  scholarship  they  iave 
very  little  chance  of  obtaining.     At  Oxford,  certainly,  the  picked 
boy -from  the  provincial  grammar  school  would  have  a  much  better 
chance  relatively  of  being  placed  in  the  first  class  at  the  final  exami-r 
nation  than  of  gaining  a  scholarship,  his  capacity  for  obtaining  posi- 
tive knowledge  being  relatively  superior  to  his  skill  in  the  use  of 
words.      The   sizarships   at   Cambridge,   though  not  absolutely 
"  publici  juris,"  sometimes  afford  an  opening  of  a  kind  that  does 
not  exist  at  Oxford,  and  the   only  scholarships  that  have  been 
obtained  of  late  years  by  boys  from  the  schools  that  I  visitedi 
setting  aside  Warwick,  have  been  at  Cambridge.-     At  best,  how- 
ever, to  a  grammar-school  boy  of  15,  and  still  more  to  his  father, 
the  contingency  of  obtaining  access  to  the  University  in  this  way 
must  seem  very  remote.     If  the  boy  continues  at  school  on  the 
strength  of  it,'and  is  finally  cheated  of  his  hope,  the  old  universities 
are  virtually  closed  against  him,  and  he  has  lost  four  years  which 
might  have  given  him  a  good  footing  in  business.     Any  one  who 
inquires  into   the   personal   histories   connected  with   provincial 
grammar  schools  will  find  enough  instances  of  enterprises  upon 
Oxford  and  Cambridge  proving  a  bad  speculation  to  make  him 
cautious  in  advising  an  imitation  of  them.  ■ 

The  impediments  between  the  grammar  school  and  Oxford  and 
Cambridge,  great  in  any  case,  are  greater  to  a  Dissenter.  The 
restrictions  in  favour  of  Churchmen  on  scholarships,  fellowships, 

*  Men  of  the  latter  sort,  who  "aim  high"  educationally, will  probably 
either  not  use  the  grammar  school  &t  all,  or  early  transfer  their  sons  to' a  more 
select  school. 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  173 

and  degrees,  need  not  here  be  enlarged  upon.     A  special  restric- 
tion oa-  the    exhibitions  attached  to  Coventry  school   calls   for 
special  notice.     These  are  tenable  for  seven  years,  three  of  which 
are  to  be  spent  at  school  where  the  holder  receives  5Z.  a  year ;  four 
at  the  University,  where  he  receives  35?.  a  year.     A  candidate  for 
one  of  these,  while  he  has  still  three  years  to  spend  at  scho6l;  and 
is  thus  pfesumably  not  over  16,  has  to  declare  his  intention  of     , 
taking  Orders.     This  of  course  constitutes  an  absolute  exclusion  of 
Dissenters.     At  the  time  '  of  iny'  visit,  while  two  or  thtee  Bxhibi-' 
tions  were  waiting  to  be  filled  up,  the  most  promising  boy  in  the 
school — a  boy  for  whom  a  first  class  at  Oxford  might  modestly  he 
predicted — as  the  son  of  a  Baptist,  was  prevented  from  taking  one,  '  ' 

and  in  consequence  from  contemplating  a  university  career.  I 
found,  however,  in;his  case,  as  in  that  of  other  Dissenters,  that  the 
prosp'eet  of  a  difficulty  in  providihg  for  himself  at  Oxford  or 
Gambridge'  was  not  the  sole  reason  against  trying  to  get  there.' 
A  further  question  had  to  be  met.  What  is  residence  at  the 
University  to  lead  to  ?  In  the  case  of  a  Churchman,  the  question, 
though  formidable,  may  be  answeredti'  If- -lie  proposes  tb  take 
Orders,  a  gtiod  degree  may  improve  Ms  position  and  prospect  of 
preferment.  Short  of  this,  it  may  always  be  turned  to  account  in  a 
scholastic  career.  But  to  a  Dissenter  nearly  all  the  masterships  in: 
schools  are  closed  as  much  as  the  benefices,  and  unless  he  is  b'orll 
to  Wealth,  it  is  difficult  to  tell  him  of  any  adequate  return,  which 
a  successful  career  at  the  old  universities  can  bring,  as  compared 
with  the  outlay  which  they  exact.  This  is  the  more  important  t6 
notice,  as  the  better  boys  at  grammar  schools  are  often  Dissenters. 
The  ministers  of  Nonconformist  congregations  are  among  the 
few  educated  parents  who  habitually  usfe  them.* 

It  may  be  safely  assumed  that  the  only  rewards  which  can  be 
reckoned  on  as  incentives  to  a  pursuit   of  knowledge  beyond  the 
point  reached  at  the  age  of  16,  are  those  which  contribute   to 
future   success  in   life.     Failing   the   attractions    of  Oxfprd    and  Attractions  of 
Cambridge,  those  only  remain  which  are  offered  by  the  University  London  TJm- 
of  London  and  the  Civil  Service,  and   in  the  grammar   schools  ^^'^^'  ^' 
which  I   visited  I  heard  of  very  few  cases  in   which  these  were  ^^y  ^"'*''- 
in  operation.     At  the  Stafibrd  school  were  two  boys  preparing  ^ 

.for  matriculation  at  the  London  University.  I  do  not  recall  any 
who  were  doing  so  at  any  other  grammar  school  outside  of  Birming- 
ham, though  of  course  I  may  have  failed  to  notice  such  cases.  It 
may  safely  be  said,  however,  that  so  far  as  the  grammar  schools 
in  Staffordshire  and  "Warwickshire  are  concerned,  the  attractions 
of  the  University  of  London  are  doing  very  little  to  lead  boys 
to  stay  longer  at  school  or  reach  a  higher  education  than  they 
otherwise  would.  This  is  to  be  accounted  for  partly  by  the  fact 
that  the  grammar  schoolmasters  are  not  generally  familiar  with 
this  University  and  its  system,  and  hence  do  little  to  direct  the 
thoughts  of  parents  or  pupils  towards  it ;  partly  by  the  fact  that  it. 
is  not  the   recognized  channnel   to   any  profession,   except  the 

*  On  the  use  of  grammar  schools  by  Dissenters,  see  page  236. 

o  2 


1Y4 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


Attractions  of 
Civil  Service. 

Drawbacks. 


Day  boys 
generally 
meant  for 
business. 

Age  at  which 
these  leave. 


What  educa- 
tional reward 
for  these  ? 
Prizes  in  the 
school. 
Example  of 
private  schools. 


medical,*  and  that  it  has  no  emoluments  or  old-established  dis- 
tinctions to  offer,  like  those  of  Oxford  and  Cambridge,  as  a  set-oif 
to  the  loss  of  time  and  opportunities  involved  in  an  extension  of 
education  beyond  the  age  of  16.  I  found  a  few  cases,  where  an 
appointment  in  the  Civil  Service  was  being  looked  forward  to  as  a 
reward  for  protracted  education,  but  here  the  element  of  con- 
tingency, arising  from  the  requirement  of  a  nomination,  greatly 
detracts  from  the  effectiveness  of  the  stimulus,  and  confines  its 
operation  almost  entirely  to  boys  resident  in  represented  towns. 

On  the  whole,  with  a  few  exceptions — such  exceptions  as  to  be 
noticeable — the  day-boys  in  the  grammar  schools  that  I  saw 
were  destined  for  various  kinds  of  business,  on  which  it  is  the 
custom  to  enter  at  the  age  of  16  at  latest.  In  the  country  towns, 
as  might  be  expected,  the  age  for  leaving  the  grammar  school  is 
generally  rather  later  than  in  the  manufacturing  towns,  but  this 
is  'compensated  by  the  boys  in  the  former  being  more  backward 
to  begin  with.  At  Walsall  I  only  found  one  boy  in  the  school  over 
16  ;  at  "Wolverhampton  two.  At  the  latter  school,  however,  under 
the  influence  of  a  new  scheme  and  energetic  management,  it  seemed 
that  several  boys  were  likely  to  stay  on  to  the  age  mentioned,  or 
longer.  At  Coventry  were  four  who  had  turned  this  age,  two  of 
these  being  retained  as  holders  of  exhibitions.  At  Warwick  I  noted 
two  such,  one  being  retained  by  anticipation  of  an  exhibition;  at 
Stafford,  which  has  no  such  attraction,  also  three.  At  Brewood 
there  were  several,  but  Brewood  is  essentially  a  boarding-school. 
Elsewhere  a  day-boy  of  16  was  so  rarely  met  with,  as  at  once  to 
arrest  one's  attention.  Setting  aside  these  mentioned,  I  can  answer 
for  there  not  being  six  in  all  the  grammar  schools  together.  Those 
who  stay  the  longest,  with  the  exception  of  the  few  who  contemplate 
the  University,  are  those  who  intend  to  be  attorneys  or  chemists. 
The  early  removal  of  the  rest  from  school  is  due  partly  to  the 
objection  of  merchants  to  take  boys  over  15  as  clerks,  partly  to 
the  customary  period  of  apprenticeship  being  seven  years,  which 
parents  desire  to  be  over  by  the  time  the  son  is  of  age. 

In  this  state  of  things,  the  only  incentives  to  study  are  merely 
honorary,  and  as  such,  comparatively  feeble.  They  are  either 
provided  by  the  school  itself,  in  the  shape  of  prizes,  or  from 
without  by  the  '•'  local  examinations"  of  the  Universities  and  those 
of  the  Society  of  Arts.  In  respect  of  distribution  of  prizes,  the 
grammar  schools  might,  I  think,  with  advantage  take  a  hint  from 
the  private  schools.  The  latter,  being  under  a  strong  necessity 
of  advertisement,  generally  have  a  great  display  of  distribution  of 
prizes,  in  the  presence  of  parents  and  friends,  twice  a  year.  In 
many  cases  their  masters  have  confessed  to  me  that  they  had  to 
give  prizes  without  discrimination  for  fear  of  giving  offence  —a 
fact  which  should  be  borne  in  mind  in  considering  the  value  of 
educational  endowments.  With  that  stricter  justice,  however, 
which  their  independent  position  enables  them  to  maintain,  the 

*  I  am  avirare  that  many  dissenting  ministers  obtain  degrees  from  the 
University  of  London,  but  sons  of  Dissenters,  contemplating  ministerial  em- 
ployment, would  generally  be  removed  early  from  the  grammar  school  to  a 
special  institution  for  training  ministers. 


Mr.  Greeris  Report.  ]  "5 

masters  of  grammar  schools  might  well  take  similar  means  for 
giving  publicity  to  their  rewards.  In  some  cases  they  already  do 
so,  but  in  many  others  owing  to  that  backwardness,  which  is  partly 
natural  to  a  "  scholar  and  gentleman,"  partly  the  result  of  a 
guaranteed  income,  nothing  of  the  kind  is  attempted. 

The  stimulus  of  the  "  local  examinations  "  seemed  in  some  cases  Middle  class 
to  be  very  effective.     The  gramimar  schools  at  Brewood,  Wolver-  examinations ; 
hampton,  Walsall,  Stafford,  Solihull,  Coventry,  and  Burton  have  ^^^*4''fo°^' 
all  sent  in  boys,  more  or  fewer,  to  them  during  the  last  few  years,  these. 
Of  these,  Brewood,  "Walsall,  and  Stafford  send  in  regularly,  and 
lay  out  their  system  of  education  accordingly.     The  rest  have 
hitherto  only  used  them  exceptionally.     Coventry  having  exhibi- 
tions, in  its  upper   classes  adapts   its  instruction  rather  to  the 
Universities.    At  Burton  the  teaching  of  the  younger  boys  in  the 
upper  department  seemed  more  purely  classical  than  I  have  found 
it  where  the  local  examinations  are  specially  looked  to.     Wolver- 
hampton, under  a  new  master,  has  as  yet  hardly  got  its  system  set 
at  all,  but  is  laying  itself  out  rather  for  the  Universities.     The 
only  school  that  has  sent  in  largely  to  the  local  examination  for  "  Seniors " 
"  seniors"  is  Brewood.      In    the    Cambridge   examination  for 
"  seniors"   different    boys  from   Brewood  have   been  head  in 
"  English  subjects  "  for  four  successive  years.     The  whole  first 
class  of  eight  boys,  at  the  time  of  my  visit  was  doing  the  work 
prescribed  for  the  next  examination  for  seniors  at  Wolverhampton. 
At  Walsall  was  one  boy  reading  for  the  senior  examination,  and 
that  seemed  to  be  about  the  yearly  average.     From  Stafford,  on 
an  average,  about  two  seniors  have  passed  each  year.     From  Bur- 
ton only  two  seniors  altogether  have  passed ;  from  Coventry  one ; 
and  from  Wolverhampton  one. 

The  examination  for  juniors,  as  it  catches  boys  just  at  the  age  and"  Juniors.' 
when  the  best  are  likely  to  leave  the  ordinary  grammar  school,  is 
much  more  in  request,  and  I  found  that  at  all  the  schools  men- 
tioned above,  except  Wolverhampton  and  Coventry,  as  well  as  at 
some  others,  the  work  prescribed  for  it  was  the  subject  of  the 
regular  lessons  of  those  in  the  higher  classes  who  had  not  yet 
passed  it.  Altogether  at  least  25  boys  were  professedly  preparing 
for  it. 

At  ihe  schools  making  no  use  of  these  examinations,  I  heard  Objections  to 
three  reasons  assigned  for  such  abstention.  In  some  cases  distance  ^^^  °°™" 
from  the  local  centre  makes  it  impossible  for  boys  to  go  in,  unless 
their  parents  or  the  school  master  will  be  at  charges  to  take  a 
lodging  for  them.  In  others  the  better  boys  were  said  to  be  of 
such  a  class,  that  their  parents  would  rather  turn  up  their  noses 
at  a  "middle-class"  examination.  This  objection  seemed  only 
applicable  to  a  few  at  Sutton-Coldfield,  and  perhaps  Lichfield. 
Finally,  some  masters  objected  to  the  special  preparation  necessary 
for  success  in  these  examinations  as  "  cramming,"  and  held  it  to 
be  inconsistent  with  the  best  general  arrangement  of  the  studies  of 
a  grammar  school.  The  last  objection  is  the  only  one  that  re- 
quires consideration,  and  raises  the  general  question  of  the  effect 
on  the  schools  of  the  new  local  action  of  the  Universities. 


176 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


Their  effect  on 
schools. 


Pressure  on 
promising  boy. 


Good  for  them 
and  not  bad  for 

the  rest. 


Advantage  of  i 
sending  in 
entire  classes. 


Objections  to 
the  kind  of 
work  which 
these  exami- 
nations exact. 


failure  in,. the  "local  examinatioiis "  attaches  a  considerable 
stigma  to  a  grammar  school.  The  private  schoolmasters  "  watch 
for.  its-  halting,"  and,  though  its  complete  abstention  may  be 
credited  as  appropriate, to  its  classical  superiority,  the  "plucking" 
of  its  pupils  at  once  raises  an  outcry.  In  order,  however,  to  secur? 
success  it  is  necessary,  say  the  objecting,  inasters,  to  give  an  undue 
share  of  attention  to  the  boys  who  are  to  be  sent  in,  and  to  certain 
books  and  subjiects  as  distinct  from  general  education.  As  tQtthe  first 
ground  it;  is  clear  that  the  mere  forcing  of  the  few  boys  at  the  topiof 
a  school  cannot  win  for  the  school  that  sustained  success  in  liieae 
examinations  which  is  necessary  to  its  permanent  reputation.  ^  But 
that  provision  for  a  series  of  "local  Jionours."  implies  a  systematic 
pressure  on  the;  promising  boysitlnroughout  a  school;  to  the  exchii' 
sion  of  their  more  stupid  fellows,  is,  liiMnk,  true.  I  constantly 
found  the.  classes  under  the  ;head-master:.at  a  grammar  school 
i'eading  a  book  obviously  too  hard  for  the  majority  of  boys  in  it, 
because  it  was  prescribed  for  the  next  local  examinaiaoni,  for  whicH 
only  one  or  two  were  going  in.  So  in  the  lower  classes  Euclid 
and , "  English  analysis  "  were  sometimes  being  prematurely  at- 
tempted by  the  majority  in  order  to  get  the  fevr,  who  were  likely 
sometime  to  be  qualified  for. the  local  exajminatioivearly  into  train- 
ing. Compendia  of  English  history,  also,  will  be  got  up  for  the' 
same  purpose  by  boys  for  whom  stories  about  Alfred  and  thei  Cakes, 
or  Charles  in  the  Oak,  would  be  more  suitable.  .The  good  or  evil 
of  such  a  system  must  be.matter  of  opinion,  but  I  may  venture  ^to 
express  the  strong  conviction  that  so  long  as  the  average  :boys  are 
taught  the  necessary  elements,  the  more  the  clever  ones  are  forced; 
the  better.  The  latter  gain  by  it,  and  those  who  are  incapable  of 
gain  cannot  be  said  to  lose.  .    ,     . 

The  objection  in  question,  however,  is  more  satisfactorily  met 
at  schools,  which  have  attained  a  certain  standard,  by  sending  in 
%vhole  classes  at  once  to  the  examinations.  This  is  done  at  Bre- 
wood,  where,  as  I  have  said,  the  whole  first  class  was  preparing  for 
the  senior,  and  the  second  for  the  junior  Cambridge  examination. 
A  similar  arrangement  is  made  at  Stafford,  and  at  one  of  the  chief 
private  schools  in  Staffordshire-^Mr.  Sydenham's  at.  Cannock.* 
So  far  as  I  could  see,  it  removed  the  possibility  of  the  ordinary 
boys  being  victimized  for  the  sake  of  the  best,  while  it  provided  a 
more  effective  stimulus  for  the  latter.  .  > 

That  the  result  of  the  examinations  under  discussion  is  an 
undue  attention  to  certain  subjects,  and  to  the  fragments  of  Latin 
annually  selected  by  the  University,  is  a  more  true  and  serious 
objection.  It  seemed  that  the  construing  of  the  5th  .Jineid, 
which  was  being  got  up  last  autumn  for  the  Cambridge  examina- 
tion, was  literally  learnt  by  heart  by  the  boys  who  were  to  be  sent 
in.  If  they  were  put  on  to  translate  a  lesson  which  they  had  learnt 
for  the  first  time  they  could  make  nothing  of  it,  while  the  part 


*  This  scliool  is  to  all  intents  and  piirposes  a  private  one,  though  it  has  an 
endowment  of  10/.,  and  I  have  accordingly  throughout  left  it  out  of  account 
in  speaking  of  grammar  schools.  '  '■ 


Mr.  Greens  Report.  177 

w^hich  they  had  finally  got  up  they  had  at  their  tongue's  end.  In 
the  parsing  and  construing,  again,  of  the  given  portion  they  were 
often  very  exact,  while  unable  to  turn  the  simplest  English,  which 
they  had  not  seen  before,  into  Latin.  This  experience  enabled 
me  to  appreciate  the  observation  of  the  head-master  at  Wolver- 
hSinpton,  which  is  that  of  an  excellent  teacher  of  boys,  that  a  boy 
preparing  for  these  examinations  generally  went  back  rather  than 
Otherwise  in  Latin  during  the  time  6f  preparation,  as  compared 
with  those  who  pursued  their  ordinary  class- work.  In  regard  to  How  far  valid. 
other  than  classical  subjects  the  same  objection  has  some  validity. 
The  preparation  in  question  exacts  a  systematic  teaching  of 
English  grammar,  practice  in  English  "analysis  and  paraphrase," 
and  a  familiarity  with  the  outline  of  English  history.  It,  exacts 
this  bond  fide,  and  in  the  schools  that  had  successfully  pursued 
this  line  I  found  among  the  upper  boys  a  quickness  and  accuracy 
in  "  analysis,"  and  a  knowledge  of  the  leading  facts  of  English 
history,  which  were  certainly  not  to  be  found  in  schools  that 
held  aloof  from  it.  For  boys  of  half-educated  parentage,  and 
destined  for  the  shop  or  counting-house,  so  soon  as  the  examina- 
tion is  over,  the  system  is  probably  a  good  thing.  Without  it  an 
intelligent  interest  in  the  literature  and  history  of  their  own 
country  might  not  be  possible  for  them  in  after  life.  For  boys, 
on  the  other  hand,  born  among  any  kind  of  literary  habitudes,  or 
likely  to  continue  their  education  to  the  verge  of  manhood,  it  can 
hardly  be  beneficial.  For  them  the  simple  encouragement  of  a 
taste  for  reading  is  more  to  be  desired  than  much  paraphrase,  and 
a  familiarity  with  the  living  physiognomy  of  one  small  period  of 
history  than  an  acquaintance  with  the  skeleton  of  all. 
'  The  adoption,  therefore,  of  the  "  local  examination"  system  is  only 
satisfactory  on  the  supposition,  which  for  reasons  already  stated  I 
believe  to  be  necessary,  that  the  ordinary  grammar  school  must 
lay  itself  out  for  the  former  class  of  boys  rather  than  the  latter. 
This  is  a  supposition,  however,  which  the  master  of  a  grammar 
school  is  slow  to  admit,  and  the  mode  of  teaching  that  foUows 
from  it,  according  to  the  system  of  the  "  niiddle-class  examina- 
tions," is  one  likely  to  be  specially  irksome  to  a  highly  educated 
man.*  The  practical  problem  remains  how  the  system  can  be 
made  to  consist  with  general  cultivation,  and  with  a  preparation 
for  a  possible  university  career  of  the  best  talent  that  it  elicits. 

With  a  preparation  of  young  boys  for  the  "public  schools,"  J^i'eparatiou for 
such  as  Eugby  and  Winchester,  it  seems  all  but  absolutely  incom-  'ati™le°°°ft" 
patible.     Till  the  local  examinations  acquire  more  social  ■prestige,  preparation  for 
parents  who  have  the  public  schools  in  view  will  probably  not  public  schools. 
mtich  like  their  sons  to  go  in  for  them.     The  sons  themselves,  if 
they  go  in,  must  either  be  drilled  in  English  subjects  to  an  extent 
not  supposed  by  the  entrance  examinations  at  the  schools  men- 
tioned, or  run  a  risk  of  being  "  plucked  in  the  preliminary,"  and 

*  It  was  a,  feeling  of  the  above  objections,  I  believe,  which  led  the  master  of 
the  proprietary  school  at  Edgbaston,  after  a  period  of  remarkable  success  in  the 
local  examinations,  to  hold  aloof  from,  them  altogether  for  some  years,  Bovs 
from  this  school,  however,  are  now  again  sent  in  for  them. 


178 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


How  far  com- 
patible with. 
preparation 
for  Universi- 
ties. 

Instance  from 
Brewood. 


How  far 
exceptional. 


in  Latin  and  Gteek  must  be  taught  in  a  way  not  the  best  calcu- 
lated to  make  them  fine  scholars.  If,  on  the  other  hand,  they  are 
treated  as  exceptions,  they  spoil  the  system  of  the  school  and  get 
less  regular  teaching  themselves.  The  public  schools,  of  course, 
have  it  in  their  power,  by  modifying  their  present  system,  to 
remove  this  difficulty,  and  would  thereby  do  much  to  obliterate 
the  social  demarcations  which  at  present  are  growing  stronger  in 
education  ;  but  this  is  hardly  to  be  expected  of  them.  I  heard  of 
one  boy  from  Brewood  who  had  gone  on  to  Harrow  and  been  well 
placed  there,  but  this  was  a  solitary  exception.  The  third  class 
,it  Burton,  in  which  were  some  boys,  chiefly  the  master's  song, 
preparing  for  Winchester,  did  not  seem  to  be  pursuing  the  line  of 
study  best  fitted  to  qualify  the  ordinary  middle-class  boy  for  the 
local  examinations,  though  no  doubt  the  candidates  for  Winchester, 
if  they  were  diverted  from  their  Latin  and  Greek  for  a  few 
months  to  English  grammar  and  history,  might  do  very  well  in 
them. 

Of  the  possible  combination  of  a  system  specially  adapted  to 
the  local  examinations  with  eflfective  preparation  for  theUniversities, 
Brewood  school  is  the  best  illustration  that  I  have  met  with.  It 
has  achieved  great  success  in  these  examinations,  and  its  numbers 
have  risen  in  about  six  years  from  almost  nothing  to  nearly  100, 
of  whom  two-thirds  are  boarders.  It  sends  about  12  juniors  on 
an  average,  and  two  or  three  seniors,  every  year  to  the  Cambridge 
examination  at  Wolverhampton.  At  the  same  time  it  has,  during 
the  last  few  years,  sent  several  boys  to  Cambridge,  who  have  done 
very  well.  A  year  previous  to  my  visit  three,  I  think,  had  gone 
there,  who  had  passed  the  local  examination  for  seniors  (in  the 
first  class)  nearly  three  years  before.  Two  of  these  had  got  open 
scholarships  at  St.  John's  College.  When  I  was  there,  a  younger 
generation  had  filled  the  upper  classes.  Several  of  them,  however,i,iit 
seemed  likely  to  go  on  to  the  University,  and  all  (with  a  few  special 
exceptions)  had  been  or  would  be  sent  in  for  the  local  examina- 
tions. It  must  be  observed  that  the  successes  which  Brewood  boys- 
have  obtained  at  the  University  have  been  mathematical,  and  the 
school  was  clearly  stronger  relatively  in  mathematics  than  in 
classics.  Greek  is  not  begun  till  nearly  three-quarters  of  the  way 
up  the  school,  and  after  that  there  are  exemptions  from  its  study.. 
In  the  second  class  from  the  top  there  were  several  young  boys, 
who  had  evidently  been  well  taught  in  classics  and  were  beyond 
the  ordinary  grammar  school  leveh  Still,  though  there  were  several 
boys  in  the  school  who  promised  well  for  gaining  scholar- 
ships in  time  by  mathematical  knowledge,  there  were  none  for 
whom  I  should  much  anticipate  them  on  the  strength  of  their 
Latin  and  Greek.  It  is  to  be  remembered,  moreover,  that  Bre- 
wood from  the  position  it  has  obtained,  is  able  to  attract  boys  of  a 
higher  class  socially,  and  who  have  presumably  more  home-cultiva- 
tion, than  those  who  frequent  the  ordinary  grammar  school.  Its 
boarders  pay  50/.  a  year,  and  though  there  is  no  sort  of  exclusive-  ; 
ness  in  its  management,  many  of  the  day-boys  being  sons  of  the 
farmers  of  the  neighbourhood,  its  upper  classes  are  clearly  not  in 


Mr,  Greens  ReporL  179 

the  same  need  of  preliminarjr  civilization  as  most  who  are  sent  in 
to  the  examination  for  juniors.  This  circumstance,  and  the  skilful 
teaching  of  the  head-master,  render  it  possible  to  compress  the 
subjects  other  than  classics  and  mathematics,  which  the  local 
examiners  require,  within  very  small  compass.  Though  its  success, 
as  already  mentioned,  has  been  eminent  in  "  English  "  subjects,  only 
1^  hour  a  week  is  given  by  the  first  class  to  history  and  geography 
together,  and  no  special  lessons  are  given  in  English  grammar  on 
literature  till  a  month  or  two  before  the  examination  begins. 
Scantiness  of  time  for  these  subjects  is  more  than  compensated 
by  general  intelligence,  frequent  practice  in  English  writing,  and 
effective  teaching.  On  the  whole  my  conclusion  is  that,  with 
good  material  and  teaching,  a  grammar  school  that  lays  itself  out 
for  the  local  examinations,  if  it  can  get  its  best  boys  to  stay  on 
for  the  examination  for  seniors,  may  again  give  the  best  of  these  More  compati- 
a  good  training  for  scholarships  at  Cambridge.  Such  boys,  how-  rati^'for  ^^* 
ever,  will  at  present  have  a  worse  chance  of  scholarships  at  Cambridge 
Oxford.  The  examination  for  these,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  *™  ^^ 
given  for  special  excellence  in  mathematics,  is  mainly  suited  to 
the  coui'se  of  instruction  pursued  at  the  great  classical  schools, 
and  though  a  young  man  of  the  kind  in  question  might  very  likely 
get  a  final  first  class  at  Oxford,  if  once  he  were  there,  yet  the 
want  of  a  scholarship  bars  his  way.  On  the  question  whether  How  far 
preparation  for  the  local  examination  constitutes  a  good  general  compatible 
training  it  is  only  necessary  to  remark  that  all  education  must  be  ^'itivation. 
relative  to  the  time  at  which  it  is  likely  to  stop.  The  process 
which  a  boy  has  to  go  through,  in  order  to  get  ready  for  the 
"  junior  "  examination,  can  scarcely  be  a  desirable  one  if  his  educa- 
tion is  to  be  contiued  beyond  it.  It  implies  the  learning  of  too 
many  things  at  once,  and  the  virtual  learning-by-heart  of  transla- 
tions from  Latin  books  instead  of  a  gradual  acquaintance  with  the 
Latin  tongue.  The  same  remark  applies  with  some  modification 
to  the  examination  of  "seniors."  But  it  does  not  at  all  follow  that 
either  examination  may  not  be  the  best  for  the  majority  of  those 
who  go  in  for  it,  with  whom  it  is  the  final  goal  of  regular  educa- 
tion. 

To  return  to  the  question  of  the  value  of  the  local  examinations  Value  to  be 
in  the  way  of  reward,  it  will  be  seen  from  what  has  been  said  attached  to 
that  they  have  on  the  whole   little  value   as  leading  to  anything  ^^^^^  exami- 
further.     It  is  only  in  exceptional  cases  that   even   the   examina-  nations  as  a 
tion  for  seniors  can  serve  in  any  way  as  a  stepping-stone  to  the  r^'^ard. 
University,  and  again  it  is  only  exceptionally  that  boys  can  be  got 
to  stay  long  enough  at  a  grammar  school  to  go  in  for  this.     Nor  in 
nine  cases  out  of  ten  can  success  in  these  examinations   be  in  any 
sense  a  source  to  success  in  life.     Of  the   estimation  attached  to 
them  by  the  public  I  heard  diiferent  accounts.      At   Coventry  I 
was  told  that  parents  would  only  allow  their  sons  to  go  in  for  them 
as  a  favour  to  the  master  of  the  grammar  school,  while  at  Wolver- 
liampton  (which  is  a  Cambridge  local  centre)  the  master  of  the 
school  told  me  that  though  he  personally  objected  to  preparing 
boys  for  them,  he  yet  intended  to  do  so  because  they  formed  the 
one  test  by  which  the  local  public  measured  the  school.      The 


180  Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 

truth  I  believe  to  be  that  though -parents  of  the  middle-class  in 
general  are  beginning  to  look  to  them  as  a  test  of  the  goodness  of 
schools,  they  yet  have  no  particular  ambition  as  individuals  for 
I  their  sons  to  succeed  in  them,  because  such  success  does  not  as  a 
rule  provide  any  better  openings  in  business.     Thus  they  afford 
a  powerful  stimulus  to  the  schoolmaster,  where  his  positioais  such 
(which  it  is  not  always)  as  to  render  him  sensitive  to  parental 
opinion,  but  on  the  boys  they  act  mainly   through   him.'     His 
ambition  to  some  extent  communicates  itself  to  them,  and  a  public 
distribution  of  prizes  for  success  in  the  examinations  by  a  local 
magnate  adds  some  further  incentive,  especially  to  those  who  live 
in  and  about  the  town  where  the  distribution  takes  place.     Of  this 
I  had  good  evidence,  particularly  at  Brewood,  and  at  Mr,  Syden- 
ham's school  at  Cannock,     The  best  testimony  to  the  efifect  of  the 
system  is  to  be  found  in  what  I  heard  from  all  the  schoolmasters 
■who',  had  largely  availed  themselves  of  it,  viz.,  that  it -has  already 
lengthened  the  time  which  the  better  boys  give  to  education  by 
at  least  a  year.     Those  who  would  otherwise  have  been  removed 
from  school  at  the  age  of  14  are  allowed  to  stay  there  till  15,  in 
order  to  go  in  for  the  examination  for  *'  juniors,"  and  those  again 
who  have  distinguished  themselves  in  this  are  often  tempted  to  give 
still  another  year  to  preparation  for  that  for  "  seniors." 

The  examinations  by  the  Society  of  Arts  and  those  instituted 
by  the  Government  Department  of  Science  and  Art  are  not, 
according  to  my  experience,  much  used  by  grammar  schools.  The 
chemical  examination  of  the  latter  is  resorted  to  by  boys  from 
Walsall,  and  at  Kinver  also  I  found  some  youths,  late  pupils  of  the 
grammar  school,  who  had  gone  in  for  the  former.  These  exami- 
nations do  not  carry  the  same  local  prestige  as  those  instituted  by 
the  Universities,  and  the  drawbacks  mentioned  to  the  effectiveness 
of  the  latter  apply  to  them  with  more  force. 
Defects  of  {'^•)  Having  explained  the  chief  difl&culties  on  the  side  of  the 

teaching  in  tlie  pupils,  as  they  presented  themselves  to  me,  which  interfere  with 
grammar  the  attainment  of  a  higher  standard,  I  come  now  to  those  which 

lie  rather  on  the  side  of  the  masters.  Among  these  I  must  be 
understood  to  presuppose  that  want  of  sustained  energy  on  the 
part  of  many  grammar  school  masters,  very  different  from  negli- 
gence, and  due  to  the  nature  of  their  position,  which  has  been 
previously  given  as  one  of  the  reasons  why  their  schools  are  not 
Distraction  of  more  full.  To  this  must  be  added  the  distraction  which  results 
the  masters.  from  teaching  a  great  variety  of  subjects  to  boys  of  the  most 
various  degrees  of  knowledge  and  capacity.  The  subjects  taii^t 
in  a  grammar  school,  which  seriously  attempts  the  classicsj  are  as 
numerous  as  those  taught  at  a  great  "  public  school,"  and  perhaps 
the  gradations  among  the  boys  are  not  much  less  so.*  For  dealing 
with  this  heterogenous  material  there  are  but  two  or  three  masters.' 
Among  these  there  can  be  no  satisfactory  division  of  labour. 
Either  one  man  must  teach  all  the  classics,  another  all  the  mathe- 
matics and  arithmetic,  and  a  third  all  the  English,  or  each  man 
must  take  the  entire  teaching  of  a  certain  number  of  boys  on  all 

■*At  Nuneaton  the  six  upper  boys  were  divided  into  four  classes ;  at  Warwick 
the  eight  upper  boys,  in  like  manner,  into  four  classes. 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  ISl 

subjects.  'If  the  former  plail  is  adopted,' the  classification  for  all  Modes  of 
subjects  must  be  the  same.  The  first  class  in  mathematics  for  classification, 
instance  must  coincide  with  the  first  class  in  classics :  otherwise 
the  mathematical  master,  having  his  second  class  while  the  classical 
master  hears  his  first,  will  want  some  of  the  boys  occupied  with 
the  latter.  The  result  is,  that  a  boy,  for  instance,  who  has  a 
specialty  for  arithmetic,  has  either  to  be  put  above  his  level  in 
classics,  or  below  his  level  In  arithmetic.  If  the  former  alternative 
is  adopted,  he  is  a  drag  on  the  others  in  classics ;  if  the  latter, 
(which- is  more  common  in  grammar  schools),  he  is  himself  kept 
back  in  arithmetic — a  result' very  unfortunate  to  the  repute- of 
the  school  with  commercial  parents. 

To  take  an  instance.     At  Warwick  are  two  masters,  one  of  Instance  of 
whom  takes  all  the  classics,  the  other  all  the  arithmetic  and  mathe-  °^®  ^""."V^ 
matics.     The  school  is  divided  into  two  main  groups  which  are 
taught  in  separate  rooms.     The  upper  one,  on  a  given  day,  will 
be  occupied  with  the  ckssieal  master  in  the  morning  and  the 
mathematical  in  the  afternoon,  the  lower  one  with  the  mathe^ 
matical  in  the  morning  and  the  classical  in  the  afternoon.     Ac- 
cording to  this  arrangement,  the  same  boy  must  be  in  the  same 
group  for  all  subjects,  and  the  mathematical  master  complained  to 
me  of  the  embarrassment  of  having  to  teach  a  boy  very  backward        , 
in  arithmetic,  along  with  the  first  group,  because  he  happened  to 
have  reached  its  level, in  classics.     The  only  way  in  which  this  evil 
could  be  avoided  would  be  by  the  whole  school  doing  arithmetic  at 
one  time,'  on  a  distinct  classification,  and  this  implies  that  both 
masters  should  take  part  in  teaching  it. 

This  way  out  of  the  difficulty  (which  applies  equally  to  all  sub-  Other  mode, 
jects,  though  the  competition  between  classics  and  arithmetic  is  Its  defect. 
most  important),  may  be  desirable  under  the  circumstances,  but  is 
very  unsatisfactory  in  itself  To  teach  three  classes  in  Latin  and 
Greek  alone  is  somewhat  distracting, — especially,  when  as  is  often 
the  case,  they  ought  properly  to  be  broken  into  four  or  five,  if 
circumstances  allowed.  To  teach  them  also  French,  arithmetic, 
and  history  breaks  a  master's  time  into  half-hours.  And  this  is 
what  actually  happens  in  most  grammar  schools.  The  conse- 
quence is  that  none  but  a  specially  gifted  master  can  apply  himself 
with  any  elasticity  to  any  of  the  lessons  that  he  has  to  give.  The 
masters  at  Rugby,  I  believe — at  any  rate  those  of  the  higher  forms 
^^get  up  their  lessons  beforehand.  It  would  be  generally  admitted 
that  a  man  could  not  be  an  effective  teacher  of  advanced  pupils 
who  did  not  do  this,  and  perhaps  to  make  a  lesson  really  effective 
to  young  or  backward  boys  may  be  no  less  a  work  of  art.  I  may 
be  doing  injustice,  but  I  doubt  whether  any  one  of  the  masters  of 
the  schools  that  I  visited  ever  prepares  a  lesson  beforehand,  nor  do 
I  see  how  he  should.  Supposing  this  state  of  things  to  be  com- 
patible with  the  most  effective  teaching  of  such  boys  as  form  the 
first  class  of  most  grammar  schools,  it  can  scarcely  be  so  with  that 
of  boys  preparing  for  the  University.  There  are  also  instances  of 
boys  who  stay  on  at. the  grammar  school  beyond  the  ordinary 
time  for  general  cultivation,  and  with  a  view  to  the  Civil  Service. 


182 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


Difficulty  of 
getting  good 
under-masters. 


Evil  of  having 
one  on  the 
foundation. 


Cases  Trhere 
the  income  is 
not  sufficient 
to  provide  a 
good  assistant 
of  any  kind. 


Under  a  better  system  tliere  might,  it  is  to  be  hoped,  he  more. 
What  is  specially  wanted  for  such  boys  is  such  spirited  discourse 
on  history,  literature,  and  science  as  may  create  a  real  interest  in 
these  matters — an  object  which  the  manuals  can  never  achieve— 
and  this  the  distracted  grammar  school  master,  who  has  perhaps 
never  himself  travelled  out  of  the  routine  of  elementary  classics 
and  mathematics,  is  in  most  cases  incapable  of  giving.  The  evil 
of  course  is  aggravated  when  the  master  is  partly  occupied  with 
work  outside  his  school,  or  has  lost  interest  in  his  vocation. 

(5).  I  have  already  expressed  an  opinion  that  graduates  from 
Oxford  and  Cambridge  are,  on  the  whole,  the  most  suitable  men 
to  act  as  head-masters'  of  grammar  schools.  Provided  that  the 
trustees  are  on  their  guard  against  men  of  this  class  who  are 
involuntarily  seeking  such  a  position  under  stress  of  circumstances, 
I  don't  think  they  would  gain  by  travelling  into  other  regions. 
The  question,  however,  is  a  different  one  as  regards  the  assistant- 
masters.  In  several  schools  provision  is  made  for  an  under-master, 
who  is  to  be  on  the  foundation,  and  is  as  virtually  irremoveable 
as  the  head-master  himself.  This  arrangement  is  generally  recog- 
nized as  bad.  It  not  only  leads  to  all  the  evils  of  divided  empire, 
but  establishes  an  officer  who  has  security  of  tenure  without  re- 
sponsibility— who,  like  the  head  master,  is  strong  in  the  strength  of 
an  endowment  which  can  be  taken  from  him  only  by  a  process  which 
no  one  will  undertake,  but  who  is  not  subject  to  the  same  restraints 
of  public  opinion.  Without  invidiously  particularizing,  I  ought  to 
say  that  I  have  met  with  several  cases  which  strongly  illustrate  the 
above  remark.  The  mischief,  I  think,  is  generally  greater,  where 
such  an  under-master  is  a  graduate,  for  in  that  case  he  is  apt  to 
consider  the  elementary  work,  to  which  he  is  relegated,  as  beneath 
him.  ,i 

Where  this  evil  is  avoided,  and  the  under-masters  are  all  readily., 
removable  either  by  the  trustees  or  head-master,  there  are  still 
great  difficulties  in  the  way  of  getting  effective  assistance.  In 
some  cases  the  income  of  the  school,  according  to  present  arrange- 
ments, is  not  enough  to  provide  a  good  assistant  of  any  kind. 
Without  an  assistant  it  may  safely  be  said  that  a  grammar  school 
cannot  be  conducted  as  such  at  all.  Of  those  professedly  so  con- 
ducted, at  Solihull  IQl.  a  year  is  all  the  money  it  is  possible  to 
give  to  an  assistant,  although  fees  are  charged.  For  such  a  sum_ 
a  graduate  is  out  of  the  question,  nor  can  a  good  man  of  another , 
sort  be  kept,  though  by  a  happy  chance  he  may  be  obtained  for  a 
few  months.  At  Uttoxeter  the  under-master  gets  100/.  a  year. 
At  Coleshill  (where,  however,  no  fees  are  charged)  he  gets  80?. 
Neither  sum  will  get  a  first-rate  certificated  master,  much  less  a 
graduate.  At  Lichfield  adequate  assistance  can  only  be  obtained 
by  charging  a  higher  fee  on  the  day-boys,  and  making  the  school 
more  dependent  on  boarders  than  is  desirable.  At  Newcastle  it 
would  be  impossible  for  a  decent  salary  to  be  given  to  an  assistant 
but  for  the  objectionable  arrangement  by  which  the  head-master 
has  a  parish  in  the  town.  Here,  however,  by  proper  measures,  the 
income  from  endowment  might  be  increased.  At  Stone,  where  Latin 


Mr.  GreetHs  Eeport.  183 

might  with  advantage  be  taught,  only  one  master  Is  possible,  and 
hence  it  is  not  attempted. 

In  such  cases  as  the  above,  where  a  really  good  assistant  of  any 
kind  is  out  of  reach,  it  is  clearly  better  to  acquiesce  even  in  a 
second-rate  man  from  a  training  college  than  to  engage  a  Dublin 
graduate,  who  must  have  some  defect  either  of  character  or  capacity. 
This  view,  however,  is  not  always  accepted  by  the  mas^ters  of  the 
schools  in  question.    In  cases  where  a  better  salary  is  forthcoming, 
the  matter  is  more  doubtful.     In  a  school  where  there  are  three  Question 
or  four  masters,  and  which  teaches  Greek  in  the  higher  classes,  g^Iduates  and 
it  is  almost  necessary  that  the  second  of  them,  who  sends  up  others. 
boys  direct  to  the  classes  under  the  head-master,  should  be  a 
graduate.*     The  doubt  arises   as   to   lower  masters   in  such  a 
school,  and  as  to    the   second  where  only  two   are   kept.     The 
graduates  obtainable  at  tbe  given  price  are,  with  some  notable 
exceptions,  such  as  the  second  masters   at   Stratford  and  War- 
wick, of  a  very  inferior  type,  nor  are  they  so  available  as  others 
might  be  in  the  commercial  part  of  education,  and  in  teaching 
such  things   as   book-keeping,   mechanical  drawing,  and  mensu- 
ration, which  have  great  attractions  for  commercial  parents,  and 
with  good  management  can  be  taught  without  taking  much  time 
from  other  subjects,  supposing   a   competent   teacher   to   be   at 
hand.     On  the  other  hand,  the  non-graduate  master  is  not  always 
trustworthy  in  the  teaching  of  Latin,  and  commonly  does  not  pro- 
fess Greek;  he  has   (perhaps)  a  less  civilizing  influence  on  the 
manners  of  the  town  boys,  and  is  apt  to  be  offensive  to  the  head- 
master.    Without  attempting  to  decide  between  the  claims  of  the 
graduate  and  the  non-graduate,  I  will  only  notice  the  want  of 
effective  teaching  in  the  classes  below  the  head-master's  as  one  of 
the  reasons  why  the  upper  stratum  of  the  grammar  school  is  reached 
by  so  few  boys,  and  by  them  so  late.     There  is  clearly  a  want  of 
men  better  suited  to  the  grammar-school  system  than  the  certifi- 
cated masters,  and  to  whom  150Z.  a  year  is  not  so  poor  a  pittance 
as  it  Is  to  one  who  has  spent  600/.  or  700Z.  on  his  "  education  "  at 
Oxford  or  Cambridge.     At  present,  so  far  as  I  have  seen,  the  Merit  of 
want  is  best  met  by  men  from  the  Scotch  universities,  especially  graduates  from 
from  Aberdeen.     The  best  assistants  that  I  found  at  the  best  pri- 
vate schools — the  only  ones  who  could  teach  Latin  without  being 
given  to  drink — were  of  this  sort.     The  only  grammar  schools,  at 
which  I  noticed  them,  were  outside  the  district  now  under  con- 
sideration.     Loughborough  and  Oundle  afford  very  favourable 
instances  of  their  employment.     The  whole  question  would  be 
very  much  simplified  by  the  abandonment  of  the  attempt  to  teach  Possible  sim- 
Greek.     If  this  were  done,  better  teaching  could  be  provided  on  pjification  by 
all  other  subjects  in  the  classes  below  the  head-master's  for  the  <,£  (jreek. 
same  salary  as  is  now  given  to  a  graduate.f     A  good  instance  of 

*  At  Burton,  however,  where  the  full  number  of  masters  is  four,  and  where 
15  boys  learn  Greek,  there  is  no  assistant  who  is  a  graduate.  I  did  not  observe 
any  bad  results  from  this. 

t  The  schools  having  graduates  as  under-masters  are  Wolverhampton  (2), 
Brewood  (2),  Walsall,  Coventry,  Sutton-Coldfield,  Atherstone  (2),  Nuneaton 


184  Counties  of  Stafford,  and  Warwick. 

this  kind  is  furnished  by  the  Bridge- Trust  School  at  Handsworth, 
where  Latin  is  taught — very  soundly  so  far  as  it  goes — through- 
the  greater  part  of  the  school,  but  Greek  not  at  all,  and  where, 
none  of  the  under-masters  are  graduates.  On  any  other  system  this 
school  could  not  teach  the  same  number  of  boys  nearly  so  Well  as 
it  does..    On  the  conditions  under  which  a  general  adoption  of 

this  system  might  be  advisable  I  shall  speak  afterwards.       

Want  of  oral         (6.)  I  do  not .  doLibt  that  a  practised  observer  of  educational' 
teaching  in       phenomena  would  have  noticed  many  points,  in  which  the  modes' 
owe  asses,     of  teaching  prevalent  in  grammar  schools  operate  injuriously  on 
the  progress  of  the  pupils.     1  can  only  mention  two  as  having; 
specially  struck  me.     In  many  cases  there  seems  to  be  not  enough^ 
work  on  paper  in  the  higher  classes,  and  not  enough  oral  teaching 
in  the  lower.     In  schools  where  I  have  observed  rapid  progress  in- 
elementary  subjects  to  be  achieved  by  young  boys,  the  master  hasj 
been  in  the  habit  of  making  them  do  their  lessons,  to  a  great  ex- 
tent, aloud.     Instead  of  setting  them  a  quantity  of  sums  to  do  by 
themselves,  he  makes  them  do  one  after  another  orally  to  him. 
Each  blunder  is  thus  corrected  as  it  occurs,  a  constant  spirit  of 
emulation  is  kept  up,  and  there  is  none  of  that  hopeless  moping 
over  an  irretrievable  series  of  mistakes,  which  may  be  seen  in 
little  boys  when  they  work  by  themselves.     English  grammar,, 
spelling,  and  geography  may  be  taught  in  the  same  way  and  T 
believe  that  the  quickness  with  which  these  elementary  subjects 
are  got  up  in  national,  as  compared  with  grammar  schools,  is 
mainly  due  to  the  greater  practice  of  the  oral  method  in  the  former. 
The  cheap  private  schools  seemed  to  me  to  vary  in  goodness  accord-' 
ing  as  this  method  was  more  or  less  pursued  in  them,  and  it  is  on 
account  of  their  skill  in  it  that  I  believe  certificated  masters  to  be 
specially  useful  in  the  lower  classes  of  a  grammar  school.    The 
masters  of  grammar  schools  complain  that  boys  who  are  habituated 
to  it — those,  for  instance,  who  come  on  to  the  grammar  school- 
from  the  national  school — are  incapable  of  learning  lessons  by 
themselves.     No  doubt  it  may  be  kept  up  to  too  advanced  an  age. 
But  for  the  object  of  getting  elementary  knowledge,  especially 
the  knowledge  of  arithmetic  and  grammar,  into  commercial;  boys' 
at  the  earliest  possible  age  it  seems  most  valuable,  and  thisis  an 
object  of  primary  importance  to  the  grammar  school,  if  it  is  to 
fulfil  what  after  all  is  its  true  function,  that  of  .drawing  boys  Tvho- 
come  for  a  commercial  education  on  to  a  liberal  one. 
Of  work  on  The  system  of  doing  work  on  paper  is  the  exact  opposite  of  the 

higher"  '^^       ^^^  method  of  teaching,  but  I  believe  the  former  to  be  as  impor*' 
-'  '■  "  tant  to  the  higher  as  the  latter  to  the  lower-  classes.     The  charac- 

teristic fault  of  the  upper  classes  in  most  grammar  schools  seemed 
to  be  a  certain  slovenliness  and  inexactness  of  mind.  This  appeared' 
especially  in  the  badness  of  their  Latin  exercises,  in  the.tendency' 
when  construing  viva  voce  to  slur  over  the  auxiliary  words- and-tr 

(Dublin),  Coleshill  (Dublin),  Warwick,  Stratford.  The  first  five  can  welK 
afford  the  luxury.  Atherstone  only  obtains  its  second  graduate  by  an  arrange' ; 
ment  which  the  commercial  parents  complain  of.  Warwick  and  Stratford  only 
get  good  graduates  accidentally.  -It 


';    Mr.  Green's  Report.  185 

repeat  the  nominative  case,'  after  a  relative  sentence,  and  in  tlieii' 
bad  English  when  set  to  Avrite  on  some  ordinary  subject.  The 
best  cathartic  for  this  malady  I  hold  to  be.  the  constant  practice  of 
loriife^  translationsy  the  correction  of  which  by  the  master  is  the 
beat  possible^  exercise  in  English  grammar  as  well  as  Latin,  and 
frequent  examination  on  paper.  This  involves  a  good  deal  of 
additional  trouble  both  to  masters  and  boys,  against  whichj  no 
dQnbt,"the  flesh  rebels,  and  I  think  there  is  too  much  tendency  to 
neglect  it.  At  Burton  I  understood  that  there  was  an  examination 
on  paper  every  wijek,  and  the. good  result  appeared  in  the  neatness 
and  exactness  with  which  the;  upper  boys  did  their  work.  At 
Brewood  the  upper  iboys  haveifrequent  practice  in  writing  English^ 
and  there  ares  examinations  in  arithmetic  and  algebra  every  fort- 
nights The  good  effect  of  this  was  obvious,  while  written  trans- 
lation from  the  classics  seemed  to  have  been  scarcely* '  frequent 
enough.  At  Coventry,  again,  the  most  satisfactory  thing  about 
thfi  school  was  the  English  writing  of  some  of  the  upper  boys, 
whidh  was  suchs  that  the  training  necessary  to  produce  it-  must 
haA*©  been  anedncation  in  itselfl  It  contrasted  strongly  with  the 
Latin  writing  to  which,  so  far  as  I  could  learn,  comparatively  little 
attention  had  been  given.  At  the  other  schools  which  I  saw  it 
seemed  that  English  writing  was  hardly  practised  at  ail,  and  trans- 
lation on  paper  from  and  into  Latin  not  so  much  as  it  should  be. 
If  my  impression  in.  this  respect  is  correct,  it  illustrates  the  im- 
portance of  instituting,,  if  possible,  examinations  on  paper,  which 
shall  excite  more  interest  in  the  schools  than  those  at  present  held 
by  the-  masters  themselves,  or  by  men  whom  they  appoint,  seem 
generally  to  do. 

i(7.)  Finally,  as  a  general  cause, prejudicial  alike  to, the  higher  Defects  of 
and  to  the  most  elementary  education,  must  be  noticed  the  general  "'^^'^'^S  ™"J 
inconvenience  of  the  buildings  in  which  the  grammar  schools  are 
taughfer  For  details  on  this  head  I  must  refer  to  my  reports  on 
individual  schools.  .  The  building  is  in  many  cases  too  small  for  its 
purpose.  In  others  separate  class-rooms  are  urgently  i  needed. 
The  desks  are,  oftener  than  not,  badly  arranged,  being  either  double,  ,- 

so  that  the  boys  sit  facing  each  other  with  every  facility  for  talking 
and  play,  or  ranged  along  the  wall,  so  that  they  have  their-  backs 
to  the  master.  The  latter  arrangement  is  a  special-  obstacle  to 
giving  oral  lessons  to  large  groups.  The  noise  in  the  schools,  re- 
sulting mainly,  I  think,  from  bad  arrangement,  was  often  very, 
troublesome  to  me,  when  examining,  and  must.be  a  serious  impedi- 
ment -to  the  effectiveness  of  the  teacher  and  the  attention  of  the 
boys:  It  Vi^'as  very  rare  to  see  any  educational  appliances  in  the 
schools,  except  a  black-board  and  a  few  very  old  maps. 

(II.)-' As  to  the  state  of  commercial  education  in  the  grammar  II.  Commercial 

schools  a  good  deaL  has  unavoidably  been  said,  by  anticipation  eiJucation. 

already.     I  entered  on  my  work  with  the ,  expectation  of  finding 

this  department  much  more  efficiently  conducted  in  private  schools 

than   in  grammar   schools.      This   expecta,tion,  however,    which  Not  better  on 

certainly  corresponds  not  only  with  the  professions   of   private  *?^^°'V", 

X.     i         ,.         t,    jv      -xi,        a     X-        ■  •        •      .Li  •    1*^  f  .1      private  schools, 

schoolmasters,  but  with  a  noatin<T  impression  m  the  mind  of  the 


186 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick, 


Cases  where 
classical 
standard  is 
raised  at  ex- 
pense of  the 
commercial. 


commercial  class,  has  not,  on  the  whole,  been  confirmed  h 
experience.  The  essentials  of  a  commercial  education  are  simph 
(1)  good  handwriting;  (2)  good  "mental  arithmetic"  or,  in  othe 
words,  ready  reckoning ;  (3)  enough  practice  in  grammar  and  coni' 
position  to  write  a  commercial  letter  correctly.  Drawing  anc 
French  are  desirable  accessories.  As  baa  been  previously  es- 
plained,  they  are  not  likely  ever  to  be  wanted  by  nine  commercial 
boys  out  of  ten ;  but  there  is  a  general  impression  among  parents 
that  they  may  come  in  usefully.  That  there  is  a  good  deal  offancj 
in  this  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  while  German  is  quite  as  much 
a  commercial  language  as  French  in  the  district  where  I  have  been 
employed,  it  is  in  hardly  any  demand  at  the  schools.  Now,  in  the 
private  schools  which  I  was  allowed  to  examine,  and  which  were, 
probably,  not  the  worst  of  their  kind,  I  cannot  say  that  I  found 
these  subjects  better  taught  than  in  the  grammar  schools.  In 
several  grammar  schools,  no  doubt,  they  are  (to  judge  by  results) 
defectively  taught,  but  so  they  are  In  many  private  schools.  lo 
take  arithmetic  as  a  general  test,  if  the  number  of  sums  done 
right  in  the  grammar  schools  that  I  examined  were  divided  bytle 
number  of  boys  who  tried  them,  and  the  same  process  performed 
in  the  case  of  the  private  schools  examined,  the  average  number 
done  right  by  each  boy  would  appear  quite  as  great  in  the  former 
case  as  the  latter.  The  chief  distinction  that  I  observed  was  that 
instances  of  complete  failure  were  more  frequent  in  the  grammar 
schools,  and  that  the  style  of  arithmetic  done  in  these  schools  was 
perhaps  less  strictly  commercial.  Of  handwriting  I  do  not  pro- 
fess to  be  a  judge,  but  I  did  not  observe  any  general  distinction 
in  this  respect  between  the  two  kinds  of  school.  At  the  same 
time  I  have  no  doubt  that  both  writing  and  arithmetic  are 
generally  taught  more  quickly  in  the  private  schools,  for  the 
simple  reason  that  they  are  taught  almost  alone,  and  that  a  boy 
who  at  the  age  of  12  was  backward  in  commercial  education,  and 
wanted  to  be  perfect  in  it  by  the  time  he  was  14,  would  be  more 
likely  to  get  what  he  wanted  in  them.* 

As  a  rule,  I  found  that  in  those  grammar  schools  where  arith- 
metical knowledge  was  defective  the  knowledge  of  Latm  was 
defective  also.  There  were  exceptions  to  this  rule,  however,  and 
in  some  cases  certainly  the  classical  standard  of  the  school  had 
been  advanced  rather  at  the  expense  of  the  commercial.  At  the 
Atherstone  school,  excellent  in  most  respects,  I  thought  the 
arithmetic  defective.  The  same  remark  applies  to  Lichfield,  but 
with  some  modification,  the  classics  there  being  not  quite  so  good, 
the  arithmetic  rather  better  than  at  Atherstone.  At  Eugeley 
most  of  the  boys  whose  work  I  saw  did  fairly  in  Latin  construing 
and  English  writing,  but  very  poorly  in  arithmetic.  These  were 
the  only  cases  where  the  contrast  between  the  general  kinds  of 
work  was  strong.     At  Warwick  and  Stratford,  however,  I  thought 


*  In  the  simple  office  of  imparting  elementary  linowledge  the  Edward  Stoeet 
branch  school  at  Birmingham  seemed  decidedly  above  any  other  that  I  saw. 
grammar  or  private. 


Mr.  Greeyh  Report.  .  187 

that  scarcely  enough  provision  was  made  for  the  commercial  side 
of  education  as  compared  with  the  classical.  At  Warwick  know- 
ledge of  Latin  is  the  sole  basis  of  classification,  and  this  always 
implies  a  certain  disadvantage  to  boys  whose  parents  wish  them, 
and  who  are  disposed  themselves,  to  push  specially  in  other  things 
At  Stratford  no  provision  is  made  for  teaching  French  or  drawing, 
nor  is  English  grammar  regularly  taught.  In  all  the  above  cases, 
except  Rugeley,  some  complaint  was  made  to  me  by  intelligent 
persons,  not  at  all  disposed  to  seek  for  any  lowering  of  the  classical 
standard,  of  the  defects  pointed  out.  In  most,  if  not  all,  of  them, 
however,  it  is  undoubtedly  the  competition  between  the  classical 
or  liberal  and  the  commercial  elements  in  education  that  has 
caused  the  balance  to  turn  against  the  latter.  It  is  important  to 
enquire  how  far  this  result  is  a  necessary  one. 

At  Atherstone  some  complaint  had  been  caused  by  the  removal 
of  an  English  teacher  from  the  office  of  under-master,  the  pay- 
ment of  which  is  provided  for  by  the  scheme,  and  the  appointment 
to  it  of  a  graduate.  The  consequence  of  this  arrangement  had  been  Howfar  this 
that  the  English  teaching  was  done  at  a  less  charge  by  40Z.  a  year  is  unavoidable. 
than  it  had  been  previously,  and,  some  people  in  the  town  thought, 
worse  done.  The  head-master's  answer  was,  in  brief,  that  but  for  Want  of  funds 
the  change  he  should  only  have  been  able  to  keep  one  graduate  *°  ^*^P  "P 
assistant,  and  that  two  were  wanted  to  keep  up  the  classical  and 
mathematical  standard  of  the  school.  He  admitted  that  the 
difficulty  was  caused  chiefly  by  the  boarders,  as  without  them  one 
graduate  assistant  would  have  been  enough,  but  unquestionably 
in  that  school  the  boarders  contribute  essentially  to  the  maintenance 
of  its  general  standard.  On  the  other  hand  the  reduction  in  the 
charge  for  English  teaching  is  no  doubt  an  injury  to  that  depart- 
ment. On  the  present  system  and  with  the  present  funds  I  do 
not  see  a  way  out  of  the  difficulty.  In  the  Lichfield  school,  again, 
the  neglect  of  arithmetic,  such  as  it  is,  is  probably  due  to  the  fact 
that  the  boys  are  with  the  exception  of  six  free  boys  either 
boarders  or  admitted  at  a  fee  which  excludes  those  most  anxious  for 
commercial  education.  But  on  no  other  system  could  the  school 
with  its  present  income  be  carried  on,  unless  it  were  given  up  to 
commercial  education  "  pure  and  simple."  At  Warwick,  again,  the 
disproportion  between  the  income  of  the  school  and  the  value  of 
its  exhibitions 'is  at  fault.  Having  such  exhibitions,  it  is  bound 
to  keep  up  its  standard  of  classical  teaching  at  all  costs.  Though 
the  conduct  of  it  is  perhaps  hardly  so  energetic  as  it  might  be,  yet  it 
would  in  any  case  be  very  difficult  for  it  to  maintain  its  standard 
in  classics  and  at  the  same  time  do  full  justice  to  other  subjects 
without  an  increase  of  income.  Such  an  improvement  of  building 
and  situation  as  would  make  it  attractive  for  boarders  might  do 
something,  but  unless  the  boarders  were  of  the  commercial  class 
the  additional  teaching  power  in  classics  which  they  would  require 
would  absorb  such  increased  revenue  as  they  might  bring.  At 
Stratford  I  thought  that  the  boys,  though  well-taught  and  intelli- 
gent, had  scarcely  enough  to  do,  and  time  might  be  found  for  sub- 
jects now  neglected  without  taking  it  from  the  classics.  Here 
however,  the  second  master  is  of  a  much  higher  calibre  than  the 

».  0.  3.  -p 


188 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


Special  im- 
portance to 
grammai- 
school  of 
keeping  up 
commercial 
standard. 


Level  of 
income  l^elow 
which  the  t^o 
kinds  of  educa- 
tion cannot 
both  be  fully 
supplied. 


Where  the 
income  is 
higher  some 
difficulty  still 
remains, 


salary  given  him  could  be  expected  to  attract.  He  is  a  graduate, 
and  is  able,  in  addition  to  English  lessons  and  arithnaetic,  to  under- 
take all  the  matheniatics  and  as  much  Latin  as  may  be  wanted. 
In  the  event  of  his  leaving,  the  difficulty  on  the  present  system 
of  providing  adequately  for  the  English  subjects,  without  lowering 
the  standard  in  classics  and  mathematics,  would  at  once  arise. 

It  must  be  borne  in  mind,  in  the  consideration  of  this  question, 
that  it  is  not  enough  for  the  grammar  schools  merely  to  give  as 
good  a  commercial  education  as  the  average  private  school.  To 
parents  of  the  commercial  class  the  private  school  offers  attrac- 
tions at  which  the  grammar  school  cannot  and  ought  not  to  aim. 
The  grammar  school  therefore  cannot  maintain  an  hold  on  this 
class  unless  it  offers  to  them  the  article  of  commercial  education, 
which  they  want,  either  of  better  quality  at  the  same  price,  or 
of  the  same  quality  as  a  charity.  The  former  alternative  is  clearly 
the  only  desirable  one.  Yet  it  is  extremely  difficult,  on  grounds 
above  indicated,  for  a  grammar  school,  having  an  income  not 
exceeding  4O0Z.  a  year,  to  supply  the  superior  commercial  educa- 
tion required,  and  at  the  same  time,  according  to  the  present  theory 
of  its  duties,  to  supply  a  complete  classical  and  mathematical 
education  for  the  Universities.  In  trying  to  do  both,  it  will  very 
likely  fail  to  do  either  well.  A  fee  of  4Z.  a  year  is  all  that  can  be 
wisely  charged  in  a  provincial  town,*  and  it  is  desirable  to  have  a 
few  boys  free.  Suppose  there  are  50  boys  paying  this  sum,  this, 
in  addition  to  an  income  from  endowment  of  400/.,  gives  600?.  A 
good  head-master  can  hardly  be  got  for  less  than  400/.  a  year, 
nor  can  a  master  who  will  do  full  justice  to  the  commercial  de- 
partment be  got  for  less  than  150Z.  A  visiting  master  for  drawing 
or  French  will  absorb  the  rest  of  the  income.  Now  it  is  im- 
possible that  a  single  master  can  adequately  maintain  the  classical 
teaching  in  such  a  school  at  the  level  which  good  preparation  for  the 
Universities  requires.  If  he  seeks  to  meet  this  difficulty  by  taking 
enough  boarders  to  pay  for  another  classical  master,  he  raises  a  new 
one  as  to  the  relation  of  these  boarders  to  the  commercial  master. 
The  only  arrangement,  I  believe,  by  which  the  difficulty  could  be 
satisfactorily  met  would  be  one  which  should  relieve  the  classical 
department  by  transferring  the  teaching  of  Greek  and  the  higher 
classics  to  some  upper  school,  which  the  smaller  grammar  schools 
should  feed.     But  of  this  more  below. 

Where  the  revenues  of  the  school  are  such  as  will  allow,  con- 
sistently with  the  maintenance  of  the  classical  standard,  of  the 
employment  of  a  superior  English  master,  such  as  the  best  turned 
oulr  by  the  Government  training  colleges,!  the  commercial  educa- 

*  I  do  not  mean  that  the  fee  might  not  ultimately  be  raised  to  a  higher  sum, 
but  that,  considering  the  habituation  to  the  gratuitous  system,  and  the  received 
notions  on  educational  expenditure  among  small  shopkeepers,  this  is  as  much 
as  could  wisely  be  charged  at  present. 

f  I  found  a  good  instance  of  this  kind  at  the  Wolverhampton  grammar 
school,  where  is  an  English  master  from  the  Battersea  training  college,  who, 
besides  giving  excellent  elementary  instruction  to  the  lower  boys,  teaches  book- 
keeping, &c.,  to  some  of  the  upper  ones,  to  the  great  contentment  of  their 
parents.  These  secondary  commercial  accomplishments  —  book-keeping, 
mechanical   drawing,  and  the   like — may  easily  be  taught  without  seriously 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  189 

tion  need  not  suffer  so  seriously  by  combination  with  the  classical 
and  mathematical.  If  the  system  of  the  school  is  to  be  uniform, 
each  is  inevitably  to  some  extent  in  the  way  of  the  other.  The 
boy  whose  main  object  is  an  educational-  equipment  for  business, 
cannot  get  this  so  expeditiously  as  he  might  if  nothing  else  were 
attended  to.  On  the  other  hand,  as  has  been  previously  pointed 
out,  those  whose  parents  wish  them  to  be  pushed  as  quickly  as  pos- 
sible in  the  subjects,  on  which  success  at  the  great  schools  and 
universities  depends,  will  be  kept  back  by  superfluous  arithmetic 
and  geography.  It  is  sometimes  attempted  to  satisfy  both  wants 
at  once  by  a  system  of  alternative  studies  or  by  a  separation  of  Ways  of 
departments.  Neither  plan  seems  to  work  satisfactorily.  When  meeting  this, 
boys  are  exempted  from  Greek,  for  instance,*  that  they  may  give  AltematlTe 
more  time  to  modern  languages  or  history,  it  is  found,  according  to  ''*"^®^| 
the  uniform  testimony  of  schoolmasters  that  they  make  hardly  any  ^Jeetionsto 
additional  progress  in  the  subjects  to  which  extra  time  is  given, 
while  they  lose  ground  both  in  general  intelligence  and  in  habits  of 
application.  This  is  due  partly  to  the  intellectual  slackness  which 
results  from  the  consciousness  of  having  given  up  the  hardest  sub- 
jects, but  mainly  from  the  fact  that  the  exceptional  studies  cannot 
be  pursued  under  adequate  supervision  from  the  higher  masters. 
Were  the  alternative  studies  of  equal  dignity,  as  for  instance, 
classics  and  mathematics,  the  case  would  be  different,  but  when  the 
one  course  of  study  is  taken  by  all  the  boys  of  promise,  the  other 
by  the  backward  boys,  who  don't  profess  to  aim  at  the  higher 
education,  the  latter  inevitably  becomes  a  secondary  care  to  the 
masters,  at  any  rate  to  those  of  them  whose  oversight  is  most 
effective.  If  the  majority  of  the  upper  boys,  on  the  other  hand, 
or  the  more  promising  of  them,  lapse  from  the  higher  to  the  com- 
mercial studies,  the  standard  of  the  school,  as  a  place  of  classical 
education  even  for  the  few,  inevitably  falls. 

The  institution  of  a  separate  commercial  department,  as  at  Separate 
Walsall,  Stafford,  Burton,  and  Uttoxeter,  seems  a  still  worse  way  ^^pai'toents. 
out  of  the  difficulty.  This,  it  is  to  be  observed,  does  not  mean  a 
simple  division  of  the  school  into  groups  according  to  knowledge, 
so  that  those  in  the  lower  ^oup  should  rise  into  the  upper  when 
they  had  learnt  a  certain  quantity.  It  means  that  those  parents  who 
wish  their  boys  merely  to  learn  just  enough  to  act  as  clerks,  or  serve 
in  a  shop,  place  them  in  a  '•'  commercial  department ",  while  those 
who  wish  them  to  learn  a  little  Latin  and  mathematics,  or  possibly 
Greek,  place  them  in  the  "classical ,"  without  any  reference  in 
either  case  to  the  amount  of  knowledge  which  a  boy  possesses  on 

infringing  on  other  things,  if  the  head-master  is  not  unwisely  contemptuous  of 
them,  and  if  there  is  anyone  at  hand  to  teach  them.  Complaint  was  made  to  me 
by  a  father  at  Atherstone  that  his  son,  who  had  been  bred  at  the  grammar  school, 
had  missed  a  good  situation  from  inability  to  write  a  "  commercial  letter." 
Supposing  the  boy  to  have  learnt  his  own  language  beforehand,  one  hour's 
lesson  a  day  for  a  week  would  have  given  him  the  art  that  was  lacking. 

*  As  at  firewood,  where  the  substitution  of  German  for  Greek  is  allowed, 
and  at  Coventry  where  the  commercial  boys  learn  extra  French,  arithmetic, 
and  English  History  in  place  of  Greek,  paying  (if  not  sons  of  freemen)  6Z.  &s. 
a  year,  as  against  10?.  10s.  paid  by  those  who  learn  Greek. 

p  2 


ISO 


Counties  of  Hta;fford  and  H'nrwich. 


Objections  1o 
this. 


Does  not 
attract  sons  of 
professional 
men. 


Degrades  the 

commercial 

boys. 


entrance  to  the  school.  In  all  the  above  schools  (except  Walsall, 
where  education  is  gratuitous),  the  fees  charged  for  the  two  de- 
partments are  different.  At  Stafford  they  are  4Z.  and  21.  a  year 
respectively,  at  Burton  11.  and  21,  at  Uttoxeter  51.  and  3Z.  At 
Walsall  and  Uttoxeter  neither  Latin  nor  mathematics  is  taught  in 
the  commercial  department,  at  Stafford  and  Burton  they  are  taught 
to  a  few  boys  in  it,  who  are  likely  to  be  transferred  to  the  classical. 

If  this  arrangement  either  enabled  the  higher  subjects  to  be 
taught  more  exclusively  in  the  classical  department,  or  met  the 
objections  of  professional  men  to  the  grammar  school,  something 
might  be  said  for  it ;  but  it  does  neither.  In  many  cases,  no  doubt, 
it  has  been  found  necessary  in  order  to  avert  opposition  to  the 
introduction  of  fees  on  the  part  of  the  lower  class  of  those  who 
have  been  accustomed  to  gratuitous  education,  but  suj)posing  fees 
to  be  introduced,  I  doubt  whether  one  more  son  of  a  professional 
man  has  been  attracted  to  a  grammar  school  through  its  separation 
into  departments.  The  dislike  whicli  such  a  man  feels  to  the 
mixture  of  his  boys  with  those  of  a  lower  class  is  a  dislike  not  so 
much  of  their  mixture  in  school  as  of  their  mixture  in  the  street, 
and  this  is  what  the  division  of  departments,  except  by  very  elaborate 
and  invidious  arrangements,  cannot  prevent.  The  boys,  accord- 
ingly, who  constitute  the  classical  department^  are  mostly  of  the 
commercial  class,  whose  parents  have  rather  higher  aspirations 
than  the  rest.  The  separation  from  the  "  commercial  department " 
does  not  make  them  come  better  taught  to  begin  with,  nor  does  it 
remove  that  want  of  interest  in  the  higher  subjects  which  arises 
from  their  position  and  prospects.  Thus,  the  great  drag  on  pro- 
gress in  the  classical  department  remains  unchanged,  and  if  it 
moves  at  all  more  quickly  from  the  absence  of  the  Pariahs  who  are 
relegated  to  the  "  commercial,"  this  is  more  than  compensated  by 
the  hopeless  degradation  of  the  latter.  I  never  met  with  a  school 
where  a  system  of  transfer  from  the  commercial  department  to 
the  classical  was  effectively  worked.  The  transfer  is  useless, 
unless  made  when  a  boy  is  still  very  young.  A  head-master  may, 
no  doubt,  by  keeping  up  an  active  supervision  over  the  lower 
department,  occasionally  catch  a  promising  boy  in  it,  while  still 
quite  young,  and  get  him  transferred  to  the  higher.  But  here  is 
a  double  risk.  The  head-master  may  fail  to  notice  the  boy,  and 
the  parents,  accustomed  to  the  lower  fee,  may  be  unwilling  to  pay 
the  higher.  If,  as  at  Burton,  regular  provision  is  made  for  the 
admission  of  certain  boys  from  the  commercial  department  to  the 
classical  without  payment  of  a  fee,  boys  do  not  generally  avail 
themselves  of  this  till  they  are  near  the  top  of  the  former.  Then, 
having  learnt  little  or  no  Latin,  they  are  not  fit  to  be  placed  in  the 
higher  classes  of  the  classical  department,  while  they  are  too  old  and 
too  far  advanced  in  English  subjects  to  improve  themselves  in  the 
lower.  Thus,  a  boy  whom  parental  ignorance  or  selfishness  has 
once  placed  in  the  commercial  department  is  prettty  sure  to  stay 
there,  whatever  his  latent  capacity.  With  nothing  to  stimulate 
his  ambition,  he  learns  even  the  commercial  subjects!^  this  was  my 
uniform  experience)  no  better  than  his  neighbour  in  the  classical; 


Mr.  GreerCs  Report.  191 

and  pays  the  penalty  for  the  sin  of  his  parents  in  a  permanent 
vulgarity  of  mind. 

The  separation  of  departments,  as  ordinarily  carried  out,  is  thus  is  specially 
wasteful  of  juvenile  intellect.  It  is  wasteful  also  both  of  teaching  '"'""'"f"'- 
power  and  of  the  resources  which  grammar  schools  possess  for 
raising  the  education  of  the  middle  class.  The  teacher  of  the 
commercial  boys  is  not  able  to  do  what  he  very  well  might  in 
teaching  English  subjects  to  the  classical  department,  while  the 
teachers  of  the  latter  again  can  do  hardly  anything  for  the  com- 
mercial. At  the  same  time  the  commercial  department  is  giving 
under  another  name  an  education  the  same  in,  kind  as  that  given 
at  the  National  and  British  schools,  which  is  thus  given,  so  to 
speak,  twice  over.  Provision  having  been  made  for  elementary 
education  in  one  way,  the  grammar  school  steps  in  and  provides 
for  it  in  another.  To  gratify  the  whim  of  parents,  who  think 
"  grammar  school  "  a  finer  name  than  "  National  school,"  or  (as  at 
Walsall)  prefer  a  school  where  they  pay  nothing  to  one  where  they 
pay  a  few  pence  a  week,  it  applies  money  which  might  do  much 
to  stimulate  education  of  a  kind  not  yet  generally  appreciated,  to 
provide  an  education  which  all — at  least  of  the  class  under  con- 
sideration— value  enough  to  seek  without  stimulus,  and  which  is 
already  adequately  provided  elsewhere. 

The  means  of  reconciling  the  opposite  wants  of  classical  and  Outline  of  true 
commercial  education  are  to  be  found,  I  believe  (1)  in  the  exaction  ^°^"'^°°' 
of  a  larger  amount  of  elementary  knowledge  at  entrance  to  the 
grammar  schools  than  is  now  required  at  the  best,  (2)  in  such  a 
postponement  of  Greek  as  would  render  it  possible,  without 
trenching  on  the  time  given  to  Latin,  to  secure  that  the  average 
boy  should  be  perfect  in  arithmetic,  and  able  to  write  English 
correctly  by  the  age  of  14  at  latest.  After  that  age  a  bifurcation 
might  be  allowed  either,  where  the  staff  is  strong  enough,  at  the 
grammar  school  itself,  or  at  upper  schools  to  be  founded  for  the 
purpose.  This  plan,  of  which  more  will  be  said  under  the  head  of 
Remedies  for  the  existing  state  of  things,  I  believe  to  be  the  only 
one  by  which  commercial  requirements  can  be  satisfied  and  at  the 
same  time  the  way  kept  open  to  the  higher  learning,  without 
sacrificing  the  great  advantages  of  uniformity  of  system.  The 
words  "  arithmetic  "  and  "  Latin  "  should  be  graven  on  the  heart; 
of  every  grammar-school  master.  The  one  represents  the  primary 
condition  of  popularity  with  the  commercial  class ;  the  other  the 
wicket-gate  through  which  must  pass  every  boy,  not  endowed 
with  special  gifts  or  the  subject  of  some  uncovenanted  mercies, 
who  is  to  attain  an  appreciation  of  anything  high  and  remote  in 
the  intellectual  world. 

Before  proceeding  to  the  consideration  of  remedies,  however,  it  Private  effort. 
may  be  desirable  to  describe   more  in  detail    the    supplemental  ^°^  ^'"'^"P" 
action  of  private  and  proprietary  schools  as  they  at  present  exist,  grammai- 
1  propose  to  give  in  an  appendix,  without  names,  an  account  of  schools  ? 
each  private  school  that  I  examined  or  from  which  -I  obtained 
information.     Plere  I  shall  merely  point  out  the  modes  in  which 
they  may  be  considered  to  supply  that  which  is  lacking  on  the 
part  of  the  grammav  schools. 


192 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


1.  Where  there 
is  no  grammar 
school. 


e.y.  in  the 
Potteries. 


Small  number 
in  the  private 
schools  in  the 
Potteries. 


Where  are  the 
rest? 


(I.)  They  may  be  thought  to  do  this  most  obviously  in  the  case 
of  districts  which  have  no  available  grammar  school  within  reach. 
The  Pottery  district  of  North  Staffordshire  is  of  this  kind,  and 
here  private  enterprise  in  education  has  had  a  fair  field  before  it. 
There  have  been  no  endowments  either  to  stimulate  or  to  interfere 
with  it,  while  it  has  had  to  deal  with  a  middle  class  which  cer- 
tainly has  the  means,  if  it  had  the  will,  to  pay  handsomely  for  the 
teaching  of  its  sons.  Under  such  circumstances,  most  favourable 
for  illustrating  its  strength,  it  has,  on  the  contrary,  shown  its 
weakness.  This  appears  alike  from  the  small  number  of  the  boys 
whom  it  educates,  from  the  low  standard  of  the  education  given 
to  this  small  number,  and  from  complaints,  on  the  part  of  the 
few  people  in  the  district  who  care  for  a  good  education,  of  the 
general  want  of  it  and  of  the  difficulty  of  obtaining  it  for  their 


sons. 


The  population  of  the '  parliamentary  borough  of  Stoke-on- 
Trent,  which  is  co-extensive  with  the  Pottery  towns,  in  1861 
was  101,207.*  According  to  a  rough  estimate  previously  given 
(page  110)  such  a  population  should  send  600  boys  to  middle 
schools  of  some  kind.  In  the  Potteries,  however,  the  workmen 
bear  an  unusually  large  proportion  to  the  middle  class.  I  have 
no  means  of  estimating  the  proportion  precisely,  but  from  a 
parliamentary  return  published  in  1860,  which  gives  the  number 
of  male  persons  who  were  at  once  assessed  to  the  poors^  rate  upon 
a  gross  rental  of  2Ql.  and  upwards,  and  charged  to  any  of  the 
assessed  taxes  or  to  the  income  tax  under  Schedules  (B)  and  (D), 
it  appears  that  the  number  of  such  persons  at  Stoke  was  1,021, 
while  at  Birmingham  it  was  5,456.  The  population  of  Birming- 
ham, on  the  other  hand,  was  scarcely  three  times  that  of  Stoke. 
Perhaps  on  the  strength  of  these  figures  we  may  take  the  relative 
number  of  the  "  middle  class"  in  Stoke  to  be  to  that  of  Birmingham 
as  3  to  5.  The  number  of  boys,  then,  who  should  be  at  middle 
schools  may  be  reduced  from  600  to  360.  Now,  in  the  whole 
Pottery  district  I  could  only  ascertain  the  existence  of  three 
private  middle  schools,  having  together  160  boys.  One  or  two 
others  were  entered  in  the  directory,  but  if  they  existed,  they 
were  so  obscure  that  no  one  seemed  to  know  anything  about 
them,  A  few  boys  also  from  the  district  attend  the  Newcastle 
grammar  school,  but  altogether  it  may  be  safely  reckoned  that 
not  more  than  200  boys  in  the  district  are  receiving  a  middle 
education,  as  day  pupils,  in  place  of  the  360.  What  becomes  of 
the  rest  it  is  not  easy  to  say.  A  few  no  doubt  are  sent  to  school  else- 
where. I  heard  of  one  or  two  of  the  more  wealthy  and  aspiring 
manufacturers  who  had  sent  sons  abroad  for  education.  Several 
families,  again,  from  the  Potteries  take  houses  in  the  village  of 
Alsager,  which  is  only  a  few  riailes  distant  by  rail,  and  send  their 
sons  thence  as  day-boys  to  a  flourishing  school  at  Sandbach. 
Occasionally  a  boy  from  the  Potteries  is  sent  as  a  boarder  to  the 


*  This  does  not  include  several  large  villages,  whence  a  day-school  in  the  Potteries 
■would  be  accessible. 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  193 

grammar  school  at  Macclesfield.  On  the  whole,  however,  the 
explanation  of  the  smallnesa  of  the  number  in  middle  schools  on 
the  spot  is  to  be  found  in  the  fact  that  many  are  sent  to  National 
or  British  schools,  whose  parents  could  well  afford  a  higher 
education,  and  that  the  time  given  to  schooling  is  reduced  to  a 
minimum.  A  boy  is  perhaps  sent  to  a  commercial  school  at  the 
age  of  10  ;  by  the  time  he  is  12  he  has  learnt  to  write  a  plain 
hand  and  to  do  a  certain  amount  of  "  ready  reckoning ;"  he  is  then 
fit  for  business,  and  is  accordingly  removed. 

The  three  private  schools   which  I  examined  in  the  Potteries  Character  of 
feeemed  to  be  honest  institutions  of  their  kind,  and  to  do  fairly  what  gchooVsTn'^the 
they  professed  to  do.     In  one  of  them  the  fee  for  a  day-boy  was  Potteries. 
12/.  a  year;  in  the  other  two  A.I.     In  the  first,  which  draws   on 
the  professional  class  and  the  upper  rank  of  commercial  men,  Latin 
is  regularly  taught.     Greek  was  so  till  lately,  but  now  is  optional — 
to  the  sorrow  of  the  master,  who  knows  that  what  is  optional  is 
neglected.     In  this  school  a  boy,  who  would  stay  long  enough,  (a)  Of  the 
might  receive  the  elements  of  a  liberal  education,  but  with  the  ™'"^*  «^P™- 
exception  of  one  boy,  the  master's  nephew,  who  struck  me  as  most 
promising,  it  did  not  seem  that  anyone  in  the  school  was  really 
likely  to  obtain  an  education  worthy  of  such  a  name.     The  fault, 
however,  was  not  with  the  master,  but  with  the  want  of  capacity 
or  of  early  knowledge   or  of  aspiration  on  the  part  of  the  bojfu 
The  positive  result  of  their  schooling,  over  and  above  its  civilizing 
influence,    might    be   summed  up    as  the    necessary    "  English " 
education,  enough  knowledge  of  French  to  facilitate  the  later  ac- 
quisition of  the  language  if  it  were  wanted  for  the  purposes  of  life, 
and  enough  Latin  to  enable  them  to  make  out  Virgil  in  an  unin- 
telligent way,  and  to  be  forgotten  in  a  twelvemonth.    The  education 
given  in  the  school,  it  should  be  remembered,  would,  except  in 
peculiar  cases,  be  final. 

In  the  other  two  schools  mentioned  the  education  given  is  simply  (A)  Of  the  less 
of  the  kind  which  I  have  described  above  (page  105)  as  a  "clerk's  e^'pensive. 
education."  The  parents  do  not  care,  and  therefore  will  not  pay, 
for  anything  more.  The  boys  commonly  enter  the  school  unable 
in  any  proper  sense  to  read,  and  they  will  not  stay  beyond  the  age 
of  14  at  latest.  The  classification,  moreover,  in  private  schools, 
whether  owing  to  the  necessity  of  the  case,  i.e.,  to  the  variety  of  age 
and  attainment  among  the  boys  when  they  enter,  or  owing  to  a 
traditionary  want  of  method,  is  less  simple  than  in  the  elementary 
schools  under  the  PHvy  Council.  The  use  of  boys,  again,  to  help 
in  teaching  is  impossible,  or  at  least  unknown,  in  them.  These 
things  being  borne  in  mind,  it  cannot  be  expected  that  for  a  yearly 
payment  (often  irregular)  of  4L  per  boy  the  private  schoolmaster 
should  provide  teaching  power  enough  to  attempt  Latin  and  Euclid, 
unless  in  exceptional  cases.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  he  certainly  does 
not.  In  one  of  the  schools  in  question  there  were  80  boys  to  be 
taught,  and  one  assistant ;  in  the  other  36  boys,  and  no  assistant. 
The  schoolroom  in  each  case  was  small,  inconvenient,  and  ill- 
ventilated — a  garret,  in  fact,  turned  to  account.  Subject  to  such 
disadvantages  the  teaching  seemed  to  be  good  of  its  kind,  i.e.,  the 


194 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


Want  of  gram- 
mar school  felt 
in  the  Potteries. 


By  •whom  ? 


Why  private 
enterprise 
cannqt  meet 
the  want. 


upper  boys  had  learnt  to  write  and  do  sums  fairly,  and  had  some 
notion  of  the  composition  of  an  English  sentence.  In  one  of  them 
especially  the  quickness  of  some  of  the  boys  in  obvious  arithmetic 
was  remarkable. 

Among  the  more  educated  inhabitants  of  the  Potteries  I  found  a 
general  sense  of  the  want  of  a  good  middle  or  grammar  school.  Men, 
whose  families  have  been  rich  for  one  or  two  generations,  naturally 
do  not  feel  the  evil  in  their  own  persons.  They  withdraw  to  pleasant 
houses  on  the  outskirts  of  the  district  where  their  wealth  is  made, 
and  send  their  sons  to  the  "  public"  schools.  Those,  again, — and 
they  are  a  numerous  class — who  have  themselves  risen  from  being 
workmen,  or  something  not  much  higher,  to  considerable  wealth, 
do  not  generally  feel  the  want  of  more  education  for  their  sons  than 
is  necessary  for  making  money.  There  remains,  however,  the  large 
body  of  professional  men  which  such  a  population  brings  together, 
who  cannot  obtain  on  the  spot  such  an  education  as  they  desire  for 
their  sons,  and  yet  in  many  cases  can  ill  afford  to  send  them  to 
good  boarding  schools.  The  ministers  of  religion,  of  whom,  accord- 
ing to  the  census  of  1861,  there  were  76  in  the  census  districts  of 
Stoke  and  Wolstanton,*  suifer  most  in  this  respect,  and  many  of 
them  spoke  to  me  very  feelingly  on  the  matter.  Meanwhile  an 
oppressive  atmosphere  of  well-to-do  ignorance  hangs  over  the 
district.  The  signs  of  diffused  interest  in  things  intellectual, 
commonly  found  in  large  towns,  such  as  evening  classes  and  popular 
lectures,  seem  here  to  be  wholly  absent. 

It  may  be  said  that  in  a  case  like  this  the  short-comings  of 
private  enterprise  are  only  temporary ;  that  the  wealth  and  popu- 
lation of  the  Potteries  are  new,  and  that  when  they  are  older 
they  will  attract  to  themselves  a  proper  supply  of  education.  To 
this  I  answer,  that  in  time  probably  a  sufficient  supply  of  the 
"  clerk's  education  "  will  be  forthcoming,  but  nothing  more.  At 
present  even  this  is  lacking,  as  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  the  rector 
of  Stoke  has  formed  special  classes  for  sons  of  shopkeepers  in  a 
separate  part  of  his  national  school.  But  a  larger  supply  of  edu- 
cation of  this  kind  will  do  nothing  either  to  meet  the  wants  of  the 
poorer  professional  men,  or  to  elicit  the  intellectual  aspiration  of 
the  "  new  rich."  The  latter,  when  they  have  been  rich  long 
enough  to  care  to  improve  it,  will  be  too  genteel  to  use  a  local 
school  at  all,  while  the  former  by  themselves  will  be  unable  to 
support  a  local  school  adequate  to  their  wants.  A  well-endowed 
grammar  school,  on  the  other  hand,  if  it  could  be  imported  into 
the  Potteries  and  properly  worked,  would  find  a  considerable  class 
already  craving  for  the  higher  education  which  it .  might  impart 
but  unable  to  supply  its  ovvn  need,  and  another  class,  much  larger, 
which  would  send  its  boys  to  it  merely  to  learn  what  is  useful  in 
the  market,  but  would  often  keep  them  there  to  learn  something 
better.  If  it  did  something  also  to  check  the  vulgar  tendency  of 
the  larger  capitaUsts  to  send  their  sons  to  schools  where  they  only 
learn  to  despise  their  homes,  it  would  be  no  slight  gain.     On  the 


These  districts  are  co-extensive  ivith  the  Pottery  towns  and  their  adjuncts. 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  195 

possible  means  of  establishing  such  a  school  in  the  Potteries  I 
shall  speak  below. 

The  Potteries  are  the  only  urban  district  I  met  with  where 
middle  education  had  been  left  wholly  to  private  enterprise.  Of 
the  use  made  of  private  schools  by  farmers  I  have  spoken  already 
(p.  78).  How  far  this  results  from  local  necessity,  how  far  from 
a  traditionary  preference,  it  is  difficult  precisely  to  decide.  What 
the  well-to-do  farmer  likes  is  a  cheap  boarding  school,  which  will 
profess  to  pay  more  individual  attention  to  his  son  than  a  gram- 
mar school  generally  will.  It  is  as  cheap  boarding  schools  that 
the  supplementary  action  of  private  schools  should  next  be 
considered. 

(II.)  The  general  causes  through  which  the  grammar   schools  H-  Mvate 
fail  to  act  efficiently  as  boarding  schools  are — (a)  a  frequent  want  adventure 
of  enterprise  on  the  part  of  the  masters,  fostered  by  jealousy  of  boarding 
boarders  on  the  part  of  the  privileged  townspeople,  (Jb)  badness  schools. 
of  situation  and  building,  (c)  the  unwillingness  of  the  parents, 
who  would  not  be  above  a  provincial  boarding  school,  to  pay  the 
terms  which  the  master  of  a  grammar  school    naturally  charges.  Why  the 
Of  (a)  and  (b)  enough  has  been  said  on  pp.  65  and  67.     Of  the  grammar 
grammar    schools    in  Staffordshire   and   Warwickshire,  Brewood  j^^g""  ^  ^'  " 
alone   offers    any   considerable   attraction    or   accommodation  to 
boarders.     It   has  about  60    of  them.     Sutton-Coldfield  comes 
next  with  24,  then  Atherstone  with  20,  the  accommodation  in  each 
case  being  good.     At  Lichfield  I  found  17,  but  the  accommoda- 
tion for  them  was   in  part  rented  by  the  master.     The  remaining 
grammar  schools  in  the  two  counties  (excluding  Birmingham)  had 
only  4o  boarders  among  them,  and  several  of  these  were  living  in 
rented  houses.     On  the  other  hand,  in  several  cases  (e.  g.  at  War- 
wick, Stratford,  and  Nuneaton)  room  that  might  have  been  avail- 
able for  boarders  was  not  so  used,  either  from  the  master   not 
wishing  to  have  them,  or  from   unsuitableness  of  situation  and 
surroundings,  or  from  a  combination  of  these  reasons. 

With  regard  to  reason  (c)  it  might  seem  that  the  master  of  a 
grammar  school  with  an  endowment  at  his  back  ought  to  undei"- 
bid  the  private  schoolmaster.  As  a  matter  of  fact  he  does  not,  Private  masters 
and  there  are  great  difficulties  in  the  way  of  his  doing  so.  As  is  '^'^  ^°  *^® 
well  known,  the  possibility  of  making  a  profit  on  boarders  taken  ™^  "  eaper. 
at  a  cheap  rate  depends  on  their  number.  Where  10  boarders 
would  scarcely  cover  expenses,  30  will  yield  a  considerable  profit. 
Now,  with  a  few  exceptions,  the  grammar  schools  that  I  have  met 
with  only  afford  accommodation  for  such  a  number  of  boarders  as, 
at  the  rate  of  payment  to  be  expected  from  the  class  of  parents 
who  are  not  above  using  them  as  boarding  schools,  is  scarcely 
remunerative.  It  may  be  asked,  why  under  sucli  circumstances 
does  not  the  master  take  another  house  at  his  own  risk  ?  To  this 
tlie  answer  is,  that  in  many  cases  the  managers  would  object  to 
his  doing  so,  and  that,  where  they  do  not,  such  an  enterprise 
could  only  be  made  to  answer  by  an  amount  of  "  touting  "  and 
advertisement,  to  which  the  master  of  a  grammar  school  may  have 
a  natural  repugnance.  Supposing  him,  however,  to  have  large 
accommodation  provided  by  the  trustees,  he  will  still  find  it  hard 


196 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


2  Classes  of 
private  school 
in  respect  of 
charge. 


The  cheaper. 


Causes  of  the 
taste  for  them. 


to  compete  in  cheapness  with  the  private  boarding  schools.  These 
for  the  most  part  take  boys  at  a  rate  of  25^.  a  year  each,  to  which 
an  average  of  51.  a  year  may  be  added  for  extras.  Setting 
aside  those  which  prepare  boys  for  the  public  schools,  I  did  not 
discover  more  than  eight  private  schools  in  the  t\\  j  counties  that 
charged  considerably  more  than  this,  while  some  fall  below  it. 
On  these  terms,  strange  as  it  may  seem,  the  private  schoolmaster 
makes  a  profit.  If  he  gets  50  boarders  he  will  clear,  after  de- 
duction for  assisting  masters,  and  without  starving  the  boys,  as 
much  as  500?.  a  year.*  This,  however,  supposes  a  rigid  economy 
of  a  kind  of  which  "  a  scholar  and  gentleman,"  such  as  the  gram- 
mar-school master  is  presumed  to  be  and  often  is,  may  scarcely 
be  capable.  It  supposes  unpleasant  bargaining  with  tradesmen, 
and  a  minimizing  of  the  number  and  wages  of  servants  (facilitated 
by  putting  the  boys  two  in  a  bed),  and  that  the  schoolmaster's 
wife  shall  herself  act  as  cook. 

These  considerations  may  explain  why  it  is  left  to  private  enter- 
prise to  meet  the  large  demand  for  cheap  boarding  schools,  which 
exists  on  the  part  of  farmers  and  tradesmen.  If  my  reckoning  is 
right  the  grammar  schools  of  the  two  counties  only  take  167 
boarders  altogether,  and  scarcely  half  a  dozen  of  these  are  taken 
at  a  less  charge  than  30Z.  a  year  for  board  and  education. f  Most 
of  them  pay  much  more,  as  at  Brewood  and  Sutton-Coldfield, 
where  the  yearly  charges  are  60/.  and  60Z.  respectively.  Of  the 
private  schools  whence  I  obtained  information  (excluding  those 
that  prepare  for  Kugby,  &c.)  20  take  boarders  at  or  under  33i.  a 
year  for  board  and  education,  and  the  boarders  in  these  number 
416.  In  most  of  these  cases  the  charge  is  only  about  '251.  a  year. 
Only  eight  schools  on  the  other  hand,  containing  190  boarders, 
take  them  at  a  yearly  charge,  varying  from  33Z.  to  53Z.  It  must 
be  remembered  also,  that  while  none  of  the  more  expensive  schools, 
to  the  best  of  my  belief,  escaped  me,  there  were  many  cheaper 
ones  from  which  I  failed  to  obtain  information.  The  people  who 
support  these  cheap  schools  are  no  doubt  in  fact  persons  living 
either,  like  farmers,  away  from  towns,  or  in  towns  where  there  is 
no  grammar  school.  But  they  are  to  a  greater  extent,  I  think, 
persons  who  have  the  chance  of  sending  their  sons  as  day-boys  to 
a  grammar  school,  but  who  distinctly  prefer  a  boarding  school. 
Of  some  general  grounds  for  this  preference  I  have  spoken  above 
(p.  159).  Other  reasons  that  have  come  under  my  notice  have 
been  (a)  a  supposed  neglect  of  duU  boys  in  grammar  schools.  The 
private  schoolmaster  generally  has  some  triumphant  stories  of 
boarders  who  have  come  to  him  from  grammar  schools  where 
nothing  has  been  made  of  them,  and  whom  he  has  soon  taught  all 
they  needed  to  know.  In  reality  these  are  generally  boys  who 
have  never  been  properly  managed  at  home,  and  in  consequence 

*  In  a  school  of  the  kind  in  question  there  would  generally  be  extra  charges  of  1/. 
a  quarter  for  P'rench  or  Latin  (not  commonly  for  both),  German,  drawing,  music,  and 
dancing.  Supposing  that  on  an  average,  in  a  school  of  50,  each  boy  paid  for  one  extra 
over  the  whole  year,  this  would  give  enough  to  pay  the  salaries  of  the  ordinary  aissist- 
aiits  as  well  as  of  the  visiting  masters. 

■f  In  this  statement  I  take  the  average  number  as  given  by  the  master.  I  did  not 
find  quite  so  iaany  in  attendance. 


Mr,  Green's  Report.  197 

have  neglected  their  lessons  in  the  grammar  school,  but  whom  a 
change  to  a  new  school,  and  the  personal  supervision  of  a  master 
in  the  evening,  wakens  up.  {b)  A  prevalent  habit  in  the  class  under 
consideration  of  either  sending  their  sons  to  a  national  school  or 
letting  them  run  wild,  till  the  age  of  12,  and  then  sending  them 
for  two  years  or  less  to  a  boarding  school  to  be  "  finished."  The 
masters  of  private  schools  constantly  allege  this  practice  as  a 
reason  why  they  can  make  so  little  of  their  pupils — (c)  a  general 
dislike  among  the  same  class  to  the  fixed  rules  of  the  grammar 
school,  and  a  desire  to  have  the  system  modified  to  suit  the  use  of 
each  boy,  a  desire  to  which  the  private  schoolmasters  often 
express  a  readiness  to  conform,  (d)  A  fancy  for  subjects  of 
instruction  that  promise  to  be  practically  useful,  such  as  book- 
keeping, mechanical  drawing,  and  mensuration,  of  which  the  private 
schoolmaster  commonly  makes  a  great  parade.  The  objection  to 
Latin,  which  is  often  spoken  of  as  a  reason  for  preferring  the  cheap 
boarding  school  to  the  grammar  school,  is  seldom  anything  positive, 
but  really  reducible  to  one  or  more  of  the  reasons  above  given. 
The  character  of  such  schools  is  very  much  what  might  be  expected  Character  of 
from  the  rate  of  payment,  and  the  objects  of  the  people  using  them,  ^'i*'^^  schools. 
I  quote  the  following  from  an  elaborate  letter,  written  by  the 
master  of  one  of  the  oldest  and  largest  of  them,  in  answer  to  my 
request  for  permission  to  examine.  It  is  illustrative  in  many 
respects: — "I  may  here  remark  that  you  will  find  no  great  pro- 
"  flciency  attained  by  the  generality  of  the  pupils  in  any  particular 
"  branch  of  study  taught,  in  consequence  of  the  comparatively 
"  brief  and  inadequate  period  of  their  attendance  (not  extending 
"  over  twelve  months  on  an  average),  a  circumstance  corroborative 
"  of  the  fact,  that  most  of  the  youths  sent  to  this  school  have  been 
"  sadly  neglected  in  their  education  on  the  part  of  their  parents. 
"  First,  from  the  want  of  their  due  appreciation  of  its  advantages ; 
"  secondly,  from  the  too  common  practice  of  removing  their 
"  children  from  school  to  school,  so  fatal  to  their  progress;  and, 
"  lastly,  from  the  prevalent  notion  entertained  by  that  class,  by 
"  which  this  and  similar  establishments  are  chiefly  supported,  that 
"  beyond  a  little  initiatory  training  at  some  church  or  chapel,  Sun- 
"  day  or  weekly  school,  a  couple  of  years  or  so  (here  a  little  and 
"  there  a  little,  now  a  quarter  and  then  a  quarter)  are  quite 
"  suflScient  for  the  requirements  of  any  business  for  which  their 
"  sons  may  be  destined."*  The  "  requirements  of  business " 
mean  the  faculty  of  reading,  of  doing  sums  quickly,  of  writing  a 
legible  hand,  and  of  composing  a  business  letter.  Of  the  schools 
that  I  am  describing  only  two  could  be  said  to  teach  anything 

*  I  may  be  aUovped  to  quote  another  paragraph  from  the  same  letter,  as  a  sample  of 
the  rich  epistolary  style  to  which  schoolmasters  are  addicted: — "  I  am  perfectly 
"  -willing,  under  the  conditions  mentioned  in  your  letter,  to  further  the  laudable 
"  objects  of  the  Schools  Inquiry  Uommission  by  acceding  to  your  wishes;  but  next 
"  Wednesday,  not  being  a  day  that  will  suit  our  convenience,  I  would  propose  the 
"  examinalion  be  postponed  to  some  day  next  week  that  you  may  appoint ;  not,  be  it 
"  observed,  with  a  view  of  taking  the  pupils  through  a  course  of  preparatory  training, 
"  or  drilling  for  the  occasion,  and  thus  interfering  with  the  regular  routine  of  school 
"  business  to  no  useful  purpose,  but  merely  as  a  matter  of  greater  convenience  and 
"  compatibility  with  pre-existing  arrangements."  The  writer  of  the  above  was  a 
Scotchman. 


198  Counties  of  Stafford  and  fVarwick. 

Nothing  really  more  than  this.     The  rest  make  a  great  profession  of  other  sub- 
bXriW  and  Jects,  especially  history,  geography,  and  English  grammar.     The 
arithmetic         master,  whose  letter  I  have  quoted,  in  a  "  curriculum  of  instruc- 
tion "  which  he   communicated   to    me,  described    his   pupils  as 
composing    historical   and    geographical    exercises    every   week, 
"  which  required  considerable  research  from  various  authors ; "  also 
as  applying  "  critical  analysis"  to  English  grammar.    On  examina- 
tion I  found  that,  though  no  worse  than  most  others  of  the  same 
class,  they  really  knew  nothing  of  history,  geography,  or  grammar. 
It  would  be  tedious    to    multiply    instances    of  ignorance.     My 
ordinary  test  of  the  upper  boys  in  these  schools  as  to  intelligence 
of  their  own  language  was  to  make  them  take  down  from  dictation 
the  first  stanza  of  Cowper's  "  Alexander  Selkirk  "  ("  I  am  monarch 
of  all  I  survey,  My  right  there  is  none  to  dispute,"  &c.)  and  then 
examine  them  in  the  grammar  of  it.     It  was  very  rare,  even  with 
the  top  boys,  to  get  it  correctly  written,  and  still  rarer  not  to  be 
told  that  "right"  in  the  second  line  was  the  nominative  case.     Of 
their  geographical  knowledge  no  unfair  sample  is  an  answer  which 
I  received  in  a  Warwickshire  school  to  the  question  whether  there 
was  any  other  river  Avon  than  that  in  "Warwickshire — "  Milford 
'Aven."     Of  English  history  the  knowledge  was  uniformly  very 
poor,  and  of  a  kind  that  could  scarcely  survive  a  month  after  the 
boy's  leaving  school.     Latin  and  French  in  the  cheap  boarding 
school,  though  they  commonly  figure  in  the  advertisement,  are  as 
a  rule  not  taught  at  all.     Sometimes  they  are  attempted  for  the 
sake  of  saying  so,  or  to  meet  the  wants  of  boys  meaning  to  be 
druggists.     I  never  found  any  intelligent  or  grammatical  know- 
ledge of  them,  any  knowledge  of  them,  in  short,  which  might  not 
with  advantage  have  been  replaced  by  a  slightly  more  intelligent 
knowledge    of  English.       On    the    other   hand    the    knowledge 
"  necessary  for  busine.ss,"  as  above  described,  is  for  the  most  part 
really  imparted,  though  not  without  scandalous  exceptions.     This 
the  parents  can  test.     It  is  imparted,  however,  in  a  way  to  secure 
a  minimum  of  intelligepce.     Writing  and  spelling,  for  instance, 
instead  of  being  taught  by  practice  in  writing  from  dictation,  are 
taught  mainly  by  writing  from  foolish  copies  and  by  learning  off"^ 
long  lists  of  words  on  spelling-cards.      The  art  of  composing  a 
tradesman's  letter  at  best  requires  little  exercise  of  thought,  but  at 
the  commercial  academy  it  is  acquired  in  the  most  thoughtless 
manner  possible  by  the  simple  copying  of  specimens.* 

While  there  is  nothing  to  elevate  these  schools,  but  rather  much 
to  depress  them,  on  the  part  of  the  people  who  use  them,  it  can 
hardly  be  expected  that  a  general  reform  should  be  initiated  by  the 
Defects  in  the  masters.  Among  these  there  is  a  great  diversity.  Some  are  in- 
pnncipa  s,  telligent  and  well-informed  enough,  anxious  that  their  sons  should 
have  a  better  education  than  themselves,  and  eager  to  take  advan- 
tage of  any  change  by  which  access  to  the  higher  learning  may  be 
cheapened  in  England ;  others,  however,  are  curiously  ignorant. 
One  of  them,  for  instance,  who  had  formerly  been  English  master 


*  On  the  teaching  of  arithmetic  at  these  schoolsj  see  above,  page  186. 


Mr.  Green's  Beport.  1&9 

in  a  granmiai'  school,  inquired  of  nie  in  a  letter  whether  he  was 
obligated  to  ansvrer  the  questions  issued  by  the  Commission.  Even 
the  more  competent  are  greatly  at  the  mercy  of  the  traditions  of 
their  craft.  Instead  of  giving  oral  lessons  to  large  classes  together 
in  grammar  and  geography,  which  is  the  only  way  of  eliciting 
intelligence,  they  set  their  boys  to  learn  pieces  by  heart  out  of 
grammar  nnd  geography  books,  which  they  then  hear  sleepily 
repeated.  I  found  that  even  men  who  had  been  masters  in  schools 
under  the  Privy  Council,  and  thus  had  experience  of  the  better 
method,  when  they  came  to  set  up  private  academies  of  their 
own,  would  adopt  the  old  routine.*  Then  the  rate  of  payment  in  the  buildings, 
does  not  allow  the  master,  unless  he  gets  a  very  large  number  of 
boarders,  to  obtain  either  decent  assistant-teachers  or  decent  places 
for  teaching.  No  words  are  too  strong  to  express  the  badness  of 
the  schoolroom  at  most  of  the  cheap  academies.  Generally  it  is  a 
barn  or  a  pigeon-cote,  or  a  scullery  in  a  back  yard,  or  (at  best)  a 
large  attic,  close  and  yet  cold,  full  of  draughts,  noisy,  and  too 
small  for  its  purpose.  That  the  tradesman  should  prefer  it  for  his 
son  to  a  commodious  national  school,  where  the  clerk's  education 
is  at  least  equally  well  given,  is  a  curious  instance  of  class-feeling. 
The  salaries  of  assistants  in  these  schools  range  from  20Z.  to  40/.  '"  *be  assist- 
a  year,  with  board  and  lodging,  and  the  assistants  are  what  such  ""*"■ 
pay  for  such  work  is  likely  to  attract.  Sometimes  they  are  little 
more  than  lads,  otherwise  they  are  either  ignorant  or  of  question- 
able character.  In  my  examinations  I  not  unfrequently  found  them 
fragrant  of  alcohol.  Their  inefficiency  and  bad  character  is  a  con- 
stant theme  with  the  principals  of  schools,  but  a  better  article  will 
scarcely  be  got  unless  at  a  higher  price. 

I  have  observed  above   (page   172)  that   the  grammar  schools  Want  of  effec- 
sufFer  from  want  of  a  system  of  exaonnation  that  shall  act  as  f,u  |;^^cxamina- 
effective  stimulus  to  masters  and  boys.     The  same  remark  applies 
more  strongly  to   the   cheap  private  schools.     Till  the  establish- 
ment of  the  "  local  examinations  "  there  was  nothing  to  bring  to 
light  either  their  merits  or  defects,  and  these  examinations,  as  it  is, 
scarcely  touch  them  f     Of  the   private  boarding  schools,  charging 
less  than  than  .33/.  a  year  for  board  and  education  in  Staffordshire 
and  Warwickshire,  only  two,  those  that  I  have  mentioned  as  giving 
an  education  beyond  the  "  requirements  of  business,"  send  boys  in 
for  them,  and  in  one  of  these  the  yearly  charge  is  32i,J     Of  the  Rare  use  of 
rest  within   this   mark,  some  owing  to  remoteness  from  a  "  local  '9'^'''^  h'^^™^"*! 
centre  "  would  have  a  difficulty  in  sending  boys  in,  but  none  are  of  this  class, 
really  up  to  the  standard  which  the   examinations  require.     They 

*  Another  time-honoured  custom,  .still  commonly  retained,  is  that  of  providing  the 
boys  with  emblazoned  note-books,  in  which  corrected  sums,  generally  having  reference 
to  buying  or  selling,  are  written  down  in  inks  of  many  colours,  to  be  shown  to 
parents. 

t  I  only  heard  of  one  school  which  resorted  to  the  examinations  conducted  by  the 
College  of  Preceptors.  I  may  have  overlooked  some,  but  these  examinations  certainly 
carry  but  little  prestige. 

X  From  one  other  one  boy  has  passed  the  "  local  examination."  I  have  left  out  of 
reckoning,  also,  a  school  from  which  two  or  three  boys  have  passed  it,  but  which  is 
essentially  a  day-school,  though  it  takes  a  very  few  boarders  at  a  rate  under  .3.3/.  a 
year. 


200 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Wanoich 


Opinion  of 
private  school- 
masters on 
systematic 
examinations. 


Project  of 
registration. 


are  thu^  left  without  any  examination  or  inspection  from  without. 
One  of  the  questions  issued  by  the  CommissionerB  to  private 
schoolmasters  was  :  "  Would  it  be  an  advantage  or  otherwise  if 
"  your  school  were  examined  annually  and  publicly  reported  on 
"  by  independent  examiners?"  To  this  the  masters  in  question 
would  sometimes  reply  that  the  school  was  so  examined  already, 
sometimes  that  the  parents  were  sufficient  judges.  The  first 
answer  refers  to  a  device  of  which  several  masters  avail  themselves, 
of  getting  some  acquaintance — perhaps  a  necessitous  or  accomo- 
dating clergyman — to  hold  an  examination  in  the  presence  of 
parents,  in  which  questions  are  asked  out  of  some  manual  which 
the  boys  have  learnt  by  heart,  and  after  which  small  prizes  are 
given  all  round  to  avoid  jealousy.  As  to  the  judgment  of  parents, 
that  has  some  weight  on  two  questions  :  whether  the  boys  get 
enough  to  eat  or  not,  and  whether  they  are  fit  for  business  when 
they  leave  school.  A  school  with  regard  to  which  these  questions 
cannot  be  favourably  answered  will  not  flourish  in  the  long  run, 
but  of  anything  further  the  parents  are  no  judges  at  all.  Nothing 
can  distinguish  a  school  where  the  intelligence  of  the  boys  is 
brought  out  from  one  where  it  is  not,  nothing  can  get  rid  of  the 
pretentious  routine  now  in  vogue,  but  some  examination  which 
shall  be  reckoned  as  a  public  test. 

The  better  rnasters  are  quite  aware  of  this,  and  several  expressed 
themselves  very  strongly  In  favour  of  regular  inspection.*  A 
movement,  as  is  well  known,  has  long  been  going  on  in  favour  of 
the  "  registration "  of  schools.  This  might  do  something  to 
prevent  cases  of  scandalous  deficiency,  but  would  give  no  special 
stimulus  to  excellence.  What  is  wanted  is  some  system  that  may 
extend  to  more  schools,  and  to  more  boys  in  the  schools,  the  good 
now  done  by  the  university  "  local  examinations,"  which  at  present 
only  serve  to  make  the  best  of  the  cheap  schools  better,  and  in 
these  only  aifect  the  best  boys.  As  it  was,  they  had  clearly  been  of 
great  benefit  to  the  two  cheap  boarding  schools  which  I  mentioned 
as  using  them.  One  of  these  calls  itself  a  grammar  school.  Keally 
it  possesses  a  small  endowment,  not  given  for  the  teaching  of 
grammar,  and  a  house  which  is  not  used  by  the  master.  The 
yearly  income  from  endowment  and  house  is  35/.  and  a  few 
shillings.  In  consideration  of  this  the  master  takes  two  day-boys 
free ;  the  rest,  if  day-boys,  pay  47.  4s.  a  year  ;  if  boarders  24Z.  3. 
or  26?.  5s.  (for  board  and  tuition),  according  to  age.f  There  were, 
in  the  autumn  of  1865,  17  day-boys  and  58  boarders.  The  house 
and  play-ground  used  by  them,  which  are  very  pleasantly  and  healthily 
situated,  are  not  part  of  the  school  property,  so  that  on  the  whole 
the  establishment  may  be  reckoned  simply  a  private  speculation. 


*  One  of  them,  however,  formerly  master  of  a  national  school,  remarked  that, 
"  unless  the  inspectors  difFered  hoth  in  tone  and  manner  from  those  who  examine 
"  national  schools,  their  visits  would  be  extremely  objectionable." 

f  This  does  not  include  the  charge  for  learning  French  or  for  washing,  which 
together  would  cost  about  5A  a  year.  The  only  other  extras  were  such  as  music, 
drawing,  and  dancing. 


Mr.  Greenes  Beport.  201 

It  is  used  mainly  by  the  lesser  manufacturers,  the  lesser  coal  and 
iron  masters,  and  the  tradesmen  of  Staffordshire ;  to  some  extent  also 
by  farmers.    Considering  the  nature  of  its  clientMe,  the  lowness  of  Good  effect  of 

its  charges,  and  that  it  has  had  no  patronage  from  a  superior  class,  '9''^'  examina- 
.1  '^^  1  .  T      •■     V  •  .1  11  tions  on  sehools 

the  result  seemed  encouragmg,  in  its  lower  regions  the  school  ^jiich  send  in 
did  not  appear  to  differ  from  the  ordinary  cheap  boarding  school,  to  them. 
but  the  10  upper  boys  (whose  ages  were  between  13  and  16)  were 
quite  of  a  higher  order.  They  all  knew  four  books  of  Euclid 
well,  and  they  all  had  a  good  knowledge  of  geography  and  of  the 
outline  of  English  history.  The  latter  knowledge  was  doubtless 
"  crammed,"  but  still  was  of  a  kind  to  make  an  intelligent  in- 
terest in  history,  after  school  was  left,  much  more  possible  than  it 
is  with  most  boys  of  the  same  class.  They  did  not  all  learn  Latin, 
but  those  who  did,  though  they  did  not  and  probably  never  would 
know  enough  to  make  out  an  easy  Latin  book  for  themselves, 
had  some  intelligence  of  the  grammar,  and  were  clearly  much 
stimulated  by  the  effort  to  construe  Cicero  and  Caesar ;  two  of 
them  could  translate  an  ordinary  French  book  into  English  pretty 
well,  and  those  whom  I  tried  in  writing  English  could  express 
themselves  correctly  and  easily  on  an  ordinary  subject ;  four  of 
them,  I  understood,  had  gone  some  way  in  trigonometry,  and 
from  their  excellence  in  Euclid  I  should  have  confidence  that  what 
they  professed  to  know  they  did  know.  Throughout  the  upper 
classes  of  the  school  there  appeared  an  activity  of  mind  and  desire 
to  learn,  quite  unlike  what  is  generally  to  be  found  in  a  commer- 
cial academy. 

The  other  school  draws  on  the  same  class  of  boys,  charging  32Z. 
and  36Z.  for  boarders,  according  to  age,  71.  for  day-boys.*  It  has 
29  boarders,  37  day-boys.  At  this  I  found  an  upper  stratum 
about  on  a  level  with  that  just  described.  None  had  gone  so  far 
in  mathematics,  while  on  the  other  hand  there  were  more  who 
had  a  fair  knowledge  of  French ;  this  is  to  be  accounted  for  by 
the  fact  that  in  this  school  French  is  taught  by  the  principal 
master  himself,  who  has  been  a  good  deal  in  France,  and  it  is  a 
general  rule  in  private  schools  of  this  kind  that  that  subject  alone 
is  well  learnt,  which  the  principal  himself  teaches.  The  upper  boys, 
further,  could  write  English  correctly,  and  had  an  exact  and  ready 
knowledge  of  the  outline  of  English  history.  The  Latin  did  not 
come  to  much.  As  in  all  schools  of  the  kind,  it  seemed  to  have 
been  taught  by  a  man  who  had  not  himself  learnt  it  in  youth ; 
but  though  no  boy  in  the  school  probably,  if  set  down  by  him- 
self to  an  easy  piece  of  Latin  with  a  dictionary,  could  make  it 
out  correctly,  I  am  far  from  thinking  the  effort  to  learn  it  thrown 
away. 

The  two  schools  just  described  have  both  of  late  years  sent  in 
their  best  boys  regularly  for  the  Cambridge  "  local  examinations, "t 

*  It  must  te  remembered  that  in  schools  of  this  order  an  abatement  is  often  made 
from  the  ostensible  terms.  A  younger  brother  is  not  generally  expected  to  pay  so 
much  as  the  older. 

t  For  both  of  them  the  Cambridge  examination  is  more  convenient  than  the  Oxford 
in  respect  of  place.  The  time  of  the  Cambridge  examination  seemed  to  be  generally 
preferred. 


202  Gountieis  of  Stq-fford  ami  Wunoick. 

and  their  superiority  ia  greatly  due  to  this.  The  first  had  passed 
in  three  years  one  senior  and  13  juniors,  two  of  the  latter  having 
They  keep  gained  a  second  class.  The  other,  in  the  same  time,  had  passed 
school?"^^'^  "*  three  seniors  (one  in  "  honours  ")  and  18  juniors  (three  being  in 
"  honours  ").*  This  had  at  once  given  the  schools  an  effective 
"  advertisement  "  (for  parents,  who  can  neither  value  nor  judge  of 
education  in  itself,  care  for  its  result  as  a  decoration),  and  set 
before  the  boys  a  definite  object  of  ambition.  The  latter  result  is 
most  iujportant  as  a  set-off  to  the  tendency,  peculiarly  strong  in 
the  manufacturing  district  of  which  I  am  speaking,  to  leave  school 
at  the  age  of  14.  If  a  boy  can  be  got  to  pass  the  examination  for 
"  juniors  "  under  that  age,  he  may  be  induced  to  stay  on  another 
year  in  order  to  try  for  honours  in  the  same  examination.  Then 
there  is  a  farther  bait  to  him  to  pass  the  examination  for 
seniors  in  the  ensuing  year,  and  if  he  can  compass  that,  to  try  for 
"  honours  "  the  year  after  that.  This  is  not  a  mere  figure  of  the 
imagination.  In  the  former  of  the  two  schools  described  were 
five  boys  who  had  passed  the  Cambridge  "  junior,"  and  ^yho  were 
hoping  to  pass  the  next  Cambridge  "  senior ;"  none  of  these,  as  the 
master  assured  me,  would  have  been  likely  to  have  continued  with 
him  but  for  this  inducement,  and  he  had  hopes,  if  they  succeeded 
in  passing,  that  some  of  them  wovild  stay  on  yet  another  vear 
to  try  for  "  honours." 

This  beneficial  result,  it  is  true,  does  not  affect  more  than  a 
sixth  part  of  either  of  the  above  schools  at  any  one  time.  As  has 
been  said,  the  main  body  of  the  boys  in  them  are  not  perceptibly 
above  the  state  commonly  found  in  cheap  commercial  schools,  but  a 
"  screw,"  formerly  unknown,  is  applied  during  the  last  two  years 
that  a  boy  spends  in  them.  This,  so  far  as  it  goes,  would  seem  to 
be  a  clear  gain.  The  worst  that  can  be  fairly  said  is,  not  that  it  leads 
to  the  neglect  of  ordinary  boys,  but  that  it  leaves  them  as  they 
would  otherwise  have  been,  and  ultimately  about  half  of  them  feel 
the  effect  of  the  final  stimulus  :  that  is,  in  schools  where  otherwise 
nothing  would  have  been  taught  beyond  reading,  writing,  and 
arithmetic,  half  the  boys  are  now  subject  to  instruction,  which  at 
least  gives  them  the  chance  of  learning  the  elements  of  grammar 
and  exact  science,  and  to  read  a  modern  language.  What  is 
Whatis  wanted  Wanted  in  addition  is  (1)  some  encouragement  to  them  to  pursue 
to  extend  the  this  learning  further,  and  (2)  the  means  of  imparting  this  elemen- 
^"^  *'  tary  learning  earlier  and  more  uniformly.     Of  (1)  I  shall  not  say 

more  here  ;  (2)  supposes  partly,  no  doubt,  a  more  general  culti- 
vation among  the  class  from  which  the  boys  in  question  come,  but 
also  a  better  training  and  more  liberal  payment  of  schoolmasters. 
Heal  education  is  at  present  confined  to  the  first  class,  even  in  the 
best  of  the  cheap  commercial  schools,  not  merely  because  of  the 
time  that  has  to  be  spent  on  the  "  three  'Bs,"  but  because  one 
master  alone  in  the  school  can  impart  it,  and  even  he  can  only  do 
it  in  a  clumsy  way.  In  anything  beyond  "  commercial "  subjects 
he  is  probably  self-educated.     Perhaps  in  teaching  mathematics 


The  "  honours  "  were  not  very  high. 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  203 

this  may  not  be  so  much  of  a  drawback,  and  it  is  in  mathematics  Higher trainiag 
that  these  schools  are  best  able  to  succeed,  but  in  teaching  Ian-  °f  ™*sters. 
guages  it  tells  at  once.  Such  a  man  is  scarcely  able  to  make  a 
lesson  in  one  language  bear  on  a  lesson  in  another,  and  hence  will 
tell  one  (what  I  was  often  told  by  the  more  candid)  that  know  - 
ledge  of  Latin  does  not  fixcilitate  the  acquisition  of  French.  Thus 
insufficiently  equipped  to  begin  with,  the  master  is  distracted  by 
the  care  of  making  both  ends  meet  in  his  economy.  It  is  in  conse- 
quence very  difficult  for  him  to  conduct  the  instruction,  even  of 
his  higher  boys,  in  all  subjects.  If,  besides  the  English  subjects, 
he  can  teach  them  efficiently  either  Latin,  or  French,  or  mathe- 
matics, it  is  as  much  as  can  be  expected ;  and  such  is  the  qua.lity 
of  the  assistants  whom  the  present  rate  of  payment  enables  him  to 
obtain,  that  neither  is  any  subject  which  he  does  not  teach  himself 
to  the  higher  boys  likely  to  be  taught  them  well,  nor  is  any  good 
preparation  for  the  higher  work  of  the  school  likely  to  be  given  in 
the  lower  classes. 

III.  The  absence  or  insufficiency  of  grammar  schools  in  certain 
localities,  and  the  want  of  cheap  boarding  schools,  may  be  reckoned, 
according  to  my  experience,  as  the  permanent  causes  of  the  demand 
for  "  classical  and  commercial  academies."  This  statement,  however, 
leaves  unaccounted  for  the  existence  both  of  private  day  schools 
side  by  side  with  the  grammar  schools,  and  of  boarding  schools 
charging  from  33Z.  to  50/.  for  board  and  tuition — charging,  i.e.,  at 
the  same  rate  at  which  most  grammar  scliools  take  boarders.  On 
the  existence  and  importance  of  such  day  schools  I  may  refer  to 
the  figures  given  on  page  165.  Of  boarding  schools,  charging  at 
the  rate  mentioned,  I  have  said  that  I  only  discovered  eight,  one 
in  the  Potteries  with  five  boarders,  two  near  Birmingham  having 
respectively  15  and  23,  two  in  Warwick  and  Leamington  having 
respectively  19  and  26,  one  near  Coventry  with  60,  one  at 
Wolverhampton  with  22,  one  at  Stratford  with  16. 

(iS.)  In  places  where  grammar  schools  with  adequate  endowment  (S)  Action  of 
exist,  the  number  of  boys  in  private  day  schools  is  due  to  causes  P"^^*^  "^^J'^ 

SCllOOlS    SlQP  nv 

which  need  not  be  more  than  temporary.     Most  of  these  have  side  with  gram- 
already  been  noticed,  such  as  the  reasons  marked  (a)  (c)  and  {d)  on  mar  schools. 
pages  196-7.     As  the  education  of  the  commercial  class  gradually 
improves    there  will  be  fewer  cases   of  exceptionally   backward 
boys  who  require  an  exclusive  drill  in  the  knowledge  necessary 
for  business,  such  as  the  system  of  a  grammar  school  ought  not  to 
allow  of;  at  the  same  time  parents  will  be  less  disposed  to  insist  on 
the  acquisition  at  school  of  the  "  practical  knowledge,"  which  is 
acquired  soon  enough  and  more  soundly  in  actual  business.     If  the 
grammar  schools,  on  their  part,  -will  meet  them  half  way  by  some 
such  plan  as  that  delineated  on  page  191,  so  as  to  secure  that  all 
boys   shall  be  expert  in  arithmetic  and  able  to  write  English 
legibly,  quickly,  and  correctly,  by  the  age  of  14,  they  need  not  in  With  good 
the   long  run  lose  many   to  the   private  schools    because    they  ™ai>ag«™«°t 
insist  on  Latin  and  refuse  to  make  exceptions,     ihe  iJridge-trust  schools  would 
school  at  Handsworth,   conducted  on  this  principle,  killed  three  l^i^l  *ese. 
private  day  schools  in  the  first  year  of  its  existence. 

a.o  z.  Q 


204 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


Causes  of  the 
popularity  of 
more  expensiye 
private  day 
schools. 


'  Modem 

subjects.' 


Laxity. 


Comparatiye 
seleetness. 


{y.)  The  reasons  here  noticed  for  preferring  a  private  day 
school  to  an  equally  accessible  grammar  school  apply  to  private 
schools  of  the  cheaper  sort.  It  is  on  somewhat  different  grounds 
that  I  should  account  for  the  existence  of  private  schools  charging 
over  11.  a  year  for  day-boys  in  the  neighbourhood  of  grammar 
schools.  The  counter-attraction  to  the  grammar  school  in  the 
way  of  instruction  which  these  offer  is  not  so  much  a  greater 
celerity  and  certainty  in  imparting  the  "  clerk's  education  "  as  an 
dttention  to  "  modern  subjects."  "  The  empty  vessel  makes  the 
biggest  sound,"  and  this  phrase  "  modern  subjects,"  powerful  to 
the  parental  ear,  diminishes  in  meaning  as  it  is  more  thoroughly 
investigated.  Practically,  it  means  French,  the  elements  of 
popular  science^  geography,  and  a  meagre  outline  of  modem  his^ 
tory.  Of  these  subjects  the  three  last  are  popiJar  with  boys 
and  parents  of  the  well-to-do  middle,  class,  because  they  are  easy; 
French,  because' it  is  both  easy  and  likely  to  be  jiseful.  ,  While  in 
many  grammar  schools  they  are  still  unduly  neglected,  the.  private 
schools  of  the  kind  now  under  consideration  make  a  great  profession 
of  them.  The  result  scarcely  seemed  to  correspond  to  the  pro- 
fession. In  perhaps  three  private  schools  French  was  better 
known  than  in  the  average  grammar  school,  though  certainly  not 
better  than  in  the  best.  The  knowledge  of  history  and  geography 
was  indeed  better  in  all  private  schools  of  this  class  than  in 
grammar  schools  where  these  subjects  are  distinctly  neglected,  but 
not  so  good  as  in  grammar  schools  where  they  are  attended  to  at 
much  less  cost  of  time.  (See  remarks  on  Brewood,  p.  179.)  The 
popular  science,  I  think,  seldom  comes  to  much.  I  did  not  dis- 
cover any  private  day  school  in  my  district  that  had  a  chemical 
laboratory. 

(8.)  Parents,  however,  are  not  critical,  and  the  prospect  of  an 
easy  road  to  general  accomplishment,  which  their  stupid  sons  (of 
whose  stupidity  they  are  never  convinced)  may  traverse  as  quickly 
as  the  most  intelligent,  has  great  charms  for  them.  They  are  also 
attracted  by  the  laxity  of  rule  which  the  private  schools  allow. 
The  masters  of  these  are  not  only  often  obliged  to  put  up  with  the 
constant  absence  of  a  boy  from  school  for  no  necessary  reason  ;  they 
have  also  to  consent  to  give  up  systematically  a  large  number  of  the 
best  hours  for  work  to  lessons  in  music,  drawing,  and  dancing. 
"With  one  voice  they  complain  of  this,  but  would  lose  their  cus- 
tom if  they  resisted.  It  is  not  an  uncommon  case  for  six  hours  a 
week  to  be  taken  from  the  regular  school-time  for  such  lessons, 
and  it  implies  no  disrespect  for  the  accomplishments  in  question, 
considering  the  preliminary  ignorance  and  the  general  stupidity 
of  the  boys,  and  the  early  age  at  which  they  leave  school,  to 
regard  them  as  seriously  interfering  with  the  small  chance  that' 
would  otherwise  exist  of  communicating  a  liberal  education. 

(e.)  The  more  genteel  private  day  school  has  often  a  superior 
attraction  to  the  grammar  school,  apart  from  subjects  (and  laxity) 
of  instruction,  in  being  more  select  and  better  off  in  respect  of 
situation  and  premises.  Of  the  frequent  defect  of  grammar 
schools  in  situation,  building,  and  playground,  and  of  the  con- 


Mr.  Green's  Rsport.  205 

nexion  of  this  defect  with  a  repugnance  to  them  on  the  part  of 
the  jnore  "genteer*  cjasges,  I  have  spoken  above  (pp.  166  and  162). 
Whenever  such  defect  exists,  a  private  school,  charging  §7.  a  yea? 
or  upwards  for  day-boys,  is  pretty  sure  to  find  custoni. 

If  to  the  above  reqisons  be  added  an  indefinite  but  deeply- 
rooted  dislike  and  distrust  of  grammar  schools  on  the  part  of  ^he 
middle  class  generally,  and  especially  of  Dissenters,*  dexived  from 
the  mismanagement  of  them  in  the  past,  we  shall  have  exhausted, 
the  causes,  to j-jthe  best  of  my  belief,  which  enable  private  day      ,     ,   ..  ^ 
schools    to    compete    successfully  with   endowments.      In  most  Instances  ^atrK< 
cases  of  such  competition  that  came  under  my  notice  there  was ^''^'*''''^'     V 
something  about  the  past  or  present  state  of  the  grammar  school  f  ^': 

to  account  for  it.  .At  Stratford,  are  two  private  schools,  takm^ 
day-boys,  besides  the  granimar  schoor.  One .  of  these,  haying 
20  boys,  is  of  the  cheap  sorr,  and  does^,  not  commonly  give  any- 
thing beyond  an  English  education.  Its  existence  is  explained  by 
the  fact  that  in  the  grammar  school  there  (see  p.  97),  though  the 
boys  are  taught  tq  do  sums  well  and  to  understand  English,  Latin 
is  ostensibly  too  dominant,  and  a  boy  who  wanted  primarily  a 
"  clerk's  education"  would  hardly  get  in  it  what  he  wanted.  In 
the  same  town  there  is  a  more  expensive  school,  which  draws  14 
day-boys  from  the  families  of  professional  men  and  the  more 
wealthy  tradesmen.  This  is  explained  by  the  fact,  firstly,  that 
no  modern  language  or  drawing  is  taught  in  the  gramma,r  school, 
while  history  and  geography,  are  made  very  little  of ;  secondly, 
that  owing  to  the  want  of  playground  the  boys  from  the  grammar 
shool  are  turned  out  directly  on  the  street,  and  in  conspquencd 
get  a  reputation  for  ill  manners.  In  almost  the  saine  way  I  should  At  Warwick, 
account  for  the  existence  of  private  day  schools  in  the  district 
from  which  the  Warwick  grammar  school  is  accessible.  It  ought 
to  attract  the  middle  population  of  Leamington  as  well  as  of 
Warwick ;  but  the  Leamington  people  will  not  send  their  sons 
two  or  three  miles  to  a  school  which  has  indeed  two  good  masters 
but  of  which  the  rooms  are  inconvenient,  the  situation  and  sur- 
roundings bad,  the  playground  small  and  damp,  and  in  which  the 
"  English "  teaching  is  not  very  well  organized.  Accordingly 
they  support  two  private  schools  on  the  less  genteel  side  of 
Leamington,  of  which  one  charges  8L,  the  other  6/.  a  year  for 
day-boys.  In  Warwick  itself  is  a  private  school  where  the  neces- 
saries of  commercial  education  are  thought  to  be  learnt  more 
quickly  than  at  the  grammar  school.  At  Wolverhampton  are  At  Wolver- 
some  flourishing  private  day  schools,  which  mainly  owe  their  hampton. 
existence  to  the  bad  situation  and  buildings  of  the  grammar 
school  and  a  reputed  neglect  of  the  necessary  English  education 
in  It  till  within  the  last  year  or  two.f  At  Lichfield  the  existence  At  Lichfield, 
of  a  cheap  day  school  is  attributable  to  the  ,high  charge  for  day- 
boys in  the  grammar  school.  To  one  or  other  of  the  above 
instances  corresponds  nearly  every  case  of  rivalry  between  grain- 

*  See,  however,  page  173. 

t  From  what  I  have  heard  since  writing  lie  above,  I  have  reason  to  believe  that 
the  private;  schoolmasters  of  Wolverhampton  are  already  taking  alarm  at  the  advance 
of  the  grammar  school,'  which  in  a  year  and  a  halfiad  risen.in  numberfi.frQm._lJQ.0-io 
186,  and  that  one  at  least  was  intending  to  leave. 

Q2 


206 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


Causes  of  suc- 
cess of  more 
expensive  pri- 
vate boarding 
schools. 


How  far  the 
grammar 
schools  can  su- 
persede private 
schools. 


mar  and  private  schools  as  day  schools.  In  the  long  run,  I  am 
convinced,  notwithstanding  the  reasons  noticed  under  (/3),  (7), 
and  (S),  a  well-organized  grammar  school,  with  good  building, 
situation,  and  playground,  which  paid  due  attention  to  arithmetic 
and  writing,  and  (in  its  upper  classes)  to  French,  might  empty  all 
surrounding  day  schools,  however  rigidly  it  Insisted  on  Latin 
Its  competition  with  private  boarding  schools  would  be  a  some- 
what different  question. 

These,  as  has  been  said,  so  far  as  they  compete  with  the  grammar 
schools,  may  be  divided  into  a  more  and  a  less  expensive  class,  of 
which  the  latter  has  been  sufficiently  considered.  To  the  success 
of  boarding  schools  charging  over  321.  a  year  *  aU  the  causes  con- 
tribute which  have  been  spoken  of  in  relation  to  the  more  expensive 
private  day  schools,  and  their  operation  is  streng-thened  by  the 
general  feeling  in  favour  of  getting  boys  from  home  (see  p.  159). 
This  feeling  would  be  checked  by  an  improvement  of  the  grammar 
schools  as  dai/  schools,  but  would  not  be  got  rid  of,  while  on  the 
other  hand  the  tendency  of  commercial  men  in  the  larger  towns  to 
remove  their  families,  so  soon  as  they  can  afford  it,  to  a  suburban 
or  rural  residence  frequently  makes  the  use  of  the  day  school  difficult 
or  impossible.  The  case  of  the  upper  class  of  fanners  is,  of  course, 
generally  a  stronger  one.  So  far,  then,  the  demand  for  boarding 
schools  is  one  that  must  continue.  It  is  to  be  noticed,  however, 
that  of  the  boarding  schools  with  which  I  became  acquainted  only 
two  of  the  cheap  sort  (both  large)  and  two  of  the  more  expensive 
(one  with  60  boys.  One  with  15)  were  properly  in  the  country 
the  rest  were  in  towns  and  in  the  neighbourhood  of  grammar 
schools.  Why,  then,  should  not  the  grammar  schools  satisfy  the 
demand  now  satisfied  by  these  private  schools  ? 

In  many  cases  no  doubt  they  might.  The  existence  of  five  out 
of  eight  of  the  more  expensive  private  boarding  schools  seemed 
distinctly  due  to  defects,  present  or  recent,  in  a  neigliliouring 
grammar  school,  remediable  either  by  masters  or  trustees.  In  each 
of  these  cases,  if  the  grammar  school  were  well  situate,  well  built, 
and  provided  good  room  for  boarders  (and  expenditure  for  these 
objects,  even  out  of  a  small  income,  will  always  repay  itself),  and 
if  its  masters  would  give  facility  for  day  boarding,  and  condescend, 
without  the  least  sacrifice  of  Latin  or  Euclid,  in  the  matter  of 
"  English "  and  "  modern  ■"  subjects,  the  private  boarding  school 
might  be  maintained  by  its  present  master  but  would  not  pay  a 
successor.  The  other  three  were  of  a  kind  that  would  be  likely  to 
survive  any  improvement  of  grammar  schools.  One  (a  very  sound 
one)  chiefly  depended  on  a  Baptist  connexion ;  another  drew  on 
backward  and  neglected  sons  of  well-to-do  parents  from  the  "  Black 
country  "  ;  the  third,  a  very  flourishing  institution,  is  delightfully 
situated  in  the  country,  makes  a  great  and  (I  think)  just  profession 
of  moral  discipline,  and  gives  a  very  miscellaneous,  chiefly  "  modern," 
education,  which  is  supposed  to  be  elastic  enough  to  suit  all  minds 
and  all  modes  of  future  life,  and  which,  though  it  does  not  seem  to 
produce  any  eminent  intellectual  result,  is  genuine  of  its  kind. 


*  See  page  203. 


Mr.  Greens  Report,  207 

The  demand  now  satisfied  by  the  cheap  boarding  schools  is  not,  How  far  they 
in  its  present  form,  one  which  it  is  either  possible  or  desirable  for  ^^^^°^ 
the  grammar  schools  to  meet.  It  is  not  desirable,  for  it  I'epresents 
(see  page  197)  a  debasement  of  ideas  on  education,  to  which  the 
grammar  school  ought  not  to  condescend ;  nor  is  it  possible,  for 
though  county  schools  on  a  large  scale  may  take  boarders  at  as  low 
a  rate  as  the  cheap  commercial  academy,  the  master  of  a  grammar 
school,  whose  number  must  generally  be  small,  cannot  be  expected 
to  do  so.  But  though  the  grammar  school  cannot  meet  this  demand, 
it  may,  by  making  itself  more  attractiverfis  a  day  school  to  comm(;r- 
cial  parents  in  the  way  indicated  on  page  203,  greatly  lessen  it.  Till 
popular  ideas  on  education  cbange,  however,  the  demand  must  to 
a  great  extent  continue,  and  can  only  be  made  less  mischievous  by 
society  taking  some  security  against  gross  incompetence  on  the  part 
of  the  masters  of  the  schools  in  question,  and  by  the  provision  of 
some  effective  stimulus  to  the  intellectual  ambition  of  them  and 
their  pupils. 

If  it  is  asked,  finally,  why  it  is  to  be  wished  that  the  grammar  Whatthe  gram- 
schools  should  supersede  private  schools,  the  answer  is  that  the  ""^"^^"J""!^  . 
former  may,  while  the  latter  scarcely  can,  help  a  boy  to  get  beyond  the  private  " 
the  intellectual  position  to  which  he  is  born.     The  operation  of  school  cannot, 
commercial  supply  and  demand,  pure  and  simple,  in  education, 
means,  on  the  whole,  that  as  the  father  is  such  will  the  son  be.    An 
uneducated  father  generally  has  a  low  conception  of  education. 
If  he  grows  very  rich  he  may  perhaps  send  his  son  to  a  fashionable 
school  or  to  the  university,  that  he  may  learn  to  be  like  the  sons 
of  the  landed  gentry,  and  the  boy  commonly  becomes  like  them 
"  with  a  vengeance  ;  "  otherwise  he  sends  him  to  a  private  school 
of  the  kind  described,  where  he  meets  other  boys  of  the  same  class. 
Here  there  is  nothing  to  raise  him  above  the  traditions  of  his 
home.     Neither  those  about  him  nor  those  above  him  are  likely  to 
do  anything  to  enlarge  his  intellectual  horizon,  and  there  is  no 
path  of  reward  to  tempt  him  on  to  the  higher  learning.     He  is 
naturally  in  a  hurry  to  leave  and  make  money  as  his  father  made 
it.     Those  parents,  on  the  other  hand,  who  have  a  higher  idea  of 
education  but  no  large  share  in  this  world's  goods,  if  their  lot  is 
cast  in  a  region  of  private  schools,  must  conform  to  the  general 
level.   They  must  send  their  sons  to  schools  of  which  the  standard 
is  set  by  the  capacity  and  aspiration  of  the  majoiity.     Thus  in 
almost  all  the  decent  private  schools  I  found  one  or  two  boys,  13 
or  14  years  old,  who  seemed  to  have  more  faculty  and  desire  of 
learning  than  was  ever  likely  to  be  brought  out.     Now,  a  well- 
organized  system  of  grammar  schools  by  which  the  poorer  schools 
should  pass  on  their  best  boys   with   small  exhibitions  to   the 
richer,  and  these  again  should  transfer  their  elite  with  larger  exhi- 
bitions to  the  university,  would  at  once  meet  the  aspiration  of 
the  few  and  raise  that  of  the  many.     It  would  spread  its  net  to 
catch  boys  who  want  a  commercial  education,  and  having  caught 
them,  while  it  gave  them  what  they  wanted  wouldj  by  a  process 
of  natural  selection,  keep  for  the  higher  learning  all  who  were  fit 
for  it.     It  would  bring  every  boy  of  capacity  by  the  age  of  14  or 
so  in  contact  with  the  mind  of  a  scholar  and  familiarize  him  with 


208 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


Supplemental 
action  of  pro- 
prietary 
schools. 


Leamington. 


Failm-e  of  this. 


Tettenhall. 


Its  objects. 


the  prospect  of  an  intellectual  career.  Such  a  system  would  find 
no  small  class  of  parents  eager  to  avail  themselves  of  it,*  and  once 
inaugurated  it  would,  by  its  own  operation,  perpetually  augment 
this  class.  Not  only  would  it  by  degrees  create  a  taste  for  the 
pursuit  of  science  and  literature  in  our  large  towns  (where  there 
might  be  plenty  of  leisure  for  it  if  only  there  were  the  will) ;  it 
would  constantly  be  increasing  the  demand  for  schoolmasters 
of  high  university  degree,  and  thus  be  giving  to  the  scholastic 
career  more  of  the  material  encouragement  which  it  at  present 
lacks.  If  it  is  desired  faiiiy  to  get  rid  of  the  notion  ingrained 
in  the  mind  of  the  commercial  class,  and  of  which  an  historical 
account  can  easily  be  given,  that  high  education  is  the  perquisite 
of  the  clergy  and  gentry,  this  is  the  way  to  do  it.  . 

Before  leaving  the  consideration  of  the  supplemental  action  of 
private  persons  in  middle  education,  some  notice  must  be  taken 
of  proprietary  schools.  Of  these  I  only  met  with  three,  those 
at  Leamington,  Tettenhall,  and  Edgbaston.  The  Leamington; 
College  was  originally  established  on  the  proprietary  plan  ;  i.e.,  it 
belonged  to  shareholders;  but  some  years  ago  it  was  decided  to  vest 
the  property  in  trustees.  Inasmuch  as  sons  of  tradesmen  in  the  town 
were  virtually  excluded  from  it  (an  exception  having  been  made, 
I  believe,  in  only  one  case),  it  could  hardly  be  reckoned  a  middle 
school.  It  was  in  fact  intended  for  the  sons  of  the  unemployed: 
gentry  resident  in  Leamington,  and  as  an  attractioii  to  bring  more 
of  that  class  into  the  place.  It  did  not  make  a  good  start,  and 
though  it  revived  considerably  (as  was  natural)  under  the  late 
master,  yet  it  did  not  succeed  in  clearing  itself  of  debt.  It  had, 
indeed,  no  very  definite  opening.  It  did  not  want  to  have  sons 
of  tradesmen,  nor  were  its  system  or  rate  of  paymentj  adapted  to 
them.  On  the  other  hand,  the  more  wealthy  resident  gentry, 
unless  they  had  a  preference  (rarely  found)  for  a  day  school, 
naturally  preferred  the  old  public  schools,  while  people,  who 
wished  for  a  residence  in  that  district  with  a  view  to  local  educa- 
tion, would,  if  possible,  quarter  themselves  on  Eugby.  Whatever 
the  reason,  the  Leamington  College  has  not  prospered,  and  since 
my  visit  has  been  sold  in  order  to  pay  off  the  debt. 

The  proprietary  school  at  Tettenhall  was  started  by  a  number 
of  wealthy  men,  mostly  engaged  in  the  commerce  or  manufactures 
of  South  Staffordshire,  "  whose  object,"  to  use  their  own  language, 
"  was  to  establish  a  school  which  should  furnish  on  moderate 
"  terms  a  sound  and  liberal  education,  both  classical  and  com- 
"  mercial,  with  a  religions  training  in  harmony  with  the  principles 
"  held  by  Evangelical  Nonconformists."  The  school  circular 
further  states  that  "  A  thorough  education  in  the  classics  and 
"  mathematics  is  made  the  main  element  in  the  school  course, 
"  which  includes  also  a  sound  training  in  all  the  usual  branches 
"  of  an  English  education,  together  with  the  French  language, 


*  See  pages  153  and  194. 
t  20/.  a  year  for  day-boys. 


.-■   ■    Mr:  Green's  Repwt.  309 

"  ^nd  the  rudiments  of  drawing  and  vocal  music.     The  senior 

"sohojlars, will  be. prepared  and  encpuraged  to  matriculate  at  the 

"  University  of  London."     It  is  entirely  a  boarding  school.     The 

yearly  charge,  ..including  necessary  extras,  is  47/.  5s.     Weekly, 

boarders  pay  9L  9s.  a  year  less.*     Boys  entering  above  the  age  of 

15  pay  10^.  10s.  a  year  more.     In  favour  of  sons  of  ministers  of 

religion  (this  is  important  to  observe)  a  reduction  of  25  per  cent. 

is  made.     The  shareholders  have  no  privilege  of  nominating  boys 

to  the  school.     All  may  come  for  whom  there  is  room.     Some 

pecuniary  return  is  contemplated  on  the  outlay — five  per  cent  is 

talked  of — but  with  the  originators  of  the  scheme  this  was  certainly 

not  an  object.     The  school  is  excellently  situate  in  one  of  the  Its  condition.. , 

pleasantest  villages  of  England,   easily  accessible  from   Wolveiv 

hampton  and  the  "  Black  country,"  but  unaiFected  by  its  smoke 

and  noise.     Its  head  master  is  a  man   of  learning  and  ability,  of 

high  repute  among  the  Independents.     In   the  autumn  of  1865 

the  arrangements  were  still  so  far  from  complete  that  the  directors 

thought   it  better  not    to  allow  an    examination  or   to  furnish 

answers  to  the  questions  issued  by  the  Commission.      All  the 

information,  however,  that  I  asked  for,  was  readily  granted. 

At  that  time  the  new  building  (which  is,  I  believe,  now  open) 
was  only  just  above  the  ground.  The  school  meanwhile  was  held 
in  an  old  mansion  close  by,  which,  with  its  grounds,  has  been 
bought  by  the  directors.  The  arrangements  contemplated  were 
very  elaborate,  and  when  complete  would  accommodate  nearly 
120  boys,  for  whom  there  would  be  six  resident  masters.  When 
I  was  there  the  number  of  boys  was  42,  all  that  the  then  accom- 
modation would  admit.  Of  these  two-thirds  were  Independents, 
and  most  of  the  rest  Baptists.  More  than  half  seemed  to  be 
intended  for  commercial  life,  but  the  master  hoped  to  keep  all  till 
the  age  of  17  or  18,  and  to  make  matriculation  at  the  University 
of  London  part  of  the  system  of  the  school.  Hitherto  no  boy 
had  left  under  16,  save  for  illness.  The  master's  plan  was  to  teach 
Latin  and  Greek  to  all,  and  only  to  vary  from  the  "  public  school " 
model  in  this,  that  he  would  make  more  of  the  "  English  Educa- 
tion "  in  the  lower  classes,  and  would  not  attempt  much  composition 
in  verse. 

The  establishment  of  such  a  school  at  least  bears  witness  to  a  Inferences  to 
strong  zeal  for  the  higher  education  among  the  dissenting  men  of  estibuXntnr 
business  of  that  district,  a  class  not  apt  to  be  credited  with  it.  of  this  school. 
There  is  more  of  it,  to   the  best  of  my  belief,  among  them — in 
consequence  perhaps  of  the  influence  of  certain  ministers — than 
among  the  Churchmen  of  the  same  class  in  that  district..    The* 
interest,   however,  is  on   the  whole  a  new  one  with   them.     The 
long  exclusion  of  Dissenters  from  the  old  universities,  and  from 
the   endowments  which  give  to  the  clerical  profession  a  social 
[prestige,  have  led  them  generally  to  regard  the  pursuit  of  com- 
merce as  their  necessary  inheritance  and  thus  to  terminate  the 

*  It  IS  supposed  that  their  washing  is  done  at  home. 


210  Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 

education  of  their  sons  at  the  age  when  qualifications  for  commerce 
are  supposed  to  be  sufficiently  obtained.  But  a  considerable 
change  is  appearing  among  them  in  this  respect,  and  though  the 
question  of  turning  to  more  general  account  the  educational 
endowments  of  the  country  is  not  one  with  which  they,  any  more 
than  other  people,  are  yet  very  familiar,  no  one  in  my  experience 
caught  so  eagerly  at  any  scheme  that  might  be  suggested  for 
facilitating  access  to  the  higher  culture  as  certain  Dissenting 
ministers  and  laymen  whom  it  was  my  privilege  to  meet,  nor  did 
any  assure  me  so  strongly  of  a  readiness  to  take  advantage  of  such 
a  scheme  on  the  part  of  the  classes  which  they  represented. 
Limitations  to  The  drawbacks  which  I  should  anticipate  to  the  efficiency  of 
possiWe success  tj^g  Tattenhall  school,  would  be  the  want  of  good  feeders,  and  the 
want  of  effective  ultimate  reward.  If  it  is  to  do  its  work  in  the 
best  way  as  a  place  of  training  for  universities,  it  ought  to  be  fed 
by  boys  of  about  the  age  of  13,  already  sufficiently  equipped  in 
arithmetic  and  Enirlish  writing,  and  well  grounded  in  Latin.  If 
It  does  not  get  most  of  its  boys  in  this  state,  as  it  cannot,  like 
Eton  or  Harrow,  ignore  English  teaching,  it  will  be  pulled  down 
by  the  necessities  of  "  commercial  education/'  Now  in  the  present 
state  of  things  Nonconformists  of  the  class  in  question  have 
scarcely  the  means  of  getting  this  early  preliminary  education  for 
their  boys.  In  a  very  fev/  cases  it  might  be  given  at  home. 
Otherwise  it  could  only  be  got  at  grammar  schools  and  cheap 
private  schools  in  the  condition  already  described,  which  at  best 
only  bring  a  few  boys,  and  these  not  till  the  age  of  15,  to  the  state 
in.  which  they  ought  to  be  on  entering  such  a  school  as  Tettenhall 
seems  to  be,  A  well  endowed  school  would  have  the  remedy  in 
its  hands,  if  it  would  only  use  it.  It  might  institute  an  entrance 
examination  in  the  preliminary  subjects,  and  give  exhibitions, 
tenable  at  school,  to  those  who  did  best  in  it.  Such  an  examina- 
tion would  be  something  for  the  smaller  schools  to  aim  at,  and  in 
time  they  would  have  boys  forthcoming  up  to  the  required 
standaed.  As  it  is,  the  directors  of  the  Tettenhall  institution 
propose  to  found  two  scholarships,  tenable  at  the  school,  of  25i. 
a  year  each.  This  is  indeed  a  laudable  proof  of  their  spirit,  but 
more  are  wanted.  If  they  could  lay  hands  on  some  grammar 
school  funds  at  present  wasted,  and  apply  them  to  the  establish- 
ment of  several  scholarships,  open  to  all  comers,  they  might  convert 
all  the  small  grammar  schools  and  the  best  private  schools  about, 
so  far  as  they  contain  sons  of  Dissenters,  into  serviceable  feeders. 
But  in  this,  as  in  other  cases,  where  the  heart  is  there  is  not  the 
treasure. 
Importance  to  In  like  manner  I  should  doubt  whether  the  attractions,  of  the 
disabaities*\°^  University  of  London  will  suffice  to  induce  many  of  the  pupils, 
Oxford  and  with  the  alternative  of  the  early  pursuit  of  profitable  business 
Cambridge.  before  them,  to  pursue  their  studies  at  due  length  and  with  due 
thoroughness.  The  head  master  is  quite  aware  of  the  superior 
stimulus  which  the  endowments  of  Oxford  and  Cambridge  enable 
them  to  afford,  and  assured  me  that  if  the  disabilities  which  they 
impose  on  Dissenters  were  once  thoroughly  removed,  he  should 


Mr.  GreerHs  Report.  211 

set  himself  to  prepare  boys  to  compete  for  scholarships  at  those 
universities,  as  he  does  now  to  matriculate  at  the  University  of 
London. 

The  origin  of  the  proprietary  school  at  Edgbaston  (charging  Edgbaston: 
from  9Z.  to  2\l.  a  year  for  day  boys  according  to  position  in  school) 
has  already  been  referred  to  (p.  93.)  The  system  which  its  founders  its  objects. 
and  managers  contemplated,  was  one  which  should  give  to  boys 
destined  for  commercial  life  at  once  the  necessary  education  and 
as  much  general  cultivation  as  possible,  while  at  the  same  time  it 
should  be  available  as  a  preparation  for  universities.  Accordingly 
Latin  and  French  were  to  be  taught  throughout,  and  German 
in  the  higher  classes.  Greek  was  to  be  optional.  For  classics, 
mathematics,  and  modern  languages  severally,  there  was  to  be  a 
separate  classification,  so  that  each  study  might  have  an  un- 
trammelled chance  of  flourishing.  This  programme  has  been 
adhered  to.  At  first  its  success  was  considerable ;  it  sent  a  good 
many  boys  to  the  London  Univei'sity  and  achieved  remarkable 
distinction  in  the  Oxford  local  examinations.  It  also  got  an  open 
scholarship  at  Oxford  and  another  at  Cambridge.  Of  late  years 
it  has  declined  both  in  numbers*  and  success.  For  a  time  it 
ceased  to  send  boys  in  for  the  "  local  examinations,"  and  though  Its  partial 
it  sent  in  three  juniors  in  1865,  they  did  not  greatly  dis-  decline. 
tinguish  themselves.  One  very  promising  boy  from  it  came  up 
to  Oxford  in  1866,  but  he  was  so  much  better  than  any  one  else 
in  the  school  that  he  had  for  some  time  been  taught  by  himself. 
Very  few  have  gone  from  it  lately  to  the  London  University,  and 
the  general  age  for  leaving  the  school  was  shortened.  Hardly 
any  have  stayed  on  beyond  16  ;  most  have  left  at  15. 

The  only  assignable  causes  that  I  could  discover  for  this  decline  Causes  of  this, 
were  (1)  that  at  the  time  of  its  foundation  many  of  the  persons 
who  started  it  had  themselves  sons  for  whom  they  wished  a  high 
education,  and  whom  they  kept  at  the  school  long  enough  to  get 
it.  These  sons  are  now  grown  up  and  others  have  not  appeared 
to  take  their  place;  parents  of  the  same  position  as  the  foijnders 
of  the  school  being  now  more  disposed  to  use  distant  boarding- 
schools.  (2)  That  since  the  Edgbaston  school  was  founded  there 
has  been  an  improvement  in  the  grammar  school,  especially  in  its 
non-classical  department  and  in  its  general  arrangements.  It  may 
be  added  that  the  late  head  master,  who  left  a  few  months  ago, 
though  a  most  accomplished  scholar  and  admirably  fitted  to  give 
reality  to  the  "  modern  "  education,  perhaps  gave  scarcely  enough 
attention  to  the  routine  of  school  work. 

For  whatever  reason,  the  attempt  to  combine  the  classical  and 
the  modern  education  has  not  succeeded  at  Edgbaston.  In  1865 
only  12  boys,  less  than  a  sixth  of  the  school,  were  learning  Greek. 
In  the  third  class  from  the  top  only  three  out  of  ]  5  were  learning 
it,  and  the  proportion  was  not  much  larger  in  the  classes  above 
this.  The  Latin  scholarship  was  clearly  at  a  low  ebb.  The  exer- 
cises which  I  saw  of  12  boys  in  the  second-class  from  the  top, 

*  It  had  under  80  boys  in  1865,  having  at  one  time  had  120. 


212 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwich. 


Conditions  of 
success  of  this 
school. 


School  under 
Privy  Council, 
how  far  sup- 
plemental to 
grammar 
school. 


though  not  at  all  difficult,  were  full  of  gross  grammatical  blunders. 
The  knowledge  of  French  in  the  school,  on  the  other  hand,  so  far 
as  I  was  able  to  judge  of  it,  was  very  good.  That  in  such  a  school, 
under  such  a  system,  the  "  modern  "  subjects  should  triumph  over 
the  classical  seems,  apart  from  all  questions  of  management,  an 
inevitable  result.  A  parent,  who  distinctly  looked  to  a  university 
career  for  his  son,  would  send  him  to  the  grammar  school  which 
has  exhibitions,  not  to  the  proprietary  school.  The,  boys  in  the 
latter,  therefore,  may  be  presumed  generally  to  have  no  strong 
stimulus  to  classical  studies  at  home,  and  not  to  have  learnt  the 
Latin  grammar  early.  At  school  their  time  is  very  much  divided 
and  there  is  no  prestige  attaching  to  success  in  Latin  above  that 
which  attaches  to  success  in  other  subjects  to  compensate  for  its 
far  greater  difficulty  of  attainment.  In  short,  all  the  general 
conditions  that  conduce  to  success  in  classical  studies  are  wanting 
here.  There  is  want  of  early  education,  want  of  pressure  at  home, 
want  of  sufficiently  exclusive  attention,  want  of  sufficient  reward 
at  school,  and  want  of  a  definite  result  from  classical  study  in  after 
life.  The  object  of  the  originators  of  this  school,  however — that 
of  giving  a  good  general  education  to  boys  destined  for  business — 
is  a  most  important  one.  For  its  attainment  two  conditions  at 
least  are  necessary,  good  early  education  and  a  habit  of  remaining 
at  school  till  the  age  of  17  or  18.  If  the  Edgbaston  school 
received  its  boys  well  drilled  in  Latin  accidence,;  and  could  be 
relieved  of  the  burden  of  teaching  elementary  English  and  arith- 
metic, it  might  give  to  boys,  who  would  stay  long  enough,  a  good 
"  modern  "  education,  based  on  that  real  knowledge  of  Latin, 
without  which  no  one  is  a  qualified  citizen  of  the  intellectual 
commonwealth  of  the  modern  world.  In  any  case,  however,  it 
would  suffer  from  the  absence  of  boys  destined  for  professions  for 
which  a  good  education  is  necessary,  and  from  the  want  of  sub- 
stantial rewards  for  continued  and  diligent  study.  AH  that  is 
possible  for  the  Edgbaston  school  in  the  way  of  "  modern '' 
education  ought  to  be  more  possible  for  a  grammar  school  with 
an  income  approaching  20,000Z.  a  year,  with  the  great  additional 
advantage  on  the  part  of  the  latter  that  it  might  keep  its 
"  modern"  students,  to  some  extent,  in  contact  with  those  who 
were  pursuing  longer  methods  and  give  them  a  constant  induce- 
ment to  undertake  those  methods  thejnselves  (see  above,  pp.  131, 
138,  and  140).  The  benefit  of  this  in  modifying  the  superficial 
tone  apt  to  result  from  the  "  modern  "  education,  wouldjj  think, 
though  indefinite,  be  very  great. 

I  know  of  no  other  supplements  to  the  grammar  schools  than 
those  mentioned,  unless  schools  under  the  Privy  Council,  so  far 
as  they  educate  sons  of  tradesmen  and  farmers,  may  be  so  reckoned. 
On  this  point,  I  presume,  statistics  may  be  obtained  at  head- 
quarters. Among  the  masters  of  the  cheap  commercial  schools, 
I  heard  frequent  complaints  that  boys  who,  considering  the 
position  of  their  parents,  ought  to  be  sent  to  them,  were  sent 
instead  -to  schools  receiving  Government  aid.  .  Such  a  master,  near 
West  Bromwich,  told  me  that  by  conference  with  the  master  of  a 


Mr.  Green's  Eeport,  213 

neighbouring  Wesleyan  school  under  Government  inspection,  he 

had  ascertained  that  there  were.  70  boys  in  attendance  at  the 

lattei",  whose  parents  might  rather  have  been  expected  to  send 

them  to  a  middle  school  of  some  sort.     My  impression  is,  that 

this  is  a  sample  of  a  practice  prevalent  thoughout  the  "  Black 

country,"  and  at  Birmingham,  where  the  middle  class  emerges  Difference 

rapidly  from  the  working  class,  and  it  has  an  important  bearing  ^etween  manu- 
iU  ^-  1     ^1        . 1  11  ■  °  facturmg  towns 

on  the  question  whether  the  grammar  schools  can  in  any  way  use  ami  others. 

the  schools  und^r  the  Privy  Council  as  their  feeders.*     To  some 

extent  the  same  practice  prevails  in   the  Potteries,   nor  do  the 

small  farmers  of  North   Staffordshire  object  to  using  the  same 

school  as  the  labourers,  if  they  like  it  in   other  respects.     In 

country  towns,  and  in  the  rural  districts  where  farms  are  large, 

distinctions  of  class  are  more  fixed  and  matter  of  more  social 

jealousy.     Here,  accordingly,  the  school  under  inspection,  unless 

it  happens  to  have  a  hold  on  some  particular  congregation  of 

Dissenters,  is  more  exclusively  used  by  children  of  the  poor. 

Any  plan  for  the  improvement  of  grammar  schools  must  begin  Funds  available 
with  the  question  of  funds.     Are  those  which  they  at  present  actually  or  pos- 
possess  sufficient  to  meet  the  wants  of  an  improved  system,  and  if  provement™ 
not,  how  can  more  be  obtained  ?     In  answering  this  question,  the 
first  thing  to  take  account  of  is  the  present  application  of  property, 
bequeathed  for  the  purpose  of  teaching  grammar,  to  other  pur- 
poses.    I  have  already  stated  that  in  nine  grammar  schools  of 
Staffordshire,  having  a  gross  annual  income  of  1,123Z.  and  in  three 
of  Warwickshire,  with  a  gross  annual  income  of  172/.,  the  educa- 
tion given  does  not   profess  to  be  higher  than  that  given   in 
elementary  schools  for  the  poor.f  To  these  ought  in  fairness  to  be 
added  Audley,  with  annual  income  of  155/.,  where  two  boys  learn 
a  little  Latin,  but  where  the  rest  are  not  above  the  level  of  a  Grammar 
National  school,  and  the  lower  departments  at  Walsall  and  Coles-  school  money 
hill,  on  which  together  about  220/.  a  year  is  spent,  and  from  which  ^nages!^*^" 
there  is   no  transition   to  the  upper  department.     It  would  be 
reasonable  to  add,  most  of  the  money  spent  on  lower  departments 
elsewhere,  from  which  boys  are  exceptionally  transferred  to  the 
upper,  but  in  which  the  general  level  is  not  above  that  of  a 
National  school ;    also  the   income  of  the    grammar    schools    at 
Hatnpton  Lucy,  Abbot's-Bromley,  (121/.  and  20/.  respectively,) 
where  Latin  is  professed,  but  where,  from  the  nature  of  the  case^; 
a  grammar  school  is  of  no  use.     Setting  these  latter  cases  aside, 
we  have  a  yearly  income  of  1,650/.  derived  from  grammar  school 
funds  and  not  devoted  to  grammar  school  purposes. 

That  it  should  be  so  devoted  in  the  places  for  whose  benefit  it 
was  left,  is  in  most  of  the  above  cases  barely  possible.  At  Walsall 
certainly,  at  Coleshill  possibly,  the  lower  department  might  use- 
fully be  made  preparatory  to  the  upper.  The  other  places  are 
villages,  and   the   only   example  I  have   met  with  .  of  a  successful 

*  See  Note  B. 

t  The  nine  in  Staffordshire  are  Aldridge,  Barton-under-Needwood,  Bradley,  Church- 
Eaton,  Dilhome,  Gnosall,  Madeley,  Newchapel,  Eolleston.  The  three  in  Warwick- 
shire are  Kingsbury,  Monks-Kirby,  and  Salford-Priors.  From  the  gross  annual 
income  stated  in  the  text  must  be  deducted  751.,  which  represents  voluntary  grants  in 
supplement  of  endowments. 


214 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


grammar  school  in  a  village  is  that  of  Appleby  in  Leicestershire. 
That  is  rather  a  peculiar  case.     It  has  had  a  local  repute  as  a 
grammar  school  for  several  generations,  which  it  has  only  lost  for 
short  intervals.     It  has  an  imposing  and  (on  the  whole)  corn- 
It  takes  the       niodious  building,  and  is  central  to  many  villages.     Thus,  having 
na^y^lementary  ^^^  t^e  fortune  a  few  years  ago  to  obtain  an  excellent  master,  who 
school.  brought  several  boarders  of  a  good  sort  with  him,  it  promises, 

supposing  the  master  to  be  duly  supported  by  the  trustees,  to  act 
as  a  very  useful  middle  school,  maintaining  a  high  standard  of 
classics  and  mathematics,  to  the  country  about.  Possibly,  some 
of  the  schools  under  consideration  might  with  good  management 
have  been  kept  up  to  the  same  mark,  but  having  now  permanently 
fallen  from  it,  they  can  scarcely  regain  it.  As  it  is,  they  can 
scarcely,  with  one  or  two  exceptions,  be  reckoned  even  a  superior 
sort  of  village  school,  their  effect  being  simply  to  provide  out  of 
an  endowment  an  education  which  might  otherwise  be  provided, 
with  better  security  for  usefulness,  out  of  local  subscriptions, 
Does  no  good  Government  grant,  and  school  pence.  Under  the  present  rule  of 
thereby.  the  Education  Office,  which  prevents  more  than  a  certain  sum  per 

head  being  paid  from  endowment  and  Government  grant  together, 
they  have  generally  no  chance  of  a  Government  grant,  and  hence 
are  not  under  Government  inspection.  Only  three  out  of  13  are 
so  inspected.  Six  others  are  examined  regularly  by  a  diocesan 
inspector ;  four  others  not  at  all.  In  seven  of  them  no  fees  at  all, 
or  fees  merely  nominal,  are  paid.  In  one  of  the  others,  boys  from 
outside  the  parish,  about  a  third  of  the  school,  pay  9rf.  a  week, 
while  the  rest  are  free.  In  another,  more  than  half  are  free,  the 
rest  paying  from  4s.  to  6s.  a  quarter.  In  another,  six  out  of  80 
on  the  books  pay  10s.  Gd.  per  quarter,  the  rest  being  free.  In 
another,  about  half  are  free,  the  i-est  paying  17.  a  quarter.  In  the 
other  three  weekly  pence  are  paid.  In  one  case  4Ql.  a  year  is 
added  to  an  endowment  of  QQl.  by  a  resident  landowner.  In 
another,  1.5/.  is  added  to  .54/.  by  the  parish.*  In  none  of  the  other 
cases  is  anything  done  by  subscription  or  otherwise  to  supplement 
the  endowment. 
Instances.  It  is  clear,  then,  that  in  the  places  in  question  the  grammar 

school  funds  are  simply  taking  the  place  of  the  sources  from  which 
elementary  schools  are  commonly  maintained.  We  have  next  to 
inquire  (1)  whether  there  is  anything  in  these  places  that  would 
make  the  maintenance  of  an  elementary  school  in  the  ordinary 
way  difficult,  and  (2)  whether,  supposing  such  school  to  be  main- 
tained, it  would  fail  to  do  any  good  done  by  the  existing  school. 
The  first  question  must  be  answered  in  the  negative.  Some  of 
the  places  are  at  a  peculiar  advantage,  none  at  any  disadvantage, 
for  the  maintenance  of  a  National  school.  In  two  of  them, 
Dilhorne  and  Eolleston,  are  resident  baronets,  one  supposed  to  be 
of  great  wealth.  In  another,  Church  Eaton,  the  benefice  is  very 
valuable.  Another,  Barton-under-Needwood,  is  a  model  village 
in  situation  and  appearance,  and  has  several  resident  gentry.  In 
none  of  the  other  cases  is  there  any  exceptional  poverty.     To  the 

*  The  case  referred  to  is  that  of  Monk's  liirby.     The  5il.  includes  a  yearly  grant 
of  iil.  made  hy  the  trustees,  hut  not  required  by  the  terms  of  the  trust. 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  215 

second  question,  I  think,  the  answer  must  be  that  in  most  of  these 
places   a  school   maintained   by  subscriptions,  fees,  and  Govern- 
ment grant  would  be  better  than  the  existing  one.     This  remark 
does  not  apply  to  the  three  under  Government  inspection.     In 
these,  some   Government  money  is  lost  through  the  possession  of 
an  endowment,  but  the  endowment  more  than  covers  the  loss,  and 
thus  presumably  attracts  a  better  master  than  might  otherwise  be 
had.   In  several  of  the  others  evils  were  noticeable  which  Govern- . 
ment  inspection  might  tend  to  remove,  especially  irregularity 
of  attendance.     Where  this  irregularity  damages  the  income  of 
the   school    by  lessening  the  Government  grant,  more  vigorous 
measures  are  taken  to  check  it  than  where  it  involves  no  such  fine. 
Thus,  in  one  of  these  village  "grammar  schools,"  I  only  found  36 
in  attendance  out  of  80  on  the  books ;  in  another,  33  out  of  90, 
in  another,  20  out  of  35.     The  master  of  another  told  me  that  on 
a  rainy  day  his  school  was  nearly  empty.     One  of  these  schools, 
again,   was   held   in  a  building   wholly   unfit    for    the    purpose. 
Generally,  the  absence  of  an  inspection  on  which  money  depends 
leads  to  a  slackness  of  work.     Against  these  evils,  as  it  seemed, 
very  little  countervailing  good  was  to  be  set.     In  five  out  of  1.3, 
there  were  sons  of  farmers  mixed  with  the  poor  boys,  but  I  heard 
no  reason  for  supposing  that  in  these  cases  the  willingness  of  the 
farmers  to  use  the  school  was  due  to  its  endowment.     Gratuitous- 
ness of  education  is  i-ather  the  reverse  of  an  attraction  to  farmers, 
who  like  to  be  able  to  say  as  one  said  in  my  hearing,  "  I  pay  a 
shilling  a  week  for  my  lad,  and  no  thanks  to  no  man."     In  three 
out  of  the  13,  there  was  some  filtration  to  the  "grammar  school," 
out  of  a  lower  mixed  school,  which  if  it  had  been   effectively 
worked,  as  it  did  not  seem  to  be,  might  have  kept  the  former  to  a 
higher  standard  than  that  of  the  ordinary  National  school  in  a 
village.     In  the  rest,  however,  there  was  no  pretence  of  this  kind. 
Pour  of  them  were  themselves  mixed  schools.     For  the  boys  in 
the  others  there  was  no  preparatory  instruction,  except  such  as 
might  be  given  at  a  dame's  or  infant  school,  and  the  standard  of 
admission  was  merely  nominal. 

Where  these  grammar  school  endowments  in  villages  are  small 
in  amount,  as  is  generally  the  case,  it  might  not  be  thought  very 
desirable,  even  if  there  were  the  power  to  interfere  with  them, 
except  so  far  as  to  secure  that  the  elementary  schools  which  they 
maintain  are  good  of  their  kind.    There  are  three  cases  in  Stafford-  Cases  where 
shire  where  either  from  peculiarity  of  situation,  or  from  size  of  ^^^^  resent 
endowment,  the  utility  of  some  interference  from   without   can  system  is 
hardly  be  questioned.     These  are  (1)  the  case  of  Bradley  and  wanted. 
Church  Eaton,  (2)  that  of  Dilhorne,  (3)  that  of  Newchapel  and 
Audlej'.     In  the  first  are  two  villages,  little  more  than  two  miles 
distant,  possessing  endowments  for  the  purpose  of  teaching  gram- 
mar which  together  produce  a  gross  income  of  405/.  a  year.*    Out 
of  this  are  maintained  two  common  village  schools.     In  one  of 
these,  I  understood,  there  were  no  sons  of  farmers,  and  as  the 

*  For  present  charges  on  this  income,  see  separate  reports. 


216  Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 

farms  were  said  to  be  large,  and  the  farmers  to  keep  phaetons,  it 
was  not  expected  that  there  would  be  many.  In  the  other  were 
several  sons  of  farmers,  but  most  of  these  were  likely  to  go  on  to 
Bradley  and  some  other  school  to  be  finished.  One  of  the  schools  is  for  boys 
Church  Eaton,  alone,  but  the  only  means  for  preparing  boys  for  it  is  a  dame's 
school.  The  other  is  a  mixed  school,  and  for  it  there  is  no 
preparation. 

These  schools,  left  as  they  are,  can  scarcely  be  much  raised  in 
character.  The  population  in  one  village  is  a  little  under,  in  the 
other  a  little  over  600,  and  in.  both  cases  there  was  a  decrease 
between  1851  and  1861.  They  do  not  lie  on  any  main  road,  nor 
are  they  central  to  other  villages.-  Bradley  is  vdthin  five  miles  of 
the  grammar  school  at  Stafford,  to  which  both  its  clergyman  and 
its  schoolmaster  were  sending  sons  as  day  bays  at  the  time  of 
my  visit.  The  Bradley  ^farmers,  I  understood,  frtequently  sent 
sons  there.  Church  Eaton  is  rather  further  from  the  Stafford 
school,  but  not  too  far  for  its  farmers  to  use  it  with  facilities 
for  boarding  by  the  day  or  week.  On  the  other  side,  of  it,  at  a 
distance  of  about  seven  miles,  is  Newport  with  a  grammar  school> 
to  which  the  Church  Eaton  farmers  sometimes  send  their  sons. 
The  only  mode  in  which  the  grammar  school  endowments  of  the 
two  places  could  be  made  really  useful  to  the  neighbourhood — for 
at  present  they  are  merely  doing  what  in  other  less  favoured  places 
is  done  without  them — would  be  something  of  this  kind  :  Let  the 
two  endowments  be  combined,  and  out  of  them  be  established  one 
middle  school,  which  should  give  facilities  for  day  and  weekly 
boarding,  with  a  view  of  di'awing  to  it  the  sons  of  the  farmers  (who 
thereabouts  are  generally  well  off),  of  the  schoolmasters  and 
poorer  clergy  for  six  miles  round.  To  this  purpose  200Z.  a  year 
might  be  applied.  The  fee  should  be  Al.  a  year.  If  30  boys 
were  got  at  this  rate,  and  if  a  little  more  money  could  be  got  by 
taking  boarders, — and  the  farmers  at  a  little  distance  would  be  glad 
to  make  use  of  it  for  boarders, — there  would  be  enough  to  secure 
a  good  master,  able  to  teach  elementary  Latin,  mathematics,  and 
French,  and  a  competent  assistant  for  writing  and  arithmetic.  A 
certain  number  of  boys  might  be  taken  free  on  examination  fi"om 
the  district  round,  and  some  more  free  boys  might  be  selected  from 
the  elementary  schools  of  the  two  villages.  Towards  each  of  these 
30?.  a  year  might  be  given  from  the  grammar  school  funds.  If 
the  rule  of  the  Privy  Council  could  be  so  far  relaxed  in  such  excep- 
tional cases,  as  that  this  money  should  not  cause  any  deduction 
from  the  Government  grant  that  might  otherwise  be  earned,  these 
schools  would  still  be  in  a  peculiarly  good  position.  This  scheme 
would  involve  the  incurrence  of  a  debt  for  a  new  school  building. 
When  this  was  cleared  off,  there  would  still  remain  (allowing  for 
ordinary  deductions)  more  than  100?.  a  year,  which  should  be  paid 
over  to  the  Stafford  grammar  school,  supposing  that  school  to  be 
then  fitted  to  act  as  a  good  upper  school,  or  to  some  other  school  so 
fitted,  on  the  understanding  that  such  school  should  take  a  certain 
number  of  boys  free,  after  sufficient  examination,  from  the  new 
middle  school  to  be  established  as  above.     The  prime  conditions 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  217 

of  the  success  of  this  new  school  would  be  that  it  should  get  a  good 
master  with  a  wife  who  was  a  judicious  and  comfortable  house- 
keeper, that  it  should  exact  sufficient  elementary  knowledge  at 
entrance,  and  look  well  to  writing,  arithmetic,  and  Latin 
grammar. 

Before  considering  the  impediments  to  such  a  change,  it  will  Dilhome 
be  well  to  notice  the  other  cases  where  a  similar  change  is  specially  Present  state. 
desirable.  My  report  on  Dilhome  explains  how  out  of  an  income 
of  about  260?,  a  year  only  70Z.  is  at  present  spent  on  the  school, 
which  is  of  the.  common  village  sort,  but  used  largely  by  sons  of 
farmers,  and.  how  the  whole  income  must  soon  be  available.  To 
the  advantages^  there  noticed,  which' Dilhome  possesses  for  the 
maintenance  of  an  elementary  school  in  the  usual  way,  it  should  be 
added  that  at  Blythe  Marsh],  a  hamlet  of  the  same  parish,  only  two 
miles  distant,  is  an  endowment  of  28Z.  a  year  for  a  school  for  the 
poor.  This  latter  school  is  at  present  damaged  by  the  existence  of 
the  school  at  Dilhorne.  This  being  entirely  free  and  exacting  no 
preliminary  knowledge,  it  is  impossible  for  the  Blythe  Marsh 
school  to  charge  a  fee.  It  subsists  simply  on  its  endowment,  and 
only  keeps  its  boys  till  they  are  old  enough  to  walk  to  Dilhorne. 
As  girls  are  inadmissible  at  Dilhorne  they  finish  at  Blythe 
Marsh. 

It  is  clear!  to  an  outsider  that  the  wants  of  the  boys  of  the  parish  What  might 
of  Dilhorne  would  be  better  met  than  they  are  at  present  by  an  ^^  '^°"^- 
elementary  school  under  Government  inspection,  midway  between 
Dilhorne  and  Blythe  Marsh,  which  would  be  quite  available  for  all 
but  infants  in  both  places,  as  well  as  in  Forsbrook,  which  forms 
the  remainder  of  the  parish.  If  the  Blythe  Marsh  endowment  were 
applied  to  such  a  school  and  supplemented  by  weekly  pence  and  a 
Government  grant,  earned  in  the  ordinary  way,  a  better  school 
would  in  all  probability  exist  in  the  parisli  than  exists  now.  The 
grammar  school  fund  might  be  mulcted  to  find  a  building  for  it, 
and  it  would  not  be  much  to  expect  from  private  endeavours  in 
such  a  place  that  they  should  be  able,  with  the  ordinary  help, 
to  maintain  .schools  for  girls  and  infants  at  the  two  extremities  of 
the  parish.  -  Any  good  purpose  which  the  present  Dilhorne  school 
may  serve  as  a  place  of  elementary  education  for  the  sons  of  small 
farmers  in  the  region  north  and  north-east  of  Dilhorne  ought  to 
be  served  by  a  new  elementary  school  at  Kings] ey,  about  four  miles 
distant  in  that  direction,  which,  owing  to  the  discovery  of  minerals, 
will  have  an  income  of  about  190J.  a  year  from  endowment,  and 
thus  ought  to  be  able  to  provide  an  excellent  English  education. 

The  grammar  school  money  of  Dilhorne  should  then  be  applied 
to  the.  establishment  of  a  "  middle"  school  {i.e.,  a  school  which 
should  give  an  English  education,  with  the  elements  of  Latin, 
Erencb,  and  ihathematics)  within  the  parish  of  Dilhorne,  but  close 
by  the  Blythe' Bridge  station.  Here  it  would  be  quite  available 
for  all  Dilhorne  boys  capable  of  a  "  middle  education;"  it  would 
be  available  also  for  day  boarders  from  Cheadle,  a  small  town, 
four  ihiles  distant,  where  there  is  no  middle  school,  private  or 
othe^y'  and-  whence  seven  or  eight  boys  now  come  as  private  day 


218  Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 

pupils  to  the  curate  of  BIythe-Marsh,  hard  by ;  further,  what  is 
more  important,  it  would  be  available  for  day  boarders  from 
Longton,  a  Pottery  town  of  16,000  inhabitants,  distant  four  miles 
by  road  and  rail,  which  has  no  endowed  middle  school  and  only  a 
very  inconsiderable  private  one.  For  this  purpose,  after  deduction 
for  the  object  mentioned  above,  and  for  repairs  of  property,  &c., 
about  230Z.  a  year  might  he  available.  If  the  school  were  well 
managed  it  might  soon  get  50  day  boys,  and  attract  plenty  of 
boarders  from  the  Pottery  district.  It  might  take  select  free  boys 
from  the  elementary  school  to  be  established  as  above,  and  a  certain 
number  from  the  district  generally  to  be  chosen  for  proficiency  in 
elementary  knowledge.  It  might  thus  turn  the  National  and 
British  schools  of  the  neighbourhood  as  well  as  the  private  schools 
into  its  feeders.  How  an  upper  school  might  be  established  for  it 
to  feed  I  shall  explain  below. 
Andley  and  In  this  way  the  "  middle  "  education  of  one  end  of  the  Pottery 

Potteries'  district  might  be  provided  for.     That  of  the  northern  part  of  it 

might  be  provided  for  by  dealing  with  the  grammar  school  funds 
of  Newchapel  and  Audley,  in  a  way  that  would  at  least  do  no  harm 
to  either  of  these  places,  while  it  would  do  much  good  to  others. 
For  the  use  at  present  made  of  these  funds  I  must  refer  to 
my  separate  reports.  In  the  case  of  Newchapel  there  is  nothing 
in  the  original  bequest  to  prevent  the  transfer  of  the  school  to 
Tunstall,  and  it  seemed  to  be  a  general  opinion  that  such  trans- 
fer was  desirable.  The  same,  of  course,  cannot  be  said  about 
Audley.  As  it  is,  20/.  a  year  of  the  Audley  grammar  school 
money  goes  to  a  mixed  school  of  girls  and  little  boys,  and 
another  20?.  goes  in  clothes  and  food  to  the  poor.  Now  Audley 
is  a  place  where  there  should  be  no  difficulty  in  maintaining  an 
elementary  school  in  the  ordinary  way ;  the  people  earn  mostly 
large  wages,  and  the  landov.'iiers  are  wealthy.  The  mixed  school 
might,  therefore,  fairly  be  thrown,  so  far  as  it  is  not  self-support- 
ing, on  voluntary  contributions ;  and  there  can  be  no  good  in 
the  gratuities  to  the  poor.  The  40/.  a  year,  then,  now  spent  on 
the  mixed  school  and  gratuities,  might  fairly  be  given  to  an 
elementary  school  for  boys,  which,  if  it  were  allowed  to  earn  a 
Government  Grant  without  deduction,  would  with  weekly  fees  be 
well  off.  The  remaining  100/.  a  year  might,  I  think,  with  advan- 
tage be  combined  with  the  Newchapel  money  (120Z.  a  year  and 
probably  capable  of  some  increase)*  to  form  a  middle  school  at 
Tunstall,  on  the  plan  suggested  in  the  preceding  case.  If  estab- 
lished on  the  western  side  of  Tunstall  it  would  not  be  more  than 
three  miles  from  Audley,  to  select  boys  from  which  it  should  be 
freely  open ;  in  like  manner  it  might  be  open  to  picked  boys 
from  the  villages  which  now  have  a  privilege  in  the  Newchapel 
school.  As  to  the  great  use  of  which  such  a  school  would  be  to 
the  northern  part  of  the  Pottery  district,  I  found  a  general 
agreement  among  intelligent  persons. 


*  Besides  tr  ]Ethe  trustees  of  Newcliapel  school  have  about  800/.  in  hand. 


Mr.  Greev's  Report.  219 

The  other  Pottery  towns — Burslem,  Hanlcy,  and  Stoke — are  How  the  other 
in  no  part  much  more  than  tliree  miles  from  Newcastle,  in  some  ^ot'^^'T  to^™^ 
parts  only  two.  For  their  "  middle  "  population  the  grammar  school  ^ded  for.*^"" 
of  Newcastle,  if  changed  in  site,  enlarged,  and   generally   im- 
proved, ought  to  be  quite  available.     Sufficient  pecuniary  means, 
I  believe,  are  at  hand  for  these  changes.     Under  part  of  the  land 
from  which  this  school  derives  its  income  lies  valuable  "  carbo- 
naceous iron  ore,"  which  could  be  easily  and  economically  raised. 
Indeed,  if  the  land  belonged  to  an  individual  owner  there  is  little 
doubt  that  the  minerals  would  have   been  already  worked.     The 
following  estimate  of  their   value  is  from  a  good  local  authority  : 
"   The  calcined   produce  of  the    three  upper  red   mines,  Which  Minerals  under 
"  alone  are  worth  working  now,  would  average  from   10,000  to  ^^""^  "^  ^^^• 
"   12,000?.  tons  an  acre,  and  at  the  fair  average  royalty  of  Is.  Qd.     ^  ^^"^  °°- 
"  per  ton  would  realize,  for  the  entire  estate,  from  10,000Z.  to 
"  12,000/.;  the  whole  might  be  worked  out  easily  in   10  years. 
"  When  the  three  upper  red  mines  are  gone  there  would  still  be 
"  left  the  Bassy  mine,   and  all  the   upper  coal  strata,  which  in 
"  10  or  15  years  from   this  time  would  form  a  most  valuable 
"  property."     It  is  clear   that   within  a   very  few  years  from  the 
letting  of  these  minerals  the  trustees  of  the   Newcastle  school 
would  be  in  a  condition  to  carry  on  a  middle  school  with  excel- 
lent building  and  appliances.     It  would  be  most  useful,  howevei', 
if  of  the  same  order  as  those  of  which  I  have  suggested  the  foun- 
dation at  Blythe-Bridge,  and  Tunstall;  that  is,  it  should  set  itself 
to  impart  an  "  English  "  education,  with  the  elements  of  Latin, 
French,  and  mathematics,  and  should  feed  an  upper  school  which 
might  be  established  as  follows  : 

In  Newcastle  is  a  charity  founded  by  Edward  Orme  in  1704,  Orme's 
primarily  for  apprenticing  boys  and  then,  with  whatever  money  *"'**• 
was  left,  for  teaching  the  poor  children  of  Newcastle  to  read, 
write,  and  cast  accounts,  and  for  buying  them  books.  Some  of 
the  money  arising  from  Orme's  bequest  was  invested  in  48  acres 
of  land,  hard  by  the  estate  just  described  as  belonging  to  the  gram- 
school.  In  1846  a  scheme  for  the  management  of  the  charity 
was  obtained  from  the  Court  of  Chancery,  which  is  still  in  force, 
and  under  which  an  elementary  school  is  maintained,  giving  a 
perfectly  gratuitous  education  to  poor  boys.  The  income  of  the 
charity  when  this  scheme  was  obtained  was,  1  believe,  only  160/. 
a  year ;  and  the  size  of  the  school  contemplated  appears  from  a 
clause  which  provides  "  that  the  trustees  shall  not  refuse  to  nomi- 
"  nate  any  child  eligible  to  this  charity,  if  the  number  of 
"  children  on  the  foundation  shall  not  exceed  50  ;  but,  neverthe- 
"  less,  nothing  herein  contained  shall  be  construed  to  limit  the 
"  number  of  the  foundation  children  to  be  admitted  to  the  said 
"  school,  if  the  means  and  accommodation  will  afford  education 
"  for  more  than  50."  A  few  years  afterwards,  however,  carbo- 
naceous iron  ore  was  discovered  under  the  land  mentioned,  for 
the  working  of  which  a  lease  of  21  years  was  granted;  under 
this  lease  the  trustees  have  in  some  years  received  more  than 
2,0007.     In  1851  a  fine  new  school  was  built,  on  which  altogethej- 

a.  c.  .3.  B 


220 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


What  is  to  be 
done  with  them. 


Poor  school  or 
high  middle 
school. 


about  2,600L  was  spent:  in  this  150  boys  receive  an  excellent  ele- 
mentary education  gratuitously — books,  stationery,  and  all  mate- 
rials being  found  by  the  trustees.  Three  masters  are  maintained 
in  it  at  salaries  of  150?.,  1  lOZ.,  and  75?.  a  year  respectively ;  another 
50Z.  a  year  is  spent  on  books,  stationery,  &c.  Altogether  the  out- 
goings from  the  charity  are  about  500/.  a  year.  The  money  that 
has  accrued  from  minerals  and  been  invested  in  the  funds 
amounts  now  to  considerably  more  than  20,000/.  As  to  what  may 
be  expected  in  the  future,  I  quote  the  following  from  the  local 
authority  previously  referred  to : — "  The  mines  on  this  estate  are 
"  of  unusual  thickness  and  quality,  and  the  three  mines  yet  un- 
"  exhausted  (consisting  of  about  1 1  acres  of  half  yard,  1 1  acres 
"  of  red  shag,  and  nearly  11  of  red  mine)  should  produce  an 
"  average  of  15,000  calcined  tons  to  the  acre,  which  should  at  all 
"  events  secure  a  minimum  of  1,000/.  a  year  to  the  expiration  of  the 
"  lease.  At  that  time  the  Bassy  mine,  which  is  now  quite  un- 
"  touched,  would  be  well  in  the  market,  and  that  with  the 
"  Spencroft,  10  foot,  great  row  and  little  row  coals,  and  all  the 
"  argillaceous  ironstones,  would  safely  ensure  a  new  lease  for  21 
"  or  30  years  at  a  minimum  of  800/.  or  1,000/.  per  annum,  with 
"  the  certainty  that  the  royalties  would  yield  far  more  than  that 
"  sum  annually.  Thus  within  a  very  few  years  from  this  the 
"  corpus  of  the  trust  will  amount  to  30,000/.,  exclusive  of  surface 
"  rental,  and  exclusive  of  a  great  annual  income  which  must  for 
"  many  years  infallibly  arise  from  the  deeper  minerals  to  which 
"  it  is  only  necessary  to  sink  the  present  pits." 

Opinion  seemed  to  be  divided  in  Newcastle  as  to  the  best  way 
of  applying  these  accumulations.  Some  were  for  establishing 
another  school  for  the  poor  on  the  model  of  the  present  one, 
others  for  founding  a  middle  school.  It  must  be  observed  that 
the  present  school,  though  very  useful,  is  not  so  in  the  way  of 
giving  an  education  to  boys  who  could  not  otherwise  obtain  it. 
The  scholars  are  nominated  by  the  trustees  on  the  ground  of 
merit  in  themselves  or  their  parents,  not  specially  on  the  ground 
of  poverty.  Generally  they  are  transferred  to  Onne's  school 
from  the  National  or  British  schools,  and  the  transfer  enables 
them  to  get  a  longer  and  more  thorough  education  than  they 
otherwise  would,  and  to  gain  a  better  position  in  after  life.  Of 
the  boys  who  had  left  the  school  up  to  a  certain  year,  one  half 
had  become  either  pupil  teachers,  or  clerks,  or  apprentices,  or 
errand  boys,  very  few  of  whom,  but  for  the  education  obtained  at 
this  school,  could  have  become  anything  but  ordinary  labourers. 
It  is  probable,  however,  that  one  such  school  would  be  enough 
for  the  town,  if  admission  to  it,  instead  of  being  somewhat  arbi- 
trary (as  owing  to  the  nomination  system  it  now  is),  were  syste- 
matically made  a  prize  for  merit  at  the  National  and  Dissenting 
schools  of  the  town,  so  that  it  should  become  distinctly  superior 
to,  not  parallel  with,  them.  Another  free  school  of  the  kind  would 
probably  rather  have  the  effect  of  damaging  the  schools  at  which 
pence  are  paid.  It  would  be  a  more  real  boon  to  give  poor  boys 
who  have  capacity  for  it  a  chance  of  rising  to  the  higher  learning,  as 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  221 

might  be  done  by  establishing  for  boys  in  Orme's  school  small  exlii-  Question 
bitions  to  the  grammar  school,  supposing  the  latter  to  be  rehabili-  ""''^etliei" 
tated  and  affiliated  to  a  higher  school,  according  to  previous  sug-  setool  Uke 
gestions.     There  is  doubtless  a  class  of  boys  in  Newcastle,  as  in  present 
other  towns,  of  parentage  too  poor  and  debased  to  take  advantage  P^^^'s  school 
of  schools  under  the  Privy  Council  system,  but  on  them— sup-  ^^  '^^°**^- 
posing  that  their  education  does  not  soon  come  to  be  provided  for 
by  a  rate — a  school  on  the  expensive  scale  of  the  existing  Orme's 
school    would    be    thrown    away.     There  is,  moreover,    another 
charity  in  Newcastle — Hatrell's — now  in  suspense,  but  available 
for  the  education   of  the  poor,  producing  nearly  100?.  a  year. 
Perhaps  it  might  be  too  sanguine  to  hope  that  any  part  of  the  in- 
come from  the  "  Burgesses'  Lands  "  of  Newcastle — now  spent  in 
the  payment  of  some  30s.   a   year  to  each  burgess,  which  is  of 
course  wasted — should  ever  be  applied  to    education  ;  but  on  the 
whole  it  is  reasonable  to  think  that  a  deduction  of  lOOZ.  a  year 
from  the  resources  of  Orme's  charity  for  elementary  education,  in 
addition  to  the  sum  (435/.  a  year)*  already  so  applied,  would  jus- 
tify the  application  of  the  rest  to  education  of  a  higher  kind.     If  How  high 
15,000Z.  of  the  accumulations,  with  the  surface  rent,  were  applied  ^"'^'^'jV^^ 
to   the  former    object,  there   would    still   in  a  year  or  two  be  should  be  ' 
15,000/.  for  other  purposes,  with  the  sure  prospect  of  the  gradual  -worked, 
addition  of  some  40,000Z.   during   the   ensuing  30  years.     This 
would  quite  suffice  to  establish    a   high  school,  which  might  be 
so  worked  as  to  supply  upper  departments — one  preparatory  for 
the  universities,  the  other  devoted  mainly  to  physical  science  and 
modern  languages — primarily  to   the  improved  Newcastle  gram- 
mar school,  but  also  to   the  proposed  middle  schools  at  Tunstall 
and  Blythe  Bridge,  if  they  should  happily  come  into  existence. 
The  grammar  schools  at   Stone  and  Uttoxeter,  whence  there  is 
easy  access  by  rail  to  Newcastle,  and  that  at  Leek,  if  it  could  be 
put  on  a  satisfactory  and  permanent  footing,  whence  there  will 
soon  be  such  access,  might  also  in  some  way  be  affiliated  to  it. 
That  such  a  school  might  thrive   at  Newcastle  no  one  who  con- 
sidered the   question  seemed  to   doubt;  it  is  a  place  with  many 
attractions  for  residents,  open  to  smokeless  country  on  two  sides 
out  of  four,  and  only  needs  a  good  school  to  become  the  gen- 
teel suburb  of  the  Potteries  and  neighbouring  iron  district.     On 
the  great  need  in  that  district  of  higher  means  of  education  I  have 
remarked  above  (p.  194).     If  well  provided  with  buildings,  play- 
ground, and  exhibitions,  the  high  school  might  probably  almost 
support  itself  upon  boarders  and  day-boys.     If  it  took  picked 
boys  free  from  the  affiliated  schools,  it  might  without  damaging 
its  usefulness   charge  (say)  lOZ.  a  year  for  day-boys,  and  50Z.  for 
boarders.   Thirty  boarders  at  that  rate  would  yield  a  master,  if  he 
had  his  house  rentfree,a  clear  income  of  more  than  600Z.  a  year.  If 
the  grammar  school  could  be  put  under  the  same  management  as 

*  This  represents  the  present  expenditure  minus  the  salaries  of  clerk  and  agent, 
which  cannot  be  regarded  as  spent  specially  on  the  existing  school. 

R   2 


•222  Oountief:  of  Sin  ford  and  IVarwick. 

the  proposed  liigli  school  and  share  a  modern  language  master  with 
it,  there  would  be  a  saving  of  expense  and  probably  more  efficiency.  _ 
Desirable  The  only  transfers  of  grammar  school  funds  in    the  shires  of 

transfer  of  Statford  and    Warwick,  besides    those     already    spoken  of,  that 

saUandHamp.  seemed  to  me  specially  desirable  were  at  Walsall  and  Hampton- 
tou-Liicy.  Lucy.      If  the  Walsall  grammar  school  would  apply  150/.  a  yearT 

out  of  its  I,OOOZ.  to  establish  a  branch  school  at  or  near  Wednes- 
bury,  pretty  much  on  the  plan  of  the  King  Edward's  elementary 
schools  at  Birmingham,  it  would  do  a  great  service  and  might 
more  than  remunerate  itself  by  charging  fees  at  Walsall  (see  pp. 
76  and  101).  I  have  already  stated  reasons  for  thinking  that  many 
boys  in  that  region  are  sent  to  National   or  British  schools  whose 
parents  could  well   afford  a  higher   school.     The  best  of  these 
might  be  taught  by  a  school  of  the  kind  suggested,  charging  a  fee 
of  21.  a  year,  of  whom  again  the  best,  after  a   good  grounding  in 
the   elements,  might  be  transferred  to  Walsall. |  At   Hampton- 
Lucy  it  is  attempted  to   use   the  grammar  school   as  such,  but 
without,  as  it   seemed,  any  beneficial  result.     To   all  the  boys 
learning  "  grammar  "  in  it  the  Stratford  school  would  with  facili- 
ties for   day-boarding  be  accessible,  and  if  it  paid  over  lOOZ.  a 
year  to  that  school  on  condition  that  the  corporation  put  it  on  a 
better    footing,  while  it  received  enough,  with  proper  manage- 
ment, to  secure  there  being  a  good  elementary  school  at  Hamp- 
ton, no  one  there  would  be  the  worse  and  the  neighbourhood  of 
Stratford  would  be  much  the  better.  In  the  other  cases  in  the  two 
counties  where  a  grammar  school  endowment  exists  in  a  Tillage,  the 
amount  being  small,  it  might  be  well  to  allow  of  its  appropriation  to 
an  elementary  school,  if  any  security  existed — and   there  is  none_^ 
now — that  the  elementary  school  should  be  good  of  its  kind  ;  if  it 
were  so,  the  farmers,  even  where  they  keep  phaetons  and  pianos, 
would  send  their  sons  to  it,  notwithstanding  the  mixture  with  the 
poor,  at  least  up  to  a  certain  age,  and  they  could  not  do  betfcer.§ 
Charity  money,       Over  and  above  the  application  to  grammar  school  purposes  of 
grammar  school  funds  not  now  so  applied,  and  of  some  part  of  the 
proceeds  of  Orme's   educational  charity,  something,  it  is  to  be 
hoped,  may  ultimately  be  obtained  for  the  same  object  from  pro- 
perty  belonging  to  charities  or  to  corporations.     The  extent  and 
application   of  such  property  might  fitly  form  the  subject  of  a 
separate  inquiry.     It  is  one  of  which  I  can  only  speak  generally, 
and   with   reference  to  places    where   a   grammar    school   needs 
Stafford.  subsidy.     At  Stafford,  as  at  Newcastle,  are  "  Burgesses'  Lands." 

They  extend,  I  believe,  over  more  than  200  acres.     From  Sep- 
tember to  spring  they   are  common.     The  practice   is  for   each 

*  On  a  difficulty  as  to  the  patronage  of  the  grammar  school,  see  special  report. 

f  If  with  this  could  he  combined  some  of  the  money  now  given  at  Wednesbury  in 
doles,  &c.,  so  much  the  better. 

X  J'or  some  of  them  it  would  be  six  miles  distant,  but  these  come  on  ponies  as  it  is, 

§  Out  of  24  "  grammar  schools  "  used  as  elementary  village  schools,  which  I  met 
with  in  the  five  counties  that  I  traversed,  only  eight  had  a  fair  mixture  of  sons  of 
farmers.  The  other  16,  however,  were  not,  or  had  very  lately  become,  good  schools 
of  their  kind.  I  have  doubts,  notwithstanding,  whether  the  larger  graziers  of  South 
Warwickshire  would  often  condescend  to  use  such  a  school,  however  good. 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  223 

"  old  and  necessitous  burgess "  who  is  not  a  pauper,  to  have  an 
acre  assigned  to  him  at  a  rent  of  8s.  This  he  generally  sublets 
to  some  one  at  a  rent  of  2Z.  or  more.  The  practical  result  thus  is 
to  put  a  gratuity  of  30s.  or  2Z.  in  the  pocket  of  the  "  necessitous 
burgess,"  which  I  was  told,  he  generally  spends  in  drink.  These 
lands,  I  understood,  if  enclosed,  would  be  worth  at  least  40,000Z. 
That  sum  had  in  fact  been  offered  for  them  for  some  public  pur- 
pose. They  might,  again,  be  let  at  a  very  high  rent  as  garden- 
ground.  I  should  suppose  that  provision  might  be  made  for  paying 
the  burgesses  as  much  as  they  at  present  receive  from  them,  and 
at  the  same  time  15,000Z,  or  20,000/.  might  be  obtained  for  public 
purposes.  At  Burton  also  there  are  town  lands  vested  in  feoffees.  Burton. 
who  in  the  autumn  of  1865  had,  I  was  told,  more  than  30,00OZ. 
invested.  They  had  given  liberally  to  elementary  schools  of  all 
denominations,  and  might  not  be  unwilling  to  do  something  for 
middle  education.  Lichfield  abounds  in  charities,  and  has  in  Lichfield. 
consequence  an  ill-conditioned  surplus  population.  About  600/. 
a  year,  I  believe,  is  spent  in  doles  and  gratuities  of  various  kinds, 
and  with  a  very  bad  effect.  A  quantity  of  the  inhabitants  work 
as  market  gardeners,  and  in  the  summer  earn  high  wages,  which 
they  waste,  in  expectation  of  living  on  charity  during  the  winter. 
Here  also,  as  in  other  cases  of  the  same  kind,  these  gratuities  are 
said  to  be  turned  to  political  account  by  the  authorities.  Into  the 
the  truth  of  such  statements  it  is  not  my  business  to  inquire,  but 
the  system  clearly  opens  a  wide  door  to  abuse  of  this  kind.  The 
sum  above  mentioned  is  exclusive  of  the  income  from  the  "  Conduit 
Lands,"  and  of  that  of  the  hospitals.  One  of  the  latter,  St  John's, 
is  said  (I  speak  under  correction)  to  have  lands  which  at  a  rack- 
rent  would  produce  5,000Z.  a  year.*  Under  the  circumstances  the 
starved  condition  of  the  grammar  school  (with  an  income  of  96/. 
a  year,  of  which  60/.  is  a  grant  from  the  "  Conduit  Lands  "),  is 
scarcely  creditable  to  a  place  where  the  "  educated  class"  is 
relatively  so  strong.  At  West  Bromwich  is  a  charity  estate,  West  Brom- 
producing,  as  I  understood,  about  270/.  a  year,  which  might  pos-  "ffich. 
sibly  be  available  for  purposes  of  education.  It  might  be  usefully 
spent  either  on  the  existing  "  Bridge  Trust '_'  school  at  Handsworth, 
or  on  a  new  school  of  the  same  kind  on  the  side  of  West  Bromwich, 
most  remote  from  Handsworth,  i.e.,  about  Hill  Top.  At  Leek, 
as  I  have  stated  in  my  separate  report,  a  good  deal  of  money 
(about  200/.  a  year)  is  spent  in  doles  and  gifts  to  the  poor.  That 
any  of  this  should  be  spent  on  the  grammar  school  is  perhaps  more 
to  be  wished  than  expected. 

In  Warwickshire,  Warwick  itself  and  Coventry  are  well-known  Warwick, 
seats  of  charitable   foundations.     In  Warwick,  a  town  of  10,000 

■*  The  first  known  statutes  of  the  hospital  were  promulgated  by  Bishop  Smith  in 
1495.  These  prescribe  that  lOZ.  a  year  shall  be  paid  to  a  master,  and  Hi.  to  an  usher, 
for  teaching  grammar.  In  1740  the  hospital  school  was  formally  amalgamated  with 
the  existing  town  grammar  school.  The  payment  from  the  hospital  to  the  school  has 
never  increased,  notwithstanding  the  improved  value  of  its  estate  of  786  acres.  The 
income  of  the  "  conduit  lands  "  is  chiefly  applied  to  purposes  elsewhere  met  by  rates. 
More  of  it  might  be  applied  to  education  without  anyone  in  the  place  being  the  worse 
off  for  it.  Elementary  education  is  well  provided  for,  as  it  is,  by  Minor's  English 
school. 


224 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


White's 
Charity . 


Coventry. 


Sutton  Cold- 
field. 


inhabitants,  without  trade  or  manufacture,  more  than  1,000?.  a 
year  is  spent  in  doles  and  gratuities  to  the  poor.  This  is  exclusive 
of  hospitals,  and  further  (1)  of  a  charity  for  schooling  poor 
children,  producing  225Z.  a  year  net ;  (2)  of  Henry  VIII.'s  charity, 
producing  about  3,O0OZ.  a  year,  which,  after  deduction  of  400?.  a 
year  for  the  grammar  school,  is  spent  for  purposes  elsewhere  met 
by  rates  ;  (3)  of  White's  charity.  The  object  of  White's  charity, 
which  is  shared  by  Coventry,  Leicester,  Northampton,  and 
Nottingham,  is  to  advance  money  without  interest  for  a  term  of 
years,  on  security  being  given  for  its  repayment,  to  young  men 
who  are  setting  up  in  business.  At  "Warwick,  owing  to  want  of 
trade  and  to  the  requirement  of  security  for  repayment,  the 
money  is  not  applied  for  to  the  full  amount.  Thus  while  8,000?. 
is  out  on  loan,  more  than  18,-000?.  is  accumulated.  It  is  a  general 
opinion  in  the  place,  I  think,  that  this  money  should  be  applied  to 
education,  and  it  is  also  generally  admitted  that  the  money  spent 
on  doles  and  gratuities  is  at  present  simply  mischievous.  The 
town  is  burdened  with  poor  for  whom  there  is  no  regular  em- 
ployment, and  some  of  whom  are  said  to  boast  that  what  with 
charities,  elections,  and  assizes  (where  they  act  as  javelin-men), 
they  have  got  along  without  doing  a  stroke  of  work  for  many 
years.  In  the  year  1854  a  movement  was  started  for  a  better 
application  of  the  charity-money,  and  a  scheme  proposed  for  a 
rehabilitation  of  the  grammar  school.  An  inquiry  was  held  in  the 
place  by  a  representative  of  the  Charity  Commission,  but  nothing 
has  been  done  since.  Everyone  seems  to  have  been  waiting  for 
everyone  else.  What  is  wanted  here,  as  in  similar  circumstances 
elsewhere,  is  an  initiative  from  without. 

In.  Coventry  about  13,000L  a  year,  I  believe,  is  spent  by  the 
various  charities ;  of  this — setting  aside  hospitals,  schools  for  the 
poor,  and  the  maintenance  of  old  men  and  women  at  regular  weekly 
payments — about  2,000?.  a  year  is  spent  in  variable  gratuities,  and 
600?.  a  year  in  coals.  The  trustees  of  White's  charity  at  Coventrv 
a  few  years  ago  devoted  their  accumulations  to  the  establishment 
of  an  industrial  school,  but  they  have  more  in  hand  already,  and 
are  constantly  accumulating  more. 

At  Sutton  Coldfield  exists  a  "  Warden  and  Society,"  holding 
property  of  which  the  gross  income  in  1864  was  2,628?.*  This 
has  been  spent  partly  on  purposes  met  elsewhere  by  rates  (such 
as  the  supply  of  water),  partly  on  almshouses  and  "poor  maidens' 
"  portions,"  partly  on  schools  for  the  poor  in  Sutton  and  neigh- 
bouring villages.  To  the  latter  about  1,000?.  a  year  is  applied, 
but  of  this  375?.  goes  in  clothing.  The  payments  to  the  masters 
and  mistresses  of  the  schools  are  not  large.  The  masters  at  the 
three,  where  there  are  masters,  received  for  salary  and  fuel  in  1864 
respectively,  76?.  10«.,  65?.  10«.,  70?.  10s.  The  schools  have  been 
under  no  regular  inspection.    A  clergyman  of  the  neighbourhood. 


*  The  result  of  the  existence  of  this  rich  corporation  is  generally  admitted  hy  im- 
partial persons  to  be  bad.  It  pauperizes  the  people  in  character  and  ideas,  and  renders 
municipal  government  of  the  ordinary  kmd  impossible,  while  it  does  not  adequately 
meet  the  purposes  of  such  government.  The  di-ainage  of  the  town  is  bad.  A  case 
to  some  extent  parallel  is  that  of  Melton  Mowbray. 


Mr.  Greenes  Report.  225 

excellently  qualified,  examined  them  12  years  ago,  and  reported 
them  to  be  below  the  level  of  good  schools  under  the  Privy 
Council.  The  clergyman  of  the  place  does  not  consider  that  there 
has  been  much  improvement  since.  The  other  most  considerable 
charges  on  the  income  of  the  society  are  for  almshouses,  blankets, 
a  lying-in  charity,  and  poor  maidens'  portions.  These  come  to 
about  400Z.  a  year.  The  only  expenditure  on  "  middle  "  edu- 
cation consists  of  467.  a  year,  of  which  4Ql.  is  paid  to  the  master 
of  the  grammar  schools  on  the  understanding  that  he  take  certain 
boys  free  to  be  nominated  by  the  society.  Proposals  have  been 
made  by  members  of  the  society  to  apply  more  money  to  the  same 
purpose  ;  in  particular  the  income  of  a  sum  of  about  2,300/.  recently 
made  by  a  sale  of  land  to  the  London  and  North-western  railway, 
but  have  not  yet  succeeded.  It  has  been  proposed  either  to 
establish  a  middle  school  apart  from  the  grammar  school,  which  I 
think  would  be  a  great  mistake,  or  to  provide  an  English  depart- 
ment at  the  grammar  school,  or  to  found  an  exhibition  at  it.  My 
experience  of  English  departments  is  not  favourable,  as  I  have 
already  explained.  The  ground  for  the  establishment  of  such  a 
department  at  Sutton  Coldfield  would  be  that  hitherto  this  school 
has  been  used,  to  some  -extent,  by  a  class  of  boys  of  whom  many 
go  on  to  the  public  schools,  and  that  with  these  arithmetic  and 
English  writing  do  not  require  so  much  attention  as  with  boys  of 
a  lower  rank.  The  wants  of  the  case  would  probably  be  best  met 
by  the  establishment  of  a  preparatory  school,  which  should  pro- 
vide a  sound  English  education  early,  and  thus  enable  the  grammar 
school,  to  give  as  much  attention  as  it  now  does  to  classics  without 
unfairness  to  the  boys  going  into  business  at  16.  There  were 
many  boys  in  the  school  at  the  time  of  my  visit  who  would  have 
been  the  better  for  passing  through  such  a  preparatory  school. 
If,  besides,  some  small  exhibitions  were  founded,  tenable  at  the 
school,  to  be  given  primarily  for  proficiency  in  the  subjects  taught 
at  the  preparatory  school,  and  one  or  two  of  25Z.  a  year  for  boys 
of  15,  tenable  at  some  school  or  schools  well  qualified  to  prepare 
for  the  universities,*  the  grammar  school  would  be  well  off,  and 
able  to  supply  all  the  "  middle  ■"'  education  wanted  for  the  place. 
For  these  purposes  the  income  of  "  the  Warden  and  Society  "  might, 
do  doubt,  with  good  management  suflfice,  without  detriment  to  any 
good  object  which  it  at  present  serves.  Setting  aside  the  question 
of  a  management  at  once  more  effective  and  more  economical  of 
the  schools  which  it  maintains  for  the  poor,  a  great  part  of  the 
expenditure  described  as  "  incidental,"  which,  in  1864,  amounted 
to  430/.,  can  hardly  be  regarded  as  permanent. 

Supposing  that  from  any  of  the  sources  above  mentioned  a  high 
school  could  be  established  for  Staffordshire  (in  addition  to  the 
one  to  which  it  has  been  suggested  that  Orme's  money  should  be 
applied),  and  another  for  Warwickshire,  it  would  seem  that  as  far 

*  Exhibitions  of  this  kind  would  be  preferable  to  one  direct  to  the  university,  on 
the  ground  of  a  relation  between  the  Sutton  Coldfield  School  and  the  grammar  school 
at  Birmingham,  which  I  believe  it  would  be  possible  to  establish  (see  above  pp.  ll') 
and  114), 


2'26  Counties  of  Stafford  cmdefFarwick. 

as  funds  go,  the  grammar  schools  of  the  two  counties  (except  in  a  few 
cases  to  be  mentioned  presently),  would  be  well  able  to  supply 
the  middle  class  with  a  suitable  education,  having  in  it  the  elements 
of  "  liberality."       For  an  education  without  such  elements,  yet 
,     outwardly   distinct  from  that    given  in   National  schools,  there 
would  no  doubt  be  still  a  demand.     This,  however,  the  grammar 
schools  should  not  seek  to  meet,  but  gradually   to   divert  into  a 
Plan  for  high    more  worthy  direction.     The  high  school  to  be  effective,  should 
schools.  jj^^,g  j.^jj   departments,  the  basis  of  division  being  that  suggested 

above  (p.  140  and  p.  221.)  should  have  accommodation  for  boarders 
and  give  facilities  for  boarding  both  by  the  day  and  the  week.  It 
should  also  be  centrally  situate  and  easily  approachable  by  rail. 
The  charge  should  scarcely  be  more  than  40?.  a  year  for  board  and 
teaching,*  and  there  should  be  exhibitions  of  251.  a  year  tenable 
at  the  school,  most  of  which,  if  not  all,  should  be  appropriated  to 
boys  either  resident  or  trained  at  schools,  public  or  private,  in  the 
county.  Whether  these  should  not  be  confined  to  the  department 
preparatory  for  university,  as  a  set-off  to  the  utilitarian  attractions 
of  the  other,  would  be  a  matter  for  consideration  ;  at  anj'  rate  it 
would  be  very  desirable  that  a  boy  in  the  "  modern"  department, 
for  whom  the  rewards  given  by  the  universities  for  knowledge  of 
mathematics  and  physical  science  might  have  attractions,  should 
be  able  to  tranfer  himself  from  that  department  to  the  other 
with  an  exhibition,  tenable  at  the  school,  awarded  for  merit  in 
those  subjects.  There  should,  further,  be  exhibitions  to  the 
university. 
Need  of  them.  The  reasons  for  desiring  the  establishment  for  such  high  schools 
are  as  follows : — (1.)  A  small  grammar  school  caanot  give  an  edu- 
cation likely  to  enable  a  boy  to  get  a  scholarship  at  the  university. 
It  is  scarcely  likely  that  the  master  of  such  a  school,  though  of 
course  there  will  be  exceptions,  should  have  the  knowledge  or 
ability  to  impart  such  nn  education.  If  he  has,  he  can  only 
impart  it  to  the  exceptional  boy  whom  he  finds  receptive  of  it,  at 
the  cost  of  neglecting  more  necessary  work.  The  exceptional 
boy,  moreover,  is  at  an  essential  disadvantage  from  want  of  com- 
petition, nor  can  the  small  school  afford  him  an  exhibition  at  the 
end  of  hia  time.  There  is  thus  a  gap  between  the  schools  fre- 
quented by  the  less  wealthy  of  the  middle  class  and  the  univer- 
sities, which,  except  by  the  proposed  high  schools,  cannot  be 
filled.  (2.)  Such  schools  would  make  it  possible  to  simplify  the 
work  of  the  smaller  grammar  schools,  and  remove  the  occasion 
for  the  mischievous  separation  into  "  classical  "  and  "  commercial  " 
departments  (see  above,  p.  187,  et  seg,).  It  would  be  under- 
stood that  the  higher  classical  education  was  not  to  be  attempted 
by  the  smaller  schools ;  that  they  were  to  concentrate  attention 


*  I  pm'posely  suggested  a  higher  charge  for  the  proposed  high  school  at  New- 
castle-iinder-I.yme,  heeause  it  -would  be  accessible  as  a  day-school  to  most  of  the  bovs 
fiom  the  schools  which  might  be  expected  to  .feed  it.  There  could  be  no  reason  for 
putting  the  charge  lower  than  40/.,  supposing  exhibitions  to  be  provided.  The  sort  of 
pai-ents  who  would  be  hkely  to  send  boys  to  it  at  all  without  exhibitions  are  nuite 
ready  to  pay  that  nr  more.  ' 


Mr.  Greens  Report.  227 

on  English  writing,  arithmetic,  Latin  and  Euclid,  with  French  in 
the  higher  classes,  and  that  further  classical  or  scientific  edu- 
cation would  be  furnished  elsewhere  to  such  as  were  fit  for  it. 
Gi'eek  grammar  might  be  learnt  instead  of  French  by  boys  looking 
to  the  classical  department  of  the  higli  school  in  their  last  year, 
but  with  this  exception,  which  need  not  be  serious,  there  would 
be  a  uniform  system  throughout  the  school,  and  one  in  which  all 
the  masters,  even  those  not  trained  at  universities,  might  be 
expected  to  take  apart.  (3.)  The  high  school  might  offer  to  the 
smaller  schools  the  stimulus  in  the  way  of  reward,  which  they 
now  lack,  by  instituting  a  severe  entrance  examination  in  the  sub- 
jects which  it  is  thought  desirable  for  the  latter  chiefly  to  cultivate, 
and  awarding  exhibitions  tenable  at  the  school  to  those  who  did 
best  in  it.  The  better  private  schools,  as  well  as  the  grammar 
schools,  would  soon  find  it  to  their  advantage  to  lay  themselves 
out  for  this  examination. 

A  subordinate  question  is,  where  the  high  school  should  be.  Where  should 
It  may  be  premised  that  none  of  the  existing  "  public  schools  "  '*^ 
(in  the  technical  sense)  would  serve  the  purpose.  Their  system 
presupposes  less  previous  attention  to  arithmetic  and  English 
writing,  and  more  previous  attention  to  Greek,  than  it  is  desirable 
that  the  small  grammar  schools  should  give;  nor  could  any 
existing  grammar  school  be  turned  to  account  for  the  purpose, 
except  one  already  acting  on  a  large  scale  as  a  place  of  education 
for  universities.  Of  any  other  grammar  school  the  head  master 
would  presumably  be  not  qualified  for  the  conduct  of  a  high  school. 

The  only   school  in   the   two   counties   that  would  satisfy  the  Use  of  King 
requisite  conditions   in  this   respect  is  King  Edward's  school  at     ^  ff  ;n*i,is 
Birmingham,  and  this  from  its  position,  though  admirably  qualified  ^^y. 
to  serve  as  a  high  school  to  the  population  which  can  go  in  and 
out  of  Birmingham  daily  by  rail,  is  not   calculated  to   act  as  a 
boarding  school.    There  is  something  to  be  said  for  the  establish- 
ment of  a  new  school  for  the  purpose  in  some  eligible  rural  place, 
but,  if  so  situated,  it  would  lose  the  advantage  of  having  a  town 
population  close  at  hand  to  support  it,  and  of  being  available  for 
parents  who  might  be  disposed  to  take  houses  in  its  neighbour- 
hood for  the  purpose  of  using  it  as  a  day-school.     On  such  a 
scheme,  too,  there  would  be  less  chance  of  winning  for  the  school 
some  share  of  the  charitable  and  municipal  funds  already  spoken 
of     The  best   chance   for  inducing   the   people  of  a  town  to 
acquiesce  in   the  application   of  these  to  the  establishment  of  a 
middle  class   school  would  lie  in  the  assurance  that  the  school 
would  bring  residents  and  trade  to  the  town,  an  assurance  which 
could  not  be  given  if  the  school  were  some  miles  away.    Thus,  in 
Warwickshire,  the  place  for  a  high  school  would,  I  think,  unques- 
tionably be  Warwick  itself     It  is  central   and   easily  accessible,  Warwick  an 
and  a  school  there  might  be  so  situate  as  to  be  easily  available  as  el'giWe  place, 
a  day-school  for  Leamington,  where  it  would  find  a  constituency 
in  the  greater  part  at  once  of  those  parents  who  formerly  main- 
tained the  "  Leamington  College,"  and  of  those  who  support  a 
flourishing  private  school  charging  from  8/.  to  10/.  a  year  for  day- 


228 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


Possibly  Lich- 
field. 


What  schools 
should  he 
independent. 


boys.  The  trustees  of  King  Henry  VIIPs  charity  could  furnish 
an  excellent  site,  with  plenty  of  room  for  playground,  on  one  of 
the  roads  leading  from  Warwick  to  Leamington,  and  it  might 
fairly  be  hoped  that  they  would  also  supply  money  for  the  building 
in  consideration  of  the  material  benefits  it  would  confer  on  the 
town.  The  accumulations  of  White's  charity  would  furnish  a 
suiEcient  endowment,  if  the  existing  grammar  school  could,  by 
improved  buildings  and  appliances,  be  made  so  effective  a  feeder 
of  the  high  school  as  to  relieve  the  latter  of  the  burden  of  teaching 
boys  under  a  certain  standard,  and  if  the  exhibitions  on  Fulk 
Weale's  foundation,  now  appropriated  to  the  grammar  school, 
could  be  transferred  to  the  high  school.  In  Staffordshire  the 
question  of  site  would  be  more  difficult.  The  town  of  Stafford 
itself,  would  be  most  central  and  accessible.  On  the  other  hand 
Lichfield' is  the  great  seat  of  superfluous  charities.  Possibly,  if  a 
high  school  were  once  started  at  Lichfield  ovit  of  some  of  the  pro- 
ceeds of  these,  the  townspeople  of  Stafford  and  Burton  might  not 
be  unwilling  to  lay  the  town  lands  at  those  places  under  some 
contribution  towards  the  maintenance  of  an  exhibition  fund  at  the 
new  school,  on  the  ground  that  exhibitions,  tenable  at  a  high 
school  by  boys  belonging  to  the  county,  would  do  more  to  improve 
those  several  schools,  than  money  spent  directly  upon  them. 

Indulging  for  the  moment  the  anticipation  that  such  high 
schools  may  be  established,  let  us  consider  the  future  position  of 
the  existing  grammar  schools  in  the  two  counties.  Those  at 
Coventry  and  Wolverhampton  could  not  do  better  than  continue 
self-contained  and  independent.  The  income  of  each  is  over 
1,000Z.  a  year.*  Coventry  school  has  already  exhibitions  to  the 
university,  which  would  be  valuable  if  released  from  the  existing 
mischievous  restrictions  (p.  173).  It  urgently  needs  a  change  of 
site,  new  buildings,  and  a  playground,  but  out  of  the  abundant 
charities  of  the  town  enough,  it  is  to  be  hoped,  might  be  got  for 
these  purposes.  The  money  that  might  be  gained  by  the  sale  of 
the  existing  premises,  added  to  the  accumulations  in  the  hands  of 
White's  trustees,  would  probably  be  now  sufficient.  The  same 
need  exists  at  Wolverhampton,  but  an  appeal  to  the  abundant 
wealth  and  public  spirit  of  the  town,  now  that  the  conduct  of  the 
school  is  admitted  to  be  effective,  would  produce  enough  to  supply 
new  buildings  and  in  time  exhibitions.  Supposing  these  changes 
to  be  made,  each  of  the  above  schools  would  have  enough  to  main- 
tain at  once  a  preparatory  school,  and  an  upper  school  in  two 
departments,  according  to  the  plan  previously  suggested.  A  fee 
of  Al.  a  year  for  the  preparatory  department  (in  which  the  ruck 
of  the  "commercial"  boys  might  be  expected  to  finish),  and  of  8/. 
a  year  in  the  upper,  would  correspond  to  the  rates  of  payment  in 
the  two  classes  of  private  school  previously  described  (p.  203  et  seq.) 
To  give  a  better  article  than  the  private  school  at  the  same,  not  at 
a  lower,  rate,  should  be  the  object  of  the  grammar  school.    Lower 


*  In  the  case  of  Coventry  tliis  is  subject  to  temporary  deductions,  for  w  hieh  see 
separate  report. 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  229 

fees,  then,  than  the  above,  would  not  be  desirable,  and  if  each 
department  took  a  certain  number  of  boys  free  by  examination, 
no  one  would  be  excluded  whom  it  would  be  useful  to  admit. 
Now  if  three  masters — a  chief  master  for  the  preparatory  depart- 
ment, and  for  the  upper  department  one  mainly  classical,  another 
mathematical  and  scientific — could  be  secured  out  of  endowment, 
it  might  safely  be  reckoned  that  in  respect  of  such  other  masters 
as  might  be  necessary,  a  school  charging  the  above  fees  would  be 
self-supporting.  1,000/.  a  year  ought  to  be  enough  to  secure 
three  good  masters  for  the  purposes  specified,  if  the  school  was  so 
built  and  situate  as  to  be  suitable  for  boarders,  and  if  for  each 
master  a  house  with  good  room  for  boarders  was  provided. 

When  a  grammar  school  has  an  annual  income  from  endow-  What  affiliated 
ment  nmch  under  1,000Z.,  unless  it  has  some  peculiar  attraction  to -"g'l  schools. 
for  boarders,  it  would  do  well,  to  the  best  of  my  belief,  to  act  as 
prepai-atory  to  one  of  the  proposed  high  schools.  This  means, 
that  it  should  confine  itself  to  teaching  "  Englisli,"  Latin,  French, 
and  elementary  mathematics,  and  should  not  attempt  to  keep  any 
but  backwark  boys  much  beyond  the  age  of  15  (see  p.  140). 
There  need  be  no  formal  "  affiliation  "  to  the  high  school.  If  the 
latter  offered  scholarships,  tenable  at  itself,  to  boys  of  the  county 
who  should  do  best  in  these  subjects,  the  end  would  in  time  be 
gained.  With  good  buildings  and  situation,  and  a  yearly  fee  of  4Z.  ^^''^t  endow- 
a  boy,  a  clear  income  from  endowment  of  250?.  a  year  should  for°affilia"ed 
enable  a  school  under  ordinary  circumstances  to  fulfil  this  prepa-  schools. 
ratory  function.  If  there  were  a  prospect  of  adding  150Z.  a  year 
as  profit  on  10  boarders  at  40/.  a  year  each,  the  endowment 
should  be  enough  to  secure  a  good  head-master,  and  the  expense 
of  necessary  assistance  would  be  covered  by  fees.  With  a  less 
income,  such  a  school  could  not  be  satisfactorily  conducted,  for  an 
assistant  could  not  be  kept,  and  without  an  assistant  either  the 
Latin  or  the  "  English "  must  break  down.  A  multitude  of 
boarders  at  high  terms  might,  no  doubt,  supply  the  defect,  but 
they  could  not  be  got  to  a  school  conducted  on  the  plan  proposed, 
or  if  they  could,  would  be  objectionably  heterogeneous  to  the  day- 
boys. Thus,  at  Stone,  where  a  gratuity  from  Trinity  College 
makes  up  the  income  to  lOOZ.  a  year,  and  4Z.  a  year  is  charged  for 
day-boys,  the  master  cannot  afford  an  assistant  and  Latin  is  not 
taught.  The  education  given,  though  more  sound  of  its  kind,  is 
not  in  kind  much  different  from  that  given  in  a  cheap  commercial 
"  academy."  At  Solihull,  where  the  conditions  are  pretty  much 
the  same,  an  assistant  is  kept  and  Latin  is  taught  to  some  purpose, 
without  neglect  of  "  English,"  but  a  stranger  must  wonder  why 
the  master  stays  there.  The  recourse,  frequently  had  under  such 
circumstances  to  chaplaincies  of  unions  and  job-duty  on  Sundays, 
is  scarcely  desirable. 

A  clear  income  of  250Z.  from  endowment  may  suffice  for  a 
grammar  school  of  the  second  rank,  but  400/.  would  do  better. 
Where  from  the  nature  of  the  case  there  is  small  chance  of 
boarders  and  at  the  same  time  a  large  population,  a  larger  sum 
might  be  necessary  to  secure  the  services  of  an  adequate  head- 


230 


Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 


What  should 
be  done  with 
money  above 
this  limit. 


Preparatory 
schools. 


Cases  where 
the  limit  is  not 
reached. 


master.  The  largest  endowment  in  the  two  counties,  after  those 
mentioned,  is  at  Walsall,  where  it  produces  about  1,000/.  a  year, 
and  is  likely  gradually  to  increase.  From  the  nature  of  the  popii- 
lation,  however,  and  other  circumstances,  the  Walsall  school  is  not 
calculated  to  act  as  an  independent  place  of  training  for  universi- 
ties. At  the  same  time,  supposing  it  to  act  as  a  school  of  the 
second  rank,  it  is  one  where  a  large  endowment  is  wanted.  It  is 
not  well  fitted  for  boarders,  and  the  population  to  which  it  is 
easily  accessible,  ought  to  furnish  at  least  300  proper  subjects  for 
a  "middle"  education.  For  these,  some  process  of  filtration 
Hvould  be  eminently  desirable.  Thus,  while  600Z.  a  year  from 
endowment  would  not  be  too  much  to  assign  to  the  grammar 
school  proper,*  any  available  income  above  this  would  be  well 
bestowed  on  the  establishment  of  preparatory  schools,  such  as  the 
best  of  the  elementary  schools  in  Birmingham,  at  Walsall  itself, 
and  Wednesbury,  as  suggested  above  (p.  222).  Schools  of  this 
kind  would  be  very  useful  in  most  cases,  but  they  are  specially 
wanted  in  places  like  Walsall  and  Birmingham,  where  the  limit 
between  the  middle  class  and  the  working  class  is  not  very  exactly 
defined;  i.e.,  where  there  are  many  workmen  who  earn  enough  to 
use  a  school  somev/hat  above  the  National  and  British  schools, 
and  at  the  same  time  many  small  masters  who  have  not  risen  long 
or  far  above  the  rank  of  workmen.  In  such  cases  there  will  be  a 
mass  of  boys,  which,  if  thrown  without  stint  on  the  grammar  school, 
is  sure  to  depress  it,  but  which  yet,  if  sifted  by  a  preparatory 
school,  may  supply  it  with  most  valuable  material.  In  such  cases, 
too,  the  customary  age  for  finishing  education  is  sure  to  be  early, 
and  the  need  of  getting  the  elementary  part  of  it  over  vvith  all 
possible  expedition  proportionately  great. 

Wherever  else  in  the  two 
anything  that  can  be  called  a  town,  the  income  from  endowment 
is  up  to  or  above  the  minimum  limit  mentioned,  except  at  Stone, 
Uttoxeter,  Kinver,  Solihull,  Lichfield,  and  Tamworth.f  At 
Kinver  the  income  is  so  near  the  limit,  and  the  situation  so  eligible 
for  boarders,  that  with  enterprise  in  building  and  management  it 
might  get  along  very  well  as  a  school  of  the  second  rank.  The 
school  at  Solihull  is  maintained  out  of  a  charity  applied  to  general 
parish  purposes,  which  at  the  time  of  my  visit  was  repairing  the 
church  steeple,  and  proposing  to  spend  250?.  on  a  town  hall.  If 
the  school  could  be  rebuilt,  and  good  room  provided  for  boarders, 
the  situation  being  very  eligible  for  them,  it  might  get  along  in 
spite  of  its  small  income.  Lichfield,  with  its  present  endowment 
and  accommodation,  can  only  be  kept  up  by  the  exaction  of  a 
higher  charge  for  ordinary  day-boys  than  most  shopkeepers  are 
likely  to  be  willing  to  pay.  To  the  abundant  charities  of  this 
"city"  attention  has  been  already  called.  At  Tamworth  the 
school  has  been  for  some  time  in  abeyance,  but  is  shortly  to  be 


counties  a  grammar  school  exists  in 


*  I  suppose  throughout  that  the  head-master  of  the  Walsall  school  is  relieved  of 
duty  at  St.  Paul's  church,  and  that  a  fee  of  il  a  ycai-  is  charged  for  day-boys. 

t  Account  is  nut  taken  here  of  Newcastlc-undcr-Lymc  or  of  Leek  (see  above  p.  221"). 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  231 

reopened  in  a  new  building.  It  is  hoped  that  the  expense  of  the 
building  may  be  defrayed  by  subscription,  on  the  plan  that  every 
subscriber  of  lOOJ.  should  have  the  right  of  nominating  a  scholar, 
and  lj500Z.  may  be  obtained  from  a  local  charity.  Even  then, 
however,  the  yearly  income  will  be  little  over  lOOZ.,  and  this  being 
so,  it  is  hard  to  see  how  the  school  can  get  on  without  charging  a 
considerably  higher  fee  than  4?.  a  year.  The  schools  at  Stone 
and  Uttoxeter  are  in  the  hands  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge. 
Their  income  consists  of  a  fixed  charge  (13Z.  6s.  Qd.  in  each  case) 
on  an  estate,  which  is  said  lo  be  now  very  valuable.  When  it  was 
left,  its  value  was  stated  to  be  80Z.  a  year,  of  which  sum  the  charge 
for  Stone,  Uttoxeter,  and  a  third  school,  was  just  a  half.  Till 
lately,  however,  the  schools  had  no  profit  from  the  increased  value 
of  the  estate.  Now  by  "  gratuities  "  Trinity  College  makes  up 
the  income  of  the  Stone  school  to  lOOZ.  a  year,  that  of  the 
Uttoxeter  school  to  150Z.  a  year.  The  effect  of  scanty  endow- 
ment is,  at  Stone,  that  Latin  is  not  attempted  ;  at  Uttoxeter  that 
the  pay  for  the  master  of  the  English  department  is  not  enough  to 
secure  a  good  one,  and  that  this  department  languishes. 

At  the  remaining  town  grammar  schools  in  the  two  counties,  Case.s  where  it 
the  income  from  endowment  is  quite,  sufficient  for  schools  of  the  '^• 
second  i-ank,  if  duly  supplemented  by  yearly  fees  of  4Z,  At 
Burton,  Nuneaton,  Coleshill,  and  Stratford,  new  buildings,  with 
playground  and  accommodation  for  boarders,  are  urgently  needed. 
Coleshill  might  charge  its  endowment  with  the  expenditure  for 
this  purpose,  and  yet,  if  it  abolished  its  lower  (it  may  fairly  bo 
called  its  pauper)  department,  might  have  enough  to  maintain  a 
good  school  for  the  few  tradesmen  of  the  town,  and  for  the  farmers 
and  lesser  clergy  around.  Nuneaton,  again,  could  well  afford  to 
rebuild.  At  Stratford  the  maintenance  of  the  school  is  a  charge 
on  the  corporation,  which  spends  money  liberally  for  town 
purposes.  When  I  was  there,  it  had,  I  understood,  for  the  time 
rather  over-spent  itself,  but  no  doubt  it  will  soon  have  the  power, 
and  probably  the  will,  to  do  something  for  the  school.  Meanwhile 
the  fees  paid  by  boys  from  outside  the  borough  are  accumulated, 
and  in  1865  had  reached  a  sum  over  800Z.  At  Burton,  considering 
the  size  and  importance  of  the  town,  it  might  be  well  to  leave  the 
endowinent  untouched  for  purposes  of  building,  but  here  the 
feoffees  of  the  town  lands  and  the  millionare-brewers  may  fairly 
be  looked  to  for  the  supply  of  a  new  school  with  proper  belongings. 
Wherever  a  school  of  the  second  rank,  after  due  satisfaction  of 
external  requirements,  had  a  clear  income  from  endowment  of 
more  thai;  250Z.  a  year,  it  would  be  a  question  to  be  settled 
according  to  the  circumstances  of  each  case,  whether  part  of  the 
overplus  might  not  be  devoted  to  the  establishment  of  small 
exhibitions  tenable  at  a  high  school,  if  one  existed. 

In  conclusion  should  be  noticed  the  difficulties,  which,  from  local  Obstacles  to 
inquiries,  I  should  expect  to  present  themselves  to  changes  in  the  PJ'°Posed 
direction  suggested.     (1.)  So  far  as  they  involve  the  application 
to  the  purpose  of  teaching  "  grammar "  of  money  left  for  that 
purpose,  but  now  spent  on  elementary  schools  in  villages,  they 


232  Counties  of  Stafford  and  Warwick. 

In  some  cases  would  generally  meet  with  opposition  from  the  clergy  and  land- 
loealopposition.  i^^.^^  ^f  ^j^^^^  villages,  who  again  would  probably  get  support  from 
the  farmers.  Whenever  I  ventured  to  suggest  a  change  of  this 
kind  in  the  places  concerned,  I  always  took  care  that  it  should  be 
one  that  would  secure  the  interest  of  the  people  of  the  privileged 
place,  so  far  as  they  were  capable  of  an  education  above  that  of 
an  elementary  school.  I  always  found,  however,  that  while  the 
terms  of  the  founder's  will,  appropriating  the  bequest  to  the 
particular  place,  were  much  insisted  on,  those  which  stipulate  for 
an  education  in  "  grammar  "  were  ignored.  The  question,  how- 
ever, in  its  proper  form,  was  really  quite  new  to  the  people.  They 
knew  that  the  school  in  each  case  was  to  be  for  the  benefit  of  the 
village,  and  that  there  were  not  enough  well-to-do  people  in  the 
place  to  fill  it  as  a  grammar  school.  A  plan  by  which  it  could 
be  made  available  for  a  wider  area,  and  as  a  grammar  school, 
without  prejudice  to  the  interest  of  the  village  itself,  had  never  been 
suggested  to  them,  and  when  made  for  the  first  time  was  naturally 
received  with  an  incredulous  smile.  As  any  such  plan  would 
presuppose  the  establishment  of  an  elementary  school  for  the 
village  to  be  maintained  in  part  by  subscription,  it  would  be 
unwelcome,  however  well  understood,  to  those  on  whom  the 
responsibility  of  subscription  would  chiefly  fall.  The  clergy 
would  not  be  opposed  to  it  in  itself;  where  they  are  poor  and 
have  sons  to  educate,  they  would  welcome  it  as  a  boon ;  but  they 
fear  that  if  the  grammar  school  money  were  diverted  from  the 
maintenance  of  the  school  for  the  poor,  they  would  get  no  sufficient 
help  from  the  landlords  for  the  latter,  which  would  in  consequence 
either  perish  or  become  a  burden  on  them.  The  places  in  ques- 
tion, as  I  have  said  before,  have  on  the  whole  rather  exceptional 
advantages  for  the  maintenance  of  such  a  school  in  the  ordinary 
way,  but  the  misapplication  of  the  grammar  endowment  has 
tended  to  dry  up  the  ordinary  sources  of  voluntary  effbrt. 

(2.)  In  such  cases,  as  in  others  where  an  application  of  charity- 
money  to  the  "  middle  "  or  "  higher "  education  might  be  sug- 
gested, a  cry  would  be  raised  of  injustice  to  the  poor.  Even 
where  general  opinion  might  favour  the  diversion  to  educational 
objects  of  the  money  now  spent  in  doles  and  gratuities,  the  claims 
of  any  education  but  the  most  elementary  would  scarcely  be 
Cry  ofiDjus-  recognized.  Education  is  thought  to  be  an  affair  of  classes,  and 
tice  to  poor.  j^jj  classes  above  the  poor,  it  is  said,  can  afford  to  pay  for  the  teach- 
ing suitable  to  them.  It  is  not  yet  a  recognized  idea,  that 
educational  endowments  can  be  so  worked  as  in  some  degree  to 
efface  demarcations  of  class,  to  give  a  freedom  of  self-elevation  in 
the  social  scale  other  than  that  given  by  money,  and  to  keep  "  the 
career  open  to  the  talents."  It  is  only  in  primary  education  that 
the  poor  are  thought  to  have  any  interest,  and  since  this  is  not  yet 
systematically  provided  for  by  a  charge  on  property,  but  is  still 
very  much  matter  of  charity  and  accident,  it  is  naturally  regarded 
as  the  one  proper  object  of  charitable  bequests.  For  a  single 
man  to  be  found  having  views  about  better  education  for  the 
middle  class,  a  hundred  may  be  found  having  views  about  the 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  233 

education  of  the  poor.     (3.)  Meanwhile,  the  questions   at  issue 
being  so  ill  understood,  the  grammar  schools  have  been  readjusting 
themselves  and  doing  it  in  a  very  clumsy  way.     The  doctrine  Commercial 
being  retained,  as  in  the  absence  of  high  schools  it  must  needs  be,  l^r^^olies 
that  each  grammar  school  is  to  act  as  an  independent  place  of  established. 
training  for  universities,  it   has  been   held  that  the  only  way  to 
combine  this   with   the    satisfaction   of  the  wants    of  the    com- 
mercial class  is  to  establish  a  separate  commercial  department. 
The  objections  to  this   arrangement   have  been  already  noticed 
(p.  189),  but  when  it  has  once  been  made,  an  attempt  to  change  it 
would  be  liable  to  excite  the  suspicion  of  the  class  of  people  to 
whose  instance  it  has  been  conceded,  and  in  whom  past  experience 
has  fixed  the  notion  that  Latin  necessarily  drives  out  arithmetic, 
and  that  Latin  is  only  good  for  a  "  gentleman." 

(4.)  In  this  state  of  things,  the  absence  of  any  strong  and  ^^."t.°f 
central  initiative  is  a  great  misfortune.  No  one  who  has  occasion  '°>'^^'^"^'^- 
to  hear  much  of  the  past  history  of  grammar  schools  will  question 
the  reality  of  the  good  done  by  the  Charity  Commission ;  but 
when  gross  abuses  have  been  got  rid  of,  its  work  seems  to  be  at  an 
end.  For  the  purpose  of  recasting  the  system  of  grammar  school 
education  it  is  with  its  present  powers  ineffective  on  two  grounds ; 
it  can  only  act  in  the  way  of  giving  effect  to  a  clearly  formed 
public  opinion,  and  it  has  to  treat  each  school  as  out  of  relation  to 
all  others.  A  clearly  formed  public  opinion,  however,  on  the  sub- 
ject of  middle  education  cannot  be  said  to  exist.  There  is  little 
more  than  a  vague,  though  strong,  feeling  that  while  dead  lan- 
guages may  be  fine  things  for  a  clergyman  or  a  man  who  has 
nothing  to  do,  they  are  of  no  use  to  a  man  of  business,  and  that 
to  learn  them  is  incompatible  with  learning  what  a  man  of  busi- 
ness needs  to  know.  A  few  years  of  a  really  good  organization 
of  grammar  schools  would,  I  believe,  wholly  remove  this  feeling, 
but  the  attainment  of  this  organization  according  to  the  present 
order  of  things  presupposes  just  that  change  or  development  of 
local  opinion,  which  it  alone  can  create.  On  the  other  hand,  in 
many  cases  where  local  opinion  is  not  clear  or  strong  enough  to 
move  for  itself,  it  would,  if  approached  on  the  right  side,  gladly 
welcome  authoritative  suggestions  from  without.  In  towns  I  often 
heard  it  said  that  proposals  for  the  improvement  of  middle  educa- 
tion and  the  application  to  it  of  charitable  or  municipal  funds, 
which  would  have  small  chance  of  success  if  they  issued  from  a 
party— especially  if  from  the  "genteel"  party — within  the  town, 
would  probably  be  well  received  if  they  came  from  some  board 
analogous  to  the  Charity  Commission.  On  the  question,  where 
the  needful  initiative  might  best  be  placed,  it  is  not  my  business 
to  dwell.  The  desirability  of  placing  it,  if  possible,  with  the 
same  body  which  has  the  supervision  of  the  charities  of  the 
country,  must  occur  to  everyone  acquainted  with  the  educa- 
tional resources  which  these  charities  furnish,  arid  who  has 
observed  the  prestige  which  the  Charity  Commission  has  already 
acquired  in  the  provinces.  An  initiative,  it  is  to  be  remem- 
bered, is  nearly  all  that  is  wanted.     Once  let  the  high  schools  be 


234  Counties  of  Stafford  and  Wanoick. 

established,  with  adequate  endowments  and  exhibitions  of  the 
two  kinds  suggested,  and  then  for  the  other  schools,  if  only 
endowment  could  be  provided  where  it  is  lacking,  a  brief  or- 
dinance prescribing  fees  (with  'exemptions  for  merit),  proper 
buildings,  a  real  entrance  examination,  and  openness  to  in- 
spection, would  be  all  that  was  wanted.  The  nature  of  the 
examinations  for  entrance  and  for  exhibitions  at  the  high  school, 
and  of  that  held  by  the  inspector,  would  sufficiently  determine 
the  character  of  the  teaching  given  in  the  lesser  grammar  schools. 
It  would  be  a  further  question,  when  the  grammar  school  system 
had  been  fairly  put  on  its  legs  by  the  action  of  some  central  power, 
Possible  use  of  whether  the  direction  of  it  should  be  left  to  the  boards  of  trustees 
county  boards,  and  governors  as  at  present  constituted,  or  whether  county  boards 
should  be  established.  The  institution  of  the  latter  would  have 
some  advantages.  It  might  tend  to  bring  the  grammar  schools 
into  more  systematic  relations  to  the  National  and  British  schools, 
which,  if  the  farmers  can  be  induced  to  use  the  latter,  would  be 
very  useful  in  the  rural  districts,  as  well  as  in  the  larger  towns 
(see  above  p.  213).  It  might  facilitate  the  establishment  of  middle 
schools  in  districts  where  gi'ammar  endowments  were  wanting, 
such  as  those  already  referred  to  (pp.  167  and  168)  about  Southam 
and  Kineton  on  the  eastern  side  of  Warwickshire,  and  about 
Alcester  and  Henley-in-Arden  on  the  western.  It  might  also 
facilitate  the  transfer  in  whole  or  part  of  endowments  for  teaching 
grammar  in  villages  to  grammar  schools  in  neighbouring  towns. 
Present  interest  The  position  of  Church  Eaton  and  Bradley  in  relation  to  Stafford 
of  trustees.  has  been  already  described  as  rendering  such  transfer  desirable. 
If  the  schools  of  Leicestershire  and  Northamptonshire  were  part 
of  my  present  subject,  stronger  instances  of  the  same  kind  might 
be  found  in  the  relation  of  Blakesley  to  Towcester,  of  Burton- 
Latimer  to  Kettering,  of  Clipstone  to  Market  Harborough,  of 
Barrow  to  Loughborough.  In  the  case  of  grammar  schools  in 
villages  the  trustees,  so  far  as  I  could  learn,  with  some  notable 
exceptions,  take  little  active  interest  in  their  office.  In  one  place 
that  I  visited,  where  a  good  village  grammar  school  is  within  ear- 
shot of  the  squire's  garden,  he,  being  a  trustee  of  the  school,  is  in 
the  habit  of  saying  that  he  had  far  rather  hear  the  sound  of  a 
dog-kennel  in  such  close  neighbourhood  than  that  of  a  school.* 
This  no  doubt  is  an  extreme  case,  but  neither  the  squires  nor  the 
country  clergy  can  be  relied  on  to  exert  themselves  much  on  behalf 
of  schools  which  they  don't  make  use  of  themselves,  and  which  yet 
do  not,  like  schools  for  the  poor,  excite  either  benevolence  or  church 
feeling.  On  the  other  hand,  in  towns,  though  there  are  cases 
of  neglect  like  that  at  Newcastle,  where  the  trustees  have  never 
met  since  many  years  ago  they  elected  the  present  headmaster, 
yet  generally  (as  at  Atherstone,  Wolverhampton,  and  Lough- 
borough), the  trustees  being  of  a  kind  themselves  to  send  boys  to 
the  grammar  school,  take  a  very  useful  interest  in  it.     The  great 

*  In  tlie  case  referred  to,  the  master  of  the  school,  who  vr&s  a  man  to  trust,  told  me 
that  there  were  only  three  out  of  13  trustees  who  did  not  positively  oppose  the  progress 
of  the  school  as  a  grammar  school ;  two  of  these  three  were  clergymen 


Mr.  Green's  Report.  235 

danger  in  towns  is  lest,  on  the  principle  of  co-optation,  the  trustees 
should  come  to  represent  merely  a  clique  and  a  particular  form  of 
local  opinion.*  Where  this  is  the  case,  however  disinterested 
their  management,  they  are  sure  to  be  met  by  a  popular  cry  as 
soon  as  they  propose  a  change.  I  can  only  account  for  the  main-  ^tion"^"""^' 
tenance  of  the  gratuitous  system  at  Walsall  by  the  fact  that  the 
trustees,  representing  meiely  the  Conservat